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CO 

f 
GO 



81-82 

OPTOELECTRONIC 

D4T4BOOK 




® 



BO 29 



OPTOELECTRONICS 



General Information 



Selector Guide and Cross-Reference 



Data Sheets 



Applications Information 







FIBER OPTICS 



General Information 



Selector Guide 



Data Sheets 



Applications Information 








MOTOROLA 

OPTOELECTRONIC 
DEVICE DATA 



Prepared by 
Technical Information Center 



Motorola has concentrated on infrared, GaAs emitters, silicon detectors, 
high-technology opto coupler/isolators and an innovative approach to Fiber 
Optic components, modules and links. This Optoelectronic Data Book contains 
up-to-date specifications on the complete product line- 

The catalog is divided into the two major sections of Opto and Fiber Optics. 
The Table of Contents and Alphanumeric Index cover all products. Each 
section has its own General Information, Selector Guide, and Data Sheets. 

All devices listed are available direct from Motorola and from Motorola's 
Authorized Distributors. Applications assistance and information on pricing 
and delivery are available from the nearest Motorola sales office. 

Motorola reserves the right to make changes to any product herein to 
improve reliability, function or design. Motorola does not assume any liability 
arising out of theapplication or use of any product or circuit described herein; 
neither does it convey any license under its present patent rights northe rights 
of others. 



^MOTOROLA INC , 1980 
Printed in Switzerland "All Rights Reserved" 




Annular, Straight Shooter and Unibloc are trademarks of Motorola Inc. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

ALPHANUMERIC INDEX Hi 

OPTOELECTRONICS 

CHAPTER 1 —GENERAL INFORMATION 11 

The Motorola Spectrum of Optoelectronics 1 -2 

Optical Isolators/Couplers 1-3 

Optoelectronic Definitions I -8 

CHAPTER 2 - SELECTOR GUIDE AND CROSS-REFERENCE 2-1 

Opto Couplers/Isolators 2-2 

Transistor Output 2-2 

Darlington Output 2-2 

Triac Driver Output 2-3 

Digital IC Output 2-3 

Linear Amplifier Output 2-3 

SCR Output 2-4 

SCR Cross-Reference .......,..,..,.,,........,..,.... 2-4 

Infrared-Emitting Diodes . . . 2-5 

Silicon Photo Detectors .2-5 

Photodiodes 2-5 

Phototransistors 2-6 

Photodarlingtons 2-6 

Photo Triac Drivers 2-6 

Cross-Reference 2-7 

CHAPTER 3 — DATASHEETS 3 1 

Data Sheet Listing (See Page 3-2) 

CHAPTER 4 - APPLICATIONS INFORMATION 41 

AN-440 — Theory and Characteristics of Phototransistors 4-2 

AN-508 — Applications of Phototransistors in Electro-Optic SystBms .4-13 

AN-571A — Isolation Techniques Using Optical Couplers . . 4-27 

AN-780A — Applications of the M0C301 1 Triac Driver 4-35 



FIBER OPTICS 

CHAPTER 5 - GENERAL INFORMATION , 5-1 

Fiber Optics 5-2 

Basic Concepts of Fiber Optics and Fiber Optic Communications 5-3 

Basic Fiber Optic Terminology , 5-23 

CHAPTER 6 — SELECTOR GUIDE 6 1 

Infrared Emitters 6-2 

Photo Detectors ,.,,... , 6-2 

Tra nsm itters ................................... 6-3 

Receivers , 6-3 

Links .......,.......,..,..,..,..,..,..,,.. 6-4 

Accessories .,,,... 6-4 

« 



CONTENTS (continued) 



Page 

CHAPTER 7 - DATA SHEETS 71 

Data Sheet Listing {See Page 7 2) 

CHAPTER 8 - APPLICATIONS INFORMATION 8-1 

AN-794 — A 20-Mbaud Full Duplex Fiber Optic Data Link Using 

Fiber Optic Active Components ....... 8-2 

AN-804 - Applications of Ferruled Components to Fiber Optic System .......... 8-30 

MFOL02 — Theory of Operation 8-38 

Fiber Optic Circuit Ideas 

20-Megabaud Data Link 8-43 

10-Megabaud Data Link 8-44 

2 O-Megabaud Data Link 8-45 

1 0-Megabit System 8-46 

100-Kilobn Receiver . . 8-48 

1 /1 0/1 00 Kilobit Receiver .......... 8-49 

Darlington Receiver ,,,.,,.,, ,,.,.,.,. , 8-50 

Phototransistor Receiver 8-50 

A Microcomputer Data Link Using Fiber Optics , 8-51 



ALPHANUMERIC INDEX 



Device 


Page 


Device 


Page 


Device 


Page 


2N5777 


3-3 


MCT274 


3-90 


MRD150 


3-63 


2N5778 


3-3 


MCT275 


3-90 


MRD160 


3-66 


2N5779 


3-3 


MCT277 


3-90 


MRD300 


3-69 


2N5780 


3-3 


MFOD100 


7-3 


MRD310 


3-69 


4N25 


3-5 


MFOD102F 


7-5 


MRD360 


3-73 


4N25A 


3-5 


MFOD104F 


7-7 


MRD370 


3-73 


4N26 


3-5 


MFOD200 


7-9 


MRD450 


3-77 


4N27 


3-5 


MFOD202F 


7-11 


MRD500 


3-80 


4N28 


3-5 


MFOD300 


7-13 


MRD510 


3-80 


4N29 


3-9 


MFOD302F 


7-15 


MRD3010 


3-83 


4N29A 


3-9 


MFOD402F 


7-17 


MRD3011 


3-83 


4N30 


3-9 


MFOD404F 


7-21 


MRD3050 


3-86 


4N31 


3-9 


MFOD405F 


7-25 


MRD3051 


3-86 


4N32 


3-9 


MFOE100 


7-29 


MRD3054 


3-86 


4N32A 


3-9 


MFOE102F 


7-31 


MRD3055 


3-86 


4N33 


3-9 


MFOE103F 


7-33 


MRD3056 


3-86 


4N35 


3-13 


MFOE106F 


7-35 


TIL111 


3-90 


4N36 


3-13 


MFOE200 


7-37 


TIL112 


3-90 


4N37 


3-13 


MFOL01 


7-39 


TIL113 


3-90 


4N38 


3-17 


MFOL02 


7-41 


TIL114 


3-90 


4N38A 


3-17 


MLED60 


3-23 


TIL115 


3-90 


H11A1 


3-90 


MLED90 


3-23 


TIL116 


3-90 


H11A2 


3-90 


MLED92 


3-25 


TIL117 


3-90 


H11A3 


3-90 


MLED93 


3-27 


TIL119 


3-90 


H11A4 


3-90 


MLED94 


3-27 


TIL124 


3-90 


H11A5 


3-90 


MLED95 


3-27 


TIL125 


3-90 


H11A520 


3-90 


MLED900 


3-29 


TIL126 


3-90 


H11A550 


3-90 


MLED930 


3-31 


TIL127 


3-90 


H11A5100 


3-90 


MOC119 


3-33 


TIL128 


3-90 


H11B1 


3-90 


MOC1005 


3-37 


TIL153 


3-90 


H11B2 


3-90 


MOC1006 


3-37 


TIL154 


3-90 


H11B3 


3-90 


MOC3000 


3-41 


TIL155 


3-90 


H11B255 


3-90 


MOC3001 


3-41 


TIL156 


3-90 


IL1 


3-90 


MOC3002 


3-41 


TIL157 


3-90 


IL12 


3-90 


MOC3003 


3-41 






IL15 


3-90 


MOC3009 


3-44 






IL74 


3-90 


MOC3010 


3-44 






L14H1 


3-21 


MOC3011 


3-44 






L14H2 


3-21 


MOC3020 


3-48 






L14H3 


3-21 


MOC3021 


3-48 






L14H4 


3-21 


MOC3030 


3-50 






MCA230 


3-90 


MOC3031 


3-50 






MCA231 


3-90 


MOC5O05 


3-53 






MCA255 


3-90 


MOC5006 


3-53 






MCT2 


3-90 


MOC5010 


3-55 






MCT2E 


3-90 


MOC8020 


3-57 






MCT26 


3-90 


MOC8021 


3-57 






MCT271 


3-90 


MOC8030 


3-59 






MCT272 


3-90 


MOC8050 


3-59 






MCT273 


3-90 


MRD14B 


3-3 







OPTOELECTRONICS 



General Information 



Motorola Optoelectronic products include infrared-emitting diodes, silicon 
photo detectors and opto-couplers/isolators. 

Motorola is the leader in high technology opto-couplers. For control of 110 
and 220 Vac lines, the triac drivers (MOC3010, MOC3020, MOC3030) are 
unequaled. 

All Motorola opto-couplers have a minimum isolation voltage of 7500 Vac 
peak, the highest available. The broad opto-coupler line includes nearly all 
the transistor, Darlington, SCR, and Triac output devices now available in 
the industry. 

Each device is presented in the easy-to-use Selector Guide and is included 
in a detailed data sheet in a succeeding section. 



1 £fP 




1-1 



The Motorola Spectrum of 



OPTOELECTRONICS 



INFRARED-LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES 

The infrared-light-emitting diode emits radiation in the 
near infrared region when forward bias current (Ip) flows 
through the PN junction. The light output power (Pfj) is 
a function of the drive current (Ip) and is measured 
in milliwatts. 

Infrared-light-emitting diodes arc used together with 
photosensors. 



Photodiodes 

Radiation falling at the PN junction will generate hole 
electron pairs which cause the carriers to move, thus 
causing a current flow (IjJ. The power density of the 
radiation H (measured in mW/cm 2 ) determines the current 
flow. 1l. At zero radiation, a small leakage current, called 
dark current (Ip) will remain. 




O + 
O 



FIGURE 2 - Constant Energy Spectral Response 



100 












1 | 


_ 80 












\ Infrared 
















~\ E 


milting 




1 6 ° 

































I 40 
< 






































20 

























._.. 






v 











/ 


L 







0" 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 10 11 12 

.\. WAVELENGTH (nm) 

PHOTOSENSORS 

Silicon photosensors respond to the entire visible 
radiation range as well as to the near infrared radiation 
range. The radiation response of a photosensor is a 
function of the material and the diffusion depth of the 
light-sensitive PN junction. All silicon photosensors 
(diodes, transistors, darlingtons, triacs) show the same 
basic radiation frequency response which peaks in the 
near infrared radiation range. Therefore, the sensitivity 
range of Motorola silicon sensors is ideally suited to 
Motorola infrared-emitting diodes. 



Phototransistors 

The phototransistor is a light radiation controlled 
transistor. The collector base junction is enlarged and 
works as a reversed biased photodiode controlling the 
transistor. The collector current, 1^, depends on the 
radiation density (H) and the dc current gain of the 
transistor. Under dark condition, the transistor is switched 
off; the remaining leakage current, IcEO* is called collector 
dark current. 




1-2 



Photodarlingtons 

The photodarlington works on the same principle as 
a phototransistor. The collector base junction of the driver 
transistor is radiation sensitive and controls the 
driver transitor. The driver transistor controls the fol- 
lowing transistor. The darlington configuration yields 
a high current gain which results in a photodetector 
with very high light sensitivity. 

Phototriacs 

The gate of the phototriac is radiation sensitive and 
triggers the triac at a certain specified radiation density 
(H). At dark condition, the triac is not triggered. The 
remaining leakage current is called peak blocking current 
( lrjRM ). The device is bilateral and designed to switch 
ac signals. 



FIGURE 5 




FIGURE 6 




I"- 


H 

ac 


^ yy 




r 


- < 








Optical Isolators/Couplers 



DO 



ISOLATORS 

An optoelectronic isolator contains both an 1RED 
and a photodetector in the same package, arranged so 
that energy radiated from the IRED is efficiently coupled 
to the detector through a clear, isolating dielectric. An 
opaque material surrounds the dielectric and provides 
ambient light protection. 

Since there is no electrical connection between input 
and output, and since gallium-arsenide emitters and silicon 
detectors cannot reverse their roles, a signal is able to pass 
through the isolator in one direction only. To a degree 
determined by the package input-output capacitance and 
dielectric characteristics, the device is unresponsive to 
common mode input signals and provides input circuitry 
protection from the output circuit environment. Ground 
loop prevention, dc level shifting, and logic control of 
high voltage power circuitry are therefore typical areas 
where isolators are very useful. 

The measure of an isolator's ability to efficiently pass 
a desired signal is most commonly referred to as Current 
Transfer Ratio (CTR). It is dependent upon the radiative 
efficiency of the IRED, the spacing between the IRED 
and the detector, the area and sensitivity of the detector, 
and the amplifying gain of the detector. It is subject to 
the nonlinearities (current, voltage, temperature) of 
both chips, causing a rather complex transfer function 
which should be evaluated closely when used at non- 
specified conditions. 

The ability of an isolator to provide standoff pro- 
tection is usually expressed as an Isolation Surge Voltage 
and is essentially a measure of the integrity of the package 
and the dielectric strength of the insulating materials. 



FIGURE 7 - BASIC OPTO ISOLATOR (COUPLER) 



V./s/ 



Photodetecto 



y-^=t 



ISOLATING 
DIELECTRIC 
(LIGHT PIPE) 



ISOLATION VOLTAGE 

The primary function of an loptoelectronic isolator 
is to provide electrical separation between input and 
output, especially in the presence of high voltages. 
The amount of stress that an isolator can safely withstand 
and the stability of this protection varies considerably 
with package construction techniques used. 

Figure 8 shows an older isolation technique, where the 
light transmission medium is a small amount of a clear, 
silicone-rubber type of material. Surrounding it is usually 
a black epoxy or phenolic compound. It has been found 
that the weakest point in this approach is the interface 
between the "light-pipe" and the overmold. It is a rela- 
tively short path between lead frames along this interface, 
and the two materials are dissimilar enough that the 
integrity of the interface is usually poor. This technique 
initially gives marginal standoff protection and stability 



1-3 



ISOLATION VOLTAGE 



FIGURE 8 -Standard 




FIGURE 9 - Motorola 



^ 




under voltage stress is very poor. 

Figure 9 shows Motorola's improved construction 
technique. The clear dielectric used here is a transfer- 
molded epoxy that encompasses a large volume of the 
interior of the package. The overmold is a transfer-molded 
opaque epoxy. The result is a much longer interface 
(typically ten times longer) between two very similar, 
electrically stable compounds. Minimum specified isolation 
voltage capability is 7500 volts ac peak on all Motorola 
isolators, and typical units provide in excess of 12,000 
volts ac peak protection on a reliable, repeatable basis 
(in a clean and low humidity environment). External 
ambient conditions (humidity, cleanliness, etc.) tend to 
be the limiting factors when using Motorola isolators. 
Representative test data at typical applied voltages are 
shown below: 



Test 


No. of Units 


Applied Voltage 


Failure @ 1000 Hrs 


A 


100 


1500 V ac peak 





B 


100 


5000 V dc peak 






Isolation voltage has been specified in terms of both 
dc and ac conditions, sometimes with no associated test 
duration. In general, ac conditions are more severe 
than dc. Any imperfections or discontinuities in the 
isolating dielectric tend to have a lower dielectric constant 
than the surrounding areas and assume a disproportionate 
share of the total ac applied field, in the same manner that 
the smallest capacitance in a series string assumes the 
highest voltage drop under ac conditions. Microscopic 
ruptures can occur at these points, causing localized 
degradation and propagation of the weakened areas until 
large-scale puncture occurs. Dc fields tend to distribute 
more linearly. Additionally, ac fields are more effective 
in causing mobile impurities to align themselves and 
produce leakage paths. 

Continuous ratings are therefore difficult to guarantee 
reliably as the result of individual unit testing or sorting. 
Instead, surge isolation voltage ratings should be specified 



with an associated test duration, while continuous ratings 
must be the result of a well-controlled, well-characterized 
assembly technique and realistic generic data. Since ac 
conditions are usually the most severe, it has become 
common to give them the most attention. 

UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES RECOGNIZED 

Most Motorola isolators are available under the Under- 
writers' Laboratories Component Recognition Program. 
It should be noted that applicable Motorola isolators are 
recognized for use in applications up to 240 Vac. Under 
the U.L. criteria, these devices must have passed isolation 
voltage tests at approximately 5000 volts ac peak for 
one second. In addition. Motorola tests every coupler to 
7500 V ac peak for 5 seconds. 

COUPLER PROCESS FLOW/QUALITY CHECK POINTS 

Every optocoupler manufactured by Motorola under- 
goes extensive in-process checks for quality. After each 
process step (for example, die bond, encapsulation, 
electrical test, etc.) the product is randomly sampled. 
If the sample does not pass high-quality standards, the 
product flow is halted and corrective action is taken. 
In this manner, quality is built in at Motorola. 

FIGURE 10 - Coupler Process Flow/Quality Check Points 



O-y^O ° ,e,Bon 



Wafer Scribe Q.A. Die 
and Break Inspection 
Point 



A 



Q.A. Die Bond 
Inspection Point 
Die Wetting, 
Location, Damagi 



Wire Bond 



CZJ 

Electrical 
Screen 

O 

Process 

A 



O 

A Q.A. Wire Bond 
Inspection Point 
Visual and Wire Pul 



6 



Mechanical and 
Molding Operations 



Final Q.A. Visual 
Inspection, 
Lead Frame and 
Package Quality 



/ \ 100% Electrical 

■ Screen 



A 



Final Test Q.A. 
Electrical and Visual 



1-4 



OPTOELECTRONIC DEFINITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND RATINGS 



CTR Current Transfer Ratio — The ratio of 

output current to input current, at a speci- 
fied bias, of an opto coupler. 

dv/dt Commutating dv/dt — A measure of the 

ability of a triac to block a rapidly rising 
voltage immediately after conduction of 
the opposite polarity. 
Coupled dv/dt — A measure of the ability 
of an opto thyristor coupler to block when 
the coupler is subjected to rapidly 
changing isolation voltage. 

E Luminous Flux Density (Illuminance) 

[lumens/ft. 2 = ft. candles] — The radia- 
tion fluxdensity of wavelength within the 
band of visible light. 

H Radiation Flux Density (Irradia nee) 

[mW/cm^] — The total incident radiation 
energy measured in power per unit area. 

'CEO Collector Dark Current — The maximum 

current through the collector terminal of 
the device measured under dark condi- 
tions, (H =» 0), with a stated collector 
voltage, load resistance, and ambient 
temperature. (Base open) 

Iq Dark Current — The maximum reverse 

leakage current through the device mea- 
sured under dark conditions, (H~0), with 
a stated reverse voltage, load resistance, 
and ambient temperature. 

Ipj Input Trigger Current — Emitter current 

necessary to trigger the coupled thyristor. 

||_ Collector Light Current — The device 

collector current measured under defined 
conditions of irradiance, collector voltage, 
load resistance, and ambient temper- 
ature. 

R s Series Resistance — The maximum 

dynamic series resistance measured at 
stated forward current and ambient tem- 
perature. 

SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier — A reverse 

blocking thyristor which can block or 
conduct in forward bias, conduction 
between the anode and cathode being 
initiated by forward bias of the gate 
cathode junction. 

tf Photo Current Fall Time — The response 

time for the photo-induced current to fall 
from the 90% point to the 1 0% point after 
removal of the GaAs (gallium-arsenide) 
source pulse under stated conditions of 
collector voltage, load resistance and 
ambient temperature. 

t r Photo Current Rise Time — The response 

timeforthe photo-inducedcurrentto rise 



from the 1 0% point to the 90% point when 
pulsed with the stated GaAs (gallium- 
arsenide) source under stated conditions 
of collector voltage, load resistance, and 
ambient temperature. 

Triac A thyristor which can block or conduct in 

either polarity. Conduction is initiated by 
forward bias of a gate-MTI junction. 

T s tg Storage Temperature 

V(BR)R Reverse Breakdown Voltage — The 

minimum dc reverse breakdown voltage 
at stated diode current and ambient tem- 
perature. 

V(BR)CBO Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage — 
The minimum dc breakdown voltage, col- 
lector to base, at stated collector current 
and ambient temperature. (Emitter open 
and H«0) 

V(BR)CEO Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage — 
The minimum dc breakdown voltage, 
collector to emitter, at stated collector 
current and ambient temperature. (Base 
open and H = 0) 

V(BR)ECO Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage — 
The minimum dc breakdown voltage, 
emitter to collector, at stated emitter 
current and ambient temperature. (Base 
open and H ~ 0) 

VcBO Collector-Base Voltage — The maximum 

allowable value of the collector-base 
voltage which can be applied to the device 
at the rated temperature. (Base open) 

VCEO Collector-Emitter Voltage — The maxi- 

mum allowable value of collector-emitter 
voltage which can be applied to the device 
at the rated temperature. (Base open) 

VECO Emitter-Collector Voltage — The maxi- 

mum allowable value of emitter-collector 
voltage which can be applied to the device 
at the rated temperature. (Base open) 

Vp Forward Voltage — The maximum for- 

ward voltage drop across the diode at 
stated diode current and ambient tem- 
perature. 

V|SO Isolation Surge Voltage — The dielectric 

withstanding voltage capability of an 
optocoupler under defined conditions 
and time. 

Vr Reverse Voltage — The maximum allow- 

able value of dc reverse voltage which can 
be applied to the device at the rated tem- 
perature. 

A. s (/Lim) Wavelength of maximum sensitivity in 

micrometers. 



1-5 



1-6 



OPTOELECTRONICS 



Selector Guide and Cross-Reference 



ym;mm 



ill, Vi V 1 !.':. ! ! : = v : : .iVi ! ' l !V'.V 1 

' ii-V, VI'':. '.U !/;','! ''-, ■ 




• ■■•:■■:■■ '■ =i "i -i- 

.iiVi 1 !!."'. 1 '' 
''■'■Vi', . 

I ! > ! '| 



2-1 



OPTICAL 
COUPLERS/ISOLATORS 

Couplers are designed to provide isolation protection 
from high-voltage transients, surge voltage, or low-level 
noise that would otherwise damage the input or gen- 
erate erroneous information. They allow interfacing 
systems of different logic levels, different grounds, etc., 
that would otherwise be incompatible Motorola 
couplers are tested and specified to an isolation voltage 
of 7500 Vac peak 

Motorola offers a wide array of standard devices with 
a wide range of specifications (including the first series 
of DIP transistors and Darlington couplers to achieve 
JEDEC registration: transistors — 4N25 thru 4N38, and 
Darlmgtons — 4N29 thru 4N33) All Motorola couplers 
are UL Recognized with File Number E54915. 




CASE 730A 



The Transistor Coupler is probably the most 
popular form of isolator since it offers moderate 
speed (approximately 300 kHz), sensitivity and 
economy In addition, the collector-base junc- 
tion can be used as a photodiode to achieve 
higher speeds The output in the diode mode is 
lower, requiring amplification for more usable 
output levels 




The Darlington Transistor Coupler is used when 
high transfer ratios and increased output current 
capability are needed The speed, approximately 
30 kHz. is slower than the transistor type but the 
transfer ratio can be as much as ten times as 
high as the single transistor type 











3 


I 






2 o- 






%J 




3o- 


NC ^ — 


— o 



Transistor Output 

Isolation Voltage is 7500 V (Min) 
on all devices. See notes 



Device 
Type 


DC Current 

Transfer 

Ratio 

% Min 


v (BR)CEO 
Volts 
Min 


TIL112 


20 


20 


TIL115 


20 


20 


IL15 


60 


30 


MCT26 


60 


30 


TIL111 


80 


30 


TIL114 


80 


30 


IL12 


10 


20 


4N27 


10 


30 


4N28 


10 


30 


H11A4 


10 


30 


TIL124 


10 


30 


TIL153 


10 


30 


IL74 


125 


20 


TIL125 


20 


30 


TIL154 


20 


30 


4N25 


20 


30 


4N26 


20 


30 


H11A2 


20 


30 


H11A3 


20 


30 


H11A520 


20 


30 


IL1 


20 


30 


MCT2 


20 


30 


TIL116 


20 


30 


4N38 


20 


80 


H11A5 


30 


30 


MCT271 


45 


30 


H11A1 


50 


30 


H11A550 


50 


30 


TIL117 


50 


30 


TIL126 


50 


30 


TIL155 


50 


30 


CNY17 


62 


70 


MCT275 


70 


80 


MCT272 


75 


30 


MCT277 


100 


30 


4N35 


100 


30 


4N36 


100 


30 


4N37 


100 


30 


H11A5100 


100 


30 


MCT273 


125 


30 


MCT274 


225 


30 



Darlington Output 

Isolation Voltage is 7500 V (Min) 
on all devices See notes. 



Device 


DC Current 
Transfer 


v (BR)CEO 
Volts 
Min 


Type 


Ratio 

% Min 


4N31 


50 


30 


H11B3 


100 


25 


4N29 


100 


30 


4N30 


100 


30 


MCA230 


100 


30 


H11B255 


100 


55 


MCA255 


100 


55 


H11B2 


200 


25 


MCA231 


200 


30 


MOC119 - 


300 


30 


TIL119- 


300 


30 


TIL113- 


300 


30 


MOC8030' 


300 


80 


TIL127- 


300 


30 


TIL128' 2 


300 


30 


TIL156- 


300 


30 


TIL157' 2 


300 


30 


H11B1 


500 


25 


4N32 


500 


30 


4N33 


500 


30 


MOC8020' 


500 


50 


MOC8050- 


500 


80 


MOC802T 


1000 


50 



'Pin 3 and Pin 6 are not connected 
Notes: 

1 Isolation Surge Voltage V|gQ isan internal device dielec- 
tric breakdown rating For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are 
common and pnototransistor pins 4. 5 an<16a re common 

2 All Motorola couplers are speeded at 7500 Vac peak (5 



ngma 






2-2 



OPTICAL COUPLERS/ISOLATORS (continued) 



The Triac Driver Output Coupler is a gallium- 
arsenide IRED, optically coupled to a silicon 
bilateral switch designed for applications requir- 
ing isolated triac triggering such as interface 
from logic to 110/220 V RMS line voltage These 
devices offer low current, isolated ac switching; 
high output blocking voltage; small size; and, 
low cost 




Triac Driver Output 

Isolation Voltage is 7500 V (min) 
on all devices. See notes. 



Device Type 


LED Trigger Current 
mA 
Max 


Peak Blocking 

Voltage 

Volts 

Max 


MOC3009 


30 


250 


MOC3010 


15 


250 


MOC3011 


10 


250 


MOC3020 


30 


400 


MOC3021 


15 


400 


MOC3030" 


30 


250 


MOC3031** 


15 


250 



•With Zero-Crossing Detector 



The Digital Logic Coupler is a gallium-arsenide 
IRED optically coupled to a high-speed inte- 
grated detector Designed for applications 
requiring electrical isolation, fast response time, 
and digital logic compatibility such as interfacing 
computer terminals to peripheral equipment, 
digital control of power supplies, motors, and 
other servo machine applications 

Intended for use as a digital inverter, the appli- 
cation of a current to the IRED input results in a 
LOW voltage; with the IRED off the output voltage 
is HIGH 




Digital IC Output 

Isolation Voltage is 7500 V (min) 
on all devices. See notes. 



Device Type 


Output Voltage 


ton/toff 
ns 
Max 


@ IF = 16 mA 
VcC = 5.0 V 

"sink = 10 mA 
Volts Max 


@lp = 

VCC = 5.0 V 

Volts Min 


MOC5005 
MOC5006 


06 
06 


40 
4.0 


700 
350 



The Optically-Isolated AC Linear Coupler is a 

gallium-arsenide IRED optically coupled to a 
bipolar monolithic amplifier. Converts an input 
current variation to an output voltage variation 
while providing a high degree of electrical isola- 
tion between input and output. Can be used for 
telephone line coupling, peripheral equipment 
isolation, audio and other applications 




Linear Amplifier Output 

Isolation Voltage is 7500 V (min). 
See notes. 







Single Ended 




Transfer Gain 


Distortion 




@ Vcc = 12 V, 


@ VCC = 12 V, 


Device Type 


mV/mA 


l s jg = 1.0 mA 




Typ 


% Typ 


MOC5010 


200 


02 



2-3 



OPTICAL COUPLERS/ISOLATORS (continued) 



SCR Couplers 

The SCR Output Coupler is a gallium-arsenide 
IRED optically coupled to a photo sensitive silicon 
controlled rectifier (SCR). It is designed forappli- 
cations requiring high electrical isolation between 
low voltage circuitry like integrated circuits, and 
the ac line. 



SCR Output 

Isolation Voltage is 7500 V (min) 
on all devices. 



Device Type 


LED Trigger Current 
mA Max 


Peak Blocking 

Voltage 

Volts 

Max 


V AK =50V 

R GK *i0kn 


V AK = 100 V 
R G K*27k!! 


MOC3000 
MOC3001 
MOC3002 
MOC3003 


30 
20 
30 
20 


14 
11 
14 
1 1 


400 
400 
2 SO 
250 



Anode 1 £_ 



Cathode 2 Q 



NC 3[ 




12 6 SCR Gate 



3 5 SCR Anode 



12 4 SCR Cathode 



These SCR Couplers are interchangeable with many devices available in the industry 







Motorola 


Device 


Manufacturer 


Equivalent 


H11C1 


GE 


MOC3003 


H11C2 


GE 


MOC3003 


H11C3 


GE 


MOC3002 


H11C4 


GE 


MOC3001 


H11C5 


GE 


MOC3001 


H11C6 


GE 


MOC30O0 


MCS2 


Gl 


MOC3002* 


MCS2400 


Gl 


MOC3000* 


OPI4201 


Optron 


MOC30O3 


0PI4202 


Optron 


MOC30O2 


0PI4401 


Optron 


MOC30O1 


0PI4402 


Optron 


MOC3000 


SCS11C1 


Spectronics 


MOC3003 


SCS11C3 


Spectronics 


MOC3002 


SCS11C4 


Spectronics 


MOC3001 


SCS11C6 


Spectronics 


MOC30O0 



'Minor electrical difference 



2-4 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODES 

Infrared (900 nm) gallium-arsenide emitters are available from Motorola for use 
in light modulators, shaft or position encoders, punched card and tape 
readers, optical switching and logic circuits. They are spectrally matched for 
use with silicon detectors. 

Peak Emission Wavelength = 900 nm (Typ) 

Forward Voltage @ 50 mA = 1.2 (Typ). 



Emission Angle — Angle at which I Remission 
is 15% of maximum intensity. 



Package 


Device Type 


Emission 
Anfle 

a 


Instantaneous 

Power Output 

Typ 


>Q Actual Size 
Case 209-02 Metal 


MLED930 


30° 


650 mW ® 100 mA 


Actual Size 
W Case 29-02 Plastic 


MLED92 
MLED93 
MLED94 
MLED95 


110° 


650 mW @ 100 mA 
3.0 mW @ 100 mA 
5.0 mW @ 100 mA 
8.0 mW @ 100 mA 



SILICON PHOTO DETECTORS 

A variety of silicon photo detectors are available for a wide range of light detecting 
applications. Devices are available in packages offering choices of viewing angle 
and size in either low-cost, economical, plastic cases or rugged, hermetic, metal 
cans. Advantages over photo tubes are high sensitivity, good temperature 
stability, and proven silicon reliability. Applications include card and tape 
readers, pattern and character recognition, shaft encoders, position sensors, 
counters, and others. Maximum sensitivity occurs at approximately 800 nm. 



Photodiodes 

Photodiodes are used where high speed is required (1.0 ns). 



Package 


Type 
Number 


Light Current 

mA @ H 
Typ *" mW/cm 2 


V {»R)R 
Volts 
MIn 


Dark Current 
M« • V0,U 


/—, Actual Size 

ft • 

/ J Case 209-02 Metal 
Convex Lens 


MRD500 


9.0 


50 


100 


2.0 


20 


_ Actual Size 

J? • 

/ / Case 210-01 Metal 
Flat Lens 


MRD510 


20 


5.0 


100 


2.0 


20 



2-5 



SILICON PHOTO DETECTORS (continued) 

Phototransistors 

Phototransistors are used where moderate sensitivity and medium speed (2.0 us) are required. 







Type 
Number 


Light Current 


V(Bfl)CEO 


Dark Current 


Package 




mA H 
Typ ^ mW/cm 2 


Volts 
Min 


nA _ VCE 
Max ^ Volts 


i^h 


Actual Size 


MRD310 


25 


50 


50 


25 


20 


^ 


0. 


MRD300 


75 


50 


50 


25 


20 


/ Case 82-05 Metal 


















Actual Size 


L14H4 


05 


10 


30 


100 


10 


/&. 


9 


L14H1 


05 


10 


60 


100 


10 


^^ 


L14H2 


20 


10 


30 


100 


10 


■^ Case 29-02 




L14H3 


20 


10 


60 


100 


10 




Actual Size 


MR 03050 


02 


50 


30 


100 


20 


£ 


^ 


MRD3051 


02 


50 


30 


100 


20 


/# 


# 


MRD3054 


12 


50 


30 


100 


20 


'y Case 82-05 Metal 




MRD3055 


18 


50 


30 


100 


20 






MRD3056 


25 


50 


30 


100 


20 



Photodarlingtons 

Photodarlingtons are used where maximum sensitivity is required with typical rise and fall times of 50 /*s. 



Package 


Type 
Number 


Light Current 

mA @ H 
Typ ^ mW/cm 1 


v (BR)CEO 
Volts 
Min 


Dark Current 
M n ax @ V0 ' U 


/ Case 82-05 Metal 


Actual Size 


MRD370 
MRD360 


10 
20 


05 
05 


40 
40 


100 
100 


10 
10 


<Ss Case 29-02 Plastic 


Actual Size 

m 


MRD14B 

2N5777 

2N5778 

2N5779 

2N5780 


2.0 
4 
40 
80 
8.0 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


12 
25 
40 
25 
40 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


12 
12 
10 
12 
12 



Photo Triac Drivers 

Photo triac drivers contain a light sensitive IC acting as a trigger device for direct interface with a triac. 



Package 


Type 
Number 


Trigger* 

Sensitivity 

H 

mW/cm' 
Typ 


On-State 

RMS Current 

mA 

Max 


Off-State Output 

Terminal Voltage 

Volts Peak 

Min 


Peak 

Blocking 

Current 

nA 

Typ 


O^jbi Actual Size 
S^ Case 82-05 ^W 


MRD3010 
MRD3011 


10 
05 


100 
100 


250 
250 


10 
10 



'Irradiance level to Latch Output 



2-6 



CROSS-REFERENCE 



The following is a cross-reference of all known optoelectronic devices at 
the time of printing. This list is meant to serve as a substitution guide for 
existing competitive devices to Motorola 's optoelectronic product line. 

Motorola's nearest equivalent devices are selected on the basis of general 
similarity of electrical characteristics. Interchangeability in particular applica- 
tions is not guaranteed. Before using a substitute, please compare the detailed 
specifications of the substitute device to the data sheet of the original device. 

In the event the device we recommend does not exactly meet your needs, 
we encourage you to look for another device from the same line source 
which will have similar characteristics, or contact your nearest distributor or 
Motorola sales office for further information. 



CODE 

A = Direct Replacement 
B = Minor Electrical Difference 
C = Minor Mechanical Difference 
D = Significant Electrical Difference 
E = Significant Mechanical Difference 



2-7 



CROSS-REFERENCE 









Motorola 




Device 


Manufacturer 


Description 


Equivalent 


Code 


BP101 


Siemens 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


C 


BP102 


Siemens 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


C 


BPW14 


Telefunken 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


BPW15 


Pro Electron 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


BPW16 


Telefunken 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


A 


BPW17 


Telefunken 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


A 


BPW24 


Telefunken 


TO-92 Lensed Phototransistor 


L14H1 


C 


BPW30 


Telefunken 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


BPX25A 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD370 


A 


BPX25 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


BPX29A 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD370 


A 


BPX29 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


BPX37 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


BPX38 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3055 


A 


BPX43 


Siemens 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


BPX58 


Siemens 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


BPX59 


Siemens 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


BPX62-1 


Siemens 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


BPX62-2 


Siemens 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


BPX623 


Siemens 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


BPX62-4 


Siemens 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


BPX70, C, D, E 


Philips 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD450 


BE 


BPX72, C, D, E 


Philips 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD450 


BE 


BPX81 


Siemens 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


A 


BPY62 


Siemens 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


CL100 


Centralab 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


CL110 


Centralab 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


CL110A 


Centralab 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


CL110B 


Centralab 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


CLI-2 


Clairex 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N38 


B 


CLI-3 


Clairex 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N35 


B 


CLI-5 


Clairex 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


CLI-10 


Clairex 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N33 


B 


CLR2050 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD3050 


A 


CLR2060 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


CLR2110 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


CLR2140 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


CLR2150 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


CLR2160 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


CLR2170 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD370 


A 


CLR2180 


Clairex 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


CLT3020 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


CLT3030 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


CLT3160 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


CLT3170 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


CLT4020 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 


CLT4030 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


E 


CLT4060 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


E 


CLT4070 


Clairex 


PILL Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


E 


CNY17 


Siemens 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


CNY17 


A 


CIMY18 


Siemens 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


A 


CNY21 


Telefunken 


Long DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


E 


CQY10 


Pro Electron 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


CQY11, B, C 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


CQY12, B 


Philips 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


CQY13 


Pro Electron 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


B 


CQY14 


Pro Electron 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


B 


CQY15 


Pro Electron 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


B 


CQY31 


Pro Electron 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MLED930 


B 


CQY32 


Pro Electron 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MLED930 


B 


CQY36 


Pro Electron 


Plastic DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MLED60 


B 



2-8 



CROSS-REFERENCE (continued) 









Motorola 




Device 


Manufacturer 


Description 


Equivalent 


Code 


CQY40.41 


ITT 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


CQY80 


Telefunken 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MOC1005 


B 


EE60 


EEP 


Plastic, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED60 


C 


EE100 


EEP 


Plastic, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED60 


E 


EP2 


EEP 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


B 


EPY62-1 


EEP 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3055 


A 


EPY62-2 


EEP 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


EPY62-3 


EEP 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


FCD810, A 


Fairch ild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


FCD810, B, C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


FCD820, A 


Fairch ild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


FCD820, B 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N25 


A 


FCD820, C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MOC1005 


B 


FCD825.A 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


FCD825, B 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


FCD825C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4IN35 


A 


FCD830, A 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


FCD830, B 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N25 


A 


FCD830, C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


FCD831, A 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


FCD831.B 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4N25 


A 


FCD831.C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


A 


FCD836 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


4IM27 


A 


FCD836C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


A 


FCD850C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Darlington Output 


4N29 


A 


FCD855C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Darlington Output 


4N29 


A 


FCD860C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Darlington Output 


4N32 


A 


FCD865C, D 


Fairchild 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler, Darlington Output 


4N32 


B 


FPE100 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


FPE410 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


FPE500 


Fairchild 


TO 18, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


FPE520 


Fairchild 


Metal, FO, IRED 


MFOE200 


D 


FPT100 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


E 


FPT100, A 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


E 


FPT100.B 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


E 


FPT120, A 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


FPT120, B 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


FPT120, C 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


B 


FPT131 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


E 


FPT132 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


E 


FPT220 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


E 


FPT400 


Fairchild 


Plastic, Lensed Darlington Transistor 


MRD360 


A 


FPT500, A 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD300 


A 


FPT510 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD3054 


A 


FPT510, A 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD3055 


A 


FPT520 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD300 


A 


FPT520A 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD300 


B 


FPT530A 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD300 


A 


FPT450A 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD300 


B 


FPT550A 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Transistor 


MRD300 


B 


FPT560 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD300 


B 


FPT570 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD360 


A 


GG686 


Fairchild 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD300 


B 


GS101 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


GS103 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


GS161 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


GS163 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


GS165 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


GS167 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


GS201 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 


GS203 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 


GS261 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 



2-9 



CROSS-REFERENCE (continued) 









Motorola 




Device 


Manufacturer 


Description 


Equivalent 


Code 


GS263 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 


GS265 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


E 


GS267 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


E 


GS501 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


E 


GS503 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 


GS561 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


E 


GS567 


Gen'l Sensors 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


E 


GS600, 3, 6, 9, 10 


Gen'l Sensors 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


GS612 


Gen'l Sensors 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


GS670 


Gen'l Sensors 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


GS680 


Gen'l Sensors 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


GS683 


Gen'l Sensors 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


GS686 


Gen'l Sensors 


TO-18, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


H11A1 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A1 


A 


H11A2 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A2 


A 


H11A3 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A3 


A 


H11A4 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A4 


A 


H11A5 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A5 


A 


H11A520 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A520 


A 


H11A550 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A550 


A 


H11A5100 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


H11A5100 


A 


H74A1 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


4N26 


B 


H11AA1 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


4N26 


D 


H11AA2 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


D 


H11B1 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


H11B1 


A 


H11B2 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


H11B2 


A 


H11B3 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


H11B3 


A 


H11B255 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


H11B255 


A 


H11C1, 2,3 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3003 


A 


H11C4, 5, 6 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3001 


A 


H1174C1, 2 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3001 


A 


H11D1.2, 3, 4 


GE 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Hi V. Transistor 


MOC3001 


DE 


IL 1 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


IL1 


A 


IL5 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


B 


IL 12 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


IL12 


A 


IL 15 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


IL15 


A 


IL 16 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


IL16 


A 


IL74 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Transistor Output 


IL74 


A 


I LA 30 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


4N33 


B 


I LA 55 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


4N33 


B 


ILCA2-30 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


4N33 


B 


ILCA2-55 


Litronix 


6-Pin DIP Coupler Darlington Output 


4N33 


B 


IRL40 


Litronix 


TO-18 Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


IRL60 


Litronix 


Plastic, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED60 


A 


L8, L9 


GE 


TO-18 Lensed Phototriac 


MRD3011 


D 


L14F1 


GE 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


L14F2 


GE 


TO-18 Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD370 


A 


L14G1 


GE 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


L14G2 


GE 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


L14G3 


GE 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


L14H1 


GE 


TO-92 Phototransistors 


L14H1 


A 


L14H2 


GE 


TO-92 Phototransistors 


L14H2 


A 


L14H3 


GE 


TO-92 Phototransistors 


L14H3 


A 


L14H4 


GE 


TO-92 Phototransistors 


L14H4 


A 


L15E 


GE 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


L15A 


GE 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


L15AX601 


GE 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


L15AX602 


GE 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


L15AX603 


GE 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


L15AX604 


GE 


PILL, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 



2-10 



CROSS-REFERENCE (continued) 









Motorola 




Device 


Manufacturer 


Description 


Equivalent 


Code 


LD261 


Siemens 


Plastic, I.R. LED 


MLED60 


C 


LED 56, F 


GE 


TO-18, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


LPT 


Litronix 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


LPT100A 


Litronix 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


LPT100B 


Litronix 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


M-161 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD160 


C 


M-162 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD160 


C 


M-163 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


M-164 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


M-165 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


ME60 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED60 


C 


ME61 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED60 


C 


ME702 


Gl 


Plastic, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED900 


E 


MCA230 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


MCA 230 


A 


MCA231 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


MCA231 


A 


MCA255 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


MCA255 


A 


MCS2 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3011 


DE 


MCS2400 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3011 


DE 


MCT2 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MCT2 


A 


MC2E 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MCT2E 


A 


MCT26 


Gl 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


B 


OP123 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED910 


A 


OP 124 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED910 


A 


OP130 


Optron 


TO-18, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


OP131 


Optron 


TO-18, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


OP160 


Optron 


Plastic, Lensed, I.R. LED 


MLED900 


E 


OP500 


Optron 


Plastic, Lensed, Phototransistor 


MRD450 


E 


OP600 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


OP601 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


OP602 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


OP603 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


OP604 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


OP640 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


OP641 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


OP642 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


OP643 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


OP644 


Optron 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


OP800 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3055 


A 


OP801 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


OP802 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD310 


A 


OP803 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


OP804 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


OP805 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


OP830 


Optron 


TO-18 Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


OPI110 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1005 


DE 


OPI2150 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


A 


OPI2151 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


OPI2152 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


OPI2153 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N26 


D 


OPI2250 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


A 


OPI2251 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


A 


OP12252 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


A 


OP12253 


Optron 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


D 


PC503 


Sharp 


6-Pin, DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


SD1440-1, -2,-3,-4 


Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


DE 


SD2440-1 


Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


SD 2440-2 


Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


SD2440-3 


Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


SD2440-4 


Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


SD2441-1 


Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 




A 



2-11 



CROSS-REFERENCE (continued) 









Motorola 




De 


vice Manufacturer 


Description 


Equivalent 


.Code 


SD2441 


2 Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


SD2441 


3 Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


SD2441 


4 Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


B 


SD3420 


1,-2 Spectronics 


TO-1 8, Flat Window Pin, Photodarlington 


MRD510 


A 


SD5400 


1 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD370 


A 


SD5400 


2 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


SD5400 


3 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


A 


SD5420 


1 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD500 


A 


SD5440 


1 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3052 


A 


SD5440 


2 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


SD5440 


3 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


SD5440 


4 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


B 


SD5442 


1,-2,-3 Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


B 


SE1450 


series Spectronics 


TO 18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MLED930 


E 


SE2450 


series Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED910 


8 


SE2460 


series Spectronics 


PILL, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED910 


B 


SE5450 


series Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


A 


SE5451 


series Spectronics 


TO-18, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


SG1001 


series RCA 


PILL, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED910 


B 


SPX2 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX2E 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX4 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX5 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX6 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX26 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


SPX28 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


SPX35 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX36 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SPX37 


Spectronics 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


SSL4, F 


Solar Systems 


TO-18, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


SSL34, 


54 Solar Systems 


TO-18, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED930 


B 


STPT10 


Sensor Tech 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


C 


STPT15 


Sensor Tech 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD160 


C 


STPT20 


Sensor Tech 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


STPT21 


Sensor Tech 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


STPT25 


Sensor Tech 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


STPT45 


Sensor Tech 


Plastic Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD450 


A 


STPT51 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


STPT53 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


STPT60 


series Sensor Tech 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 series 


A 


STPT80 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


STPT80 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


STPT81 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3052 


A 


STPT82 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3053 


A 


STPT83 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3054 


A 


STPT84 


Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


STPT26( 


) Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Darlington Transsitor 


MRD360 


A 


STPT30( 


) Sensor Tech 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


STPT31 


5 Sensor Tech 


TO-5, Lensed Photodarlington 


MRD360 


C 


TIL23 


Texas Instr. 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MLED910 


A 


TIL24 


Texas Instr. 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MLED910 


B 


TIL26 


Texas Instr. 


Plastic, Lensed I.R. LED 


MLED60 


E 


TIL31 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MLED930 


B 


TIL33 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MLED930 


B 


TIL34 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MLED930 


A 


TIL63 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


TIL64 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3050 


A 


TIL65 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3052 


A 


TIL66 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3054 


A 


TIL67 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD3056 


A 


TIL78 


Texas Instr. 


Plastic, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD450 


C 



2-12 



CROSS-REFERENCE (continued) 









Motorola 




Device 


Manufacturer 


Description 


Equivalent 


Code 


TIL81 


Texas Instr. 


TO-18, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD300 


A 


TIL111 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL111 


A 


TIL112 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL112 


A 


TIL113 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL113 


A 


TIL114 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL114 


A 


TIL115 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL115 


A 


TIL116 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL116 


A 


TIL117 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL117 


A 


TIL118 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


C 


TIL119 


Texas Instr 




6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


TIL119 


A 


TIL601 


Texas Instr 




PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


TIL602 


Texas Instr 




PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


Tl L603 


Texas Instr 




PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


Tl L604 


Texas Instr 




PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


TLP501 


Toshiba 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


B 


TLP503 


Toshiba 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


B 


TLP504 


Toshiba 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


B 


1N5722 


Industry 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD601 


A 


1N5723 


Industry 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD602 


A 


1N5724 


Industry 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD603 


A 


1N5725 


Industry 


PILL, Lensed Phototransistor 


MRD604 


A 


2N5777 


Industry 


TO-92, Plastic Photodarlington 


2N5777 


A 


2N5778 


Industry 


TO-92, Plastic Photodarlington 


2N5778 


A 


2N5779 


Industry 


TO-92, Plastic Photodarlington 


2N5779 


A 


2N5780 


Industry 


TO-92, Plastic Photodarlington 


2N5780 


D 


4N25 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N25 


A 


4N26 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N26 


A 


4N27 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N27 


A 


4N28 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N28 


A 


4N29 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N29 


A 


4N30 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N30 


A 


4N31 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N31 


A 


4N32 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4IM32 


A 


4N33 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N33 


A 


4N35 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N35 


A 


4N36 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N37 


A 


4N37 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N37 


A 


4N38 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


4N38 


A 


4N39 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3011 


DE 


4N40 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler SCR Output 


MOC3011 


DE 


4N45 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N32 


DE 


4N46 


Industry 


6-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N32 


DE 


6N135 


Industry 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MO C 1006 


DE 


6N136 


Industry 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1005 


DE 


6N138 


Industry 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N32 


DE 


6N139 


Industry 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N32 


DE 


5082-4203 


Hewlett-Packard 


TO-18, Lensed Photo PIN Diode 


MRD500 


A 


5082-4204 


Hewlett-Packard 


TO-18, Lensed Photo PIN Diode 


MRD500 


A 


5082-4207 


Hewlett-Packard 


TO-18, Lensed Photo PIN Diode 


MRD500 


A 


5082-4220 


Hewlett-Packard 


TO-18, Lensed Photo PIN Diode 


MRD500 


A 


5082-4350 


Hewlett Packard 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1006 


DE 


5082-4351 


Hewlett Packard 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1005 


DE 


5082-4352 


Hewlett Packard 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Transistor Output 


MOC1005 


DE 


5082-4370 


Hewlett Packard 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N32 


DE 


5081-4371 


Hewlett Packard 


8-Pin DIP, Coupler Darlington Output 


4N32 


DE 



2-13 



2-14 



OPTOELECTRONICS 



Data Sheets 




3-1 



OPTOELECTRONICS DATA SHEETS 



2N5777 thru 2N5780, MRD14B 
4N25, A; 4N26, 4N27, 4N28 
4N29, A;4N30, 4N31, 

4N32, A; 4N33 
4N35, 4N36, 4N37 
4N38, A 

L14H1 thru L14H4 
MLED60, MLED90 
MLED92 

MLED93 thru MLED95 
MLED900 
MLED930 
MOC119 

MOC1005, MOC1006 
MOC30O0thru MOC3003 
MOC3009 thru MOC301 1 
MOC3020, MOC3021 
MOC3030, MOC3031 
MOC5005, MOC5006 
MOC5010 

MOC8020, MOC8021 
MOC8030, MOC8050 
MRD150 
MRD160 

MRD300, MRD310 
MRD360, MRD370 
MRD450 

MRD500, MRD510 
MRD3010, MRD3011 
MRD3050, MRD3051, MRD3054, 

MRD3055, MRD3056 

Opto Couplers/Isolators 
(Industry) 



Page 

Plastic NPN Silicon Photo Darlington Amplifiers 3-3 

NPN Phototransistor and PN Infrared-Emitting Diode 3-5 

NPN Photodarlington and PN Infrared-Emitting Diode 3-9 

NPN Phototransistor and PN Infrared-Emitting Diode 3-13 

Optical Coupler with NPN Transistor Output 3-17 

Plastic NPN Silicon Photo Transistors 3-21 

Infrared-Emitting Diodes 3-23 

Infrared-Emitting Diode 3-25 

Infrared-Emitting Diodes 3-27 

Infrared-Emitting Diode 3-29 

Infrared-Emitting Diode 3-31 

Opto Coupler with Darlington Output 3-33 

Opto Coupler with Transistor Output 3-37 

Opto SCR Coupler 3-41 

Optically-Isolated Triac Driver, 250 V 3-44 

Optically-Isolated Triac Driver, 400 V 3-48 

Zero Voltage Crossing Optically-Isolated Triac Driver, 250 V . . . . 3-50 

Digital Logic Coupler 3-53 

Optically-Isolated AC Linear Coupler 3-55 

High CTR Darlington Coupler 3-57 

80-Volt Darlington Coupler 3-59 

Plastic NPN Silicon Photo Transistor 3-63 

Plastic NPN Silicon Photo Transistor .' 3-66 

NPN Silicon High Sensitivity Photo Transistor 3-69 

NPN Silicon High Sensitivity Photo Darlington Transistor 3-73 

Plastic NPN Photo Transistor 3-77 

PIN Silicon Photo Diode 3-80 

250-V NPN Silicon Photo Triac Driver 3-83 

NPN Silicon Photo Transistors 3-86 

Phototransistor and Photodarlington Opto Couplers 3-90 



3-2 



'M) MOTOROLA 



2N5777 thru 
2N5780 
MRD14B 



PLASTIC NPN SILICON PHOTO 
DARLINGTON AMPLIFIERS 



. . . designed for applications in industrial inspection, processing and 
control, counters, sorters, switching and logic circuits or any design re- 
quiring extremely high radiation sensitivity, and stable characteristics. 

• Economical Plastic Package 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wide Application 

• Range of Radiation Sensitivities and Voltages for Design Flexibility 

• TO 92 Clear Plastic Package for Standard Mounting 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 

• Precision Die Placement 



12. 25, 40 VOLT 

PHOTO DARLINGTON 

AMPLIFIERS 

NPN SILICON 

200 MILLIWATTS 




MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Rating 


Symbol 


MRD14B 


2N5777* 
2N5779 


2N5778' 
2N5780 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


12 


25 


40 


Volts 


Col lector- Base Voltage 


v CBO 


18 


25 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


8.0 


8.0 


12 


Volts 


Light Current 


l|_ 


-■ 


— 250 - 


^- 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation <S> T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


-^ 


— 200 — 


^- 


mW 
mW/°C 


~ *" - 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T,T ' 1 l 
1 J.'stg 




65 to +10 





°C 


•Indicates JEDEC Registered Data. 
(1! Heat Sink should be applied to lea 
from exceeding 100°C 


ds during s 


3ldering to 


prevent ca 


se tempera 


ture 



FIGURE 1 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 











/ X 






80 


T A = 2 


5°C 






























60 




























\ 










































20 


































n 



















0.4 5 6 7 8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 

X, WAVELENGTH (Mm) 




D -4H. 

— H* G 

STYLE 14: 

PIN 1 EMITTER 
2. COLLECTOR 
3 BASE 



~*-R 



--— N — 



NOTES 

1 CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND ZONE 

2. IS UNCONTROLLED 

DIM "F" APPLIES BETWEEN "H" AND 
"L". DIM "0" & "S" APPLIES BETWEEN 
"L"& 12.70 mm (05"l FROM SEATING 
PLANE. LEAD DIM IS UNCONTROLLED 
IN "H "& BEYOND 12 70 mm (0 5") 
FROM SEATING PLANE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


4.32 


533 


0.170 


0210 


B 


4.44 


521 


0.175 


0205 


C 


3 18 


4 19 


0.125 


165 





41 


56 


0.016 


022 


F 


041 


048 


0.016 


0.019 


G 


1.14 


1 40 


0.045 


0055 


H 


- 


2 54 


- 


0.100 


J 


2.41 


267 


0.095 


0.105 


K 


1270 


- 


500 


- 


L 


635 


- 


0250 




N 


203 


292 


0.080 


0.115 


P 


2.92 


- 


0115 


- 


R 


3.43 


_ 


135 


- 


S 


0.36 


0.41 


0.014 


0016 



All JEDEC dimensions and notes apply. 

CASE 29 02 

T092 



3-3 



2N5777 THRU 2N5780 , MRD14B 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current INote 2) 
(V C E = 12 V) 


"CEO 


- 


- 


0.1 


M A 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage (Note 2) 

OC = 10 mA) MRD14B 

2N5777, 2N5779 
2N5778, 2N5780 


v (BR)CEO 


12 
25 
40 


" 


- 


Volts 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage (Note 2) 

(IC = 100 mA) MRD14B 

2N5777. 2N5779 
2N5778. 2N5780 


v (BR)CBO 


18 
25 
40 


- 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage (Note 2) 

(l E = 100 mA) MRD14B 

2N5777, 2N5779 
2N5778, 2N5780 


V(BR)EBO 


8.0 
8.0 
12 


- 


- 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Light Current (Notes 1,4,5) 

< V CE = 5.0 V) MRD14B 

2N5777, 2N5778 
2N5779, 2N5780 




'L 


05 
0.5 
2.0 


2.0 
4.0 
80 


- 


mA 


DC Current Gain (Note 2) 

(V CE = 5.0 V, l c = 0.5 mAI 2N5777, 2N5778 

2N5779. 2N5780 


~ 


"FE 


2.5 k 
5.0 k 




- 


~ 


Wave Length of Maximum Sensitivity 


1 


*s 


0.7 


0.8 


1.0 


>im 


Turn-On Delay Time (Notes 3, 4) 


2,3 


td1 


- 


- 


100 


MS 


Rise Time (Notes 3, 4) 


2,3 


«r 


- 


- 


250 


MS 


Turn-Off Delay Time (Notes 3, 4) 


2,3 


»d2 


- 


- 


5.0 


MS 


Fall Time (Notes 3, 4) 


2.3 


tf 


- 


- 


150 


MS 


Collector-Base Capacitance 

( V CB = 10 V, f = 1 .0 MHz, l E = 0) 2N5777 thru 2N5780 


- 


c cb 


- 


- 


10 


pF 



'Indicates JEDEC Registered Data. 
NOTES: 

1. Radiation Flux Density (H) equal to 2.0 mW/cm2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (H=s0). 

3. For unsaturated rise time measurements, radiation is provided by 
a pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode (A. ~ 0.9 



fim) with a pulse width equal to or greater than 500 micro- 
seconds (see Figures 2 and 3). 

4. Measurement mode with no electrical connection to the 
base lead. 

5. Die faces curved side of package. 



FIGURE 2 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT 




= 10 mA I S 

PEAK | > R L = ,OOSi OUTPUT 



FIGURE 3 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST WAVEFORM 

Output Pulse 



Voltage 




3-4 



® 



MOTOROLA 



NPN PHOTOTRANSISTOR AND 
PN INFRARED EMITTING DIODE 

. . . Gallium Arsenide LED optically coupled to a Silicon Photo Transistor designed 
for applications requiring electrical isolation, high-current transfer ratios, small 
package size and low cost; such as interfacing and coupling systems, phase and 
feedback controls, solid-state relays and general-purpose switching circuits. 



High Isolation Voltage - 
V|SO = 7500 V (Mini 

High Collector Output Current 
@ lp = 10mA - 
IC = 5.0 mA (Typ) - 4N25,A,4N26 

2.0 mA (Typ) - 4N27.4N28 
Economical, Compact, Dual-ln-Line 
Package 



• Excellent Frequency Response — 
300 kHz (Typ) 

• Fast Switching Times <s> \q = 10 mA 
t on = 0.87 ms (Typ) - 4N25.A.4N26 

2.1 ms (Typ) -4N27.4N28 
t oft = 1 1 ms (Typ) - 4N25,A,4N26 
5.0 ms (Typ) -4N27.4N28 

• 4N25A is UL Recognized 

File Number E54915 



"MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted). 



Rating 



Symbol | Value | 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR MAXIMUM RATINGS 



TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 



•Indicates JEDEC Registered Data. 



FIGURE 1 -MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION 



Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


'F 


80 


mA 


Forward Current — Peak 

Pulse Width = 300 ms, 2.0% Duty Cycle 


IF 


3.0 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation <3> T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


7.0 


Volts 


Col lector- Base Voltage 


v CBO 


70 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



Total Device Dissipation @ T/\ = 25°C 


pd 


250 


mW 


Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 




3.3 


mW/°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 




260 


°C 













I 














Ta = 25 


"C 


























I 5( 


°C 


























, 7 


°C 










L 
















\ 
















\ 



l>02. AVERAGE POWER DISSIPATION ImWI 



Figure 1 is based upon using limit 

values in the equation: 
T J1 - T A = R 9JA (P D1 + Kfl P 02 ) 

where 

Tji Junction Temperature (100°CI 

T^ Ambient Temperature 

R(JJA Junction to Ambient Thermal 
Resistance (500°C/W) 

Pq1 Power Dissipation in One Chip 

P D2 Power Dissipation in Other Chip 
K# Thermal Coupling Coefficient 
(20%l 

Example 

With Pp, = 90 mW in the LED 
@ T A = 50°C. the transistor 
P D IPD2' mus ' °e less than 50 mW 



4N25, 4N25A 
4N26 
4N27 
4N28 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

TRANSISTOR OUTPUT 



nfl 


} 


I 

i 
j 



tSlfSiigi 



STYLE 1: 

PIN t. ANOOE 

2. CATHODE 

3. NC 

4. EMITTER 

5. COLLECTOR 

6. BASE 




NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE DATUMS 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TO LERANC ES FOR LEADS: 
!^l©b.'l3 (0.005,( 3) I T I A ^P@1 

4 DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5 DIMENSIONING AND T0LERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14. 5, 1973. 



DIM 
A 
B 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


8.T3 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


6 10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


C 


- 2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


F 


102 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


020 I 0.30 


0.008 1 0.012 


K 


254 3.81 


0.100 1 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


Oo 1 150 


00 
015 


150 


N 


038 2.54 


0.100 


P 


L ' 27 


203 


0.050 


0.080 



CASE 730A-01 



3-5 



4N25, 4N25A, 4N26, 4N27, 4N28 



LED CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwi 


se noted) 












Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


"Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R = 3.0 V,R L = 1.0 Mohms) 


|R 


- 


0005 


100 


|"A 


"Forward Voltage 
dp = 10mA) 


v F 


~ 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(Vr - V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


c 


_ 


150 


~ 


pF 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS C 


_ A = 25°C and l F 


= unless otherwise no 


ted) 








"Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(Vqe = 10 V, Base Open) 


4N25, A, 4N26 


4N27 
4N28 


! CEO 


- 


3.5 


50 
100 


nA 


"Collector-Base Dark Current 
(Vc B = 10 V, Emitter Open) 


'CBO 


- 


- 


20 


nA 


"Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(IC= 100nA, lg = 0) 


v (BR)CBO 


70 


- 


- 


Volts 


"Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
dC = 10 mA, Ib = 0) 


V(BR)CEO 


30 


- 


_ 


Volts 


"Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 nA. Ib = 0) 


v (BR)ECO 


7.0 


8.0 


— 


Volts 


DC Current Gain 

(V CE = 5.0 V,lc = 500 mA) 


hFE 


_ 


325 


~ 


" 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 












"Collector Output Current (1) 4N25, A.4N26 
(V CE = 10 V, l F = 10 mA, l B =0) 4N27, 4N28 


'C 


2.0 
1.0 


5.0 
2.0 


- 


mA 


Isolation Surge Voltage (2, 5) 
(60 Hz Peak ac, 5 Seconds) 

(60 Hz Peak) "4N25, A 

"4N26, 4N27 

"4N28 

(60 Hz RMS for 1 Second) (3) "4N25A 


v ISO 


7500 
2500 
1500 
500 
1775 


- 


- 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (2) 
(V = 500 V) 


- 


- 


10" 


- 


Ohms 


"Collector-Emitter Saturation 
(l c = 2.0 mA, l F = 50 mA) 


v CE(sat) 


- 


0.2 


0.5 


Volts 


Isolation Capacitance (2) 
(V = 0, f = 1.0 MHz) 


- 


- 


1.3 


~ 


pF 


Bandwidth (4) 

UC = 2.0mA,R L = 100 ohms. Figure 11 (2) 


- 


_ 


300 


— 


kHz 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



Delay Time 


4N25, A, 4N26 
(l c = 10 mA, Vqc = 10 V 2N27, 4N28 

Figures 6 and 8) 4N25, A, 4N26 

4N27, 4N28 


td 


- 


0.07 
0.10 


_ 


MS 


Rise Time 


t r 


_ 


0.8 
2.0 


_ 


MS 


Storage Time 


4N25, A, 4N26 
(l c = 10 mA, V cc = 10 V 4N27, 4N28 

Figures 7 and 8) 4N25, A, 4N26 

4N27, 4N28 


ts 


- 


4.0 
2.0 


- 


MS 


Fall Time 


tf 


- 


8.0 
8.0 


- 


MS 



• Indicates JEDEC Registered Data 

(1) Pulse Test: Pulse Width = 300 Ms, Duty Cycle < 2.0%. 

(2) For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and phototransistor pins 4, 5, and 6 are common. 

(3) RMS Volts, 60 Hz. For this test, pins 1, 2, and 3 are common and pins 4, 5, and 6 are commor 

(4) l F adjusted to yield l c = 2.0 mA and i c = 2.0 mA p-p at 10 kHz. 

(5) isolation Surge Voltage, V| S q, is an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 

DC CURRENT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS 
FIGURE 2 - 4N25.A.4N26 



-- 
























^ 










-~ "~\ T- 
































































== 




= 


M 




- = r 


= = : — 










\= 




= 








































































Tj 




























EE 






i 


f 




















































E 


100°C 







































z 






































^25° 






















































1:== 












e= 








■^z 









FIGURE 3 -4N27,4N28 














::=_.txz:- 






































































' 


- 


























1 10 


































::=m 




















::=z 










































































































§ 














^ 


^25°C -- 

































5 1.0 = = 
















M00°C = - = 












j 06- 
































































"- 






























































0.1 -- 
























- 






- 



IF. FORWARD DIODE CURRENT ImAI 



IF, FORWARD DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



3-6 



4N25, 4N25A, 4N26, 4N27, 4N28 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR SATURATION VOLTAGE 



>L_ ^^~*L^i 



10 100 

i F . INSTANTANEOUS F0RWARO CURRENT (mA) 



£ 5 0.8 











r 


11 


|| 

























l F = ^b IC 
1 F = 50 1 c 
























Tj 


= 25°C 
















































I 














































A 
26 




























4N 




dy * 


i 
























^<-^ 






























MN27 












1 














4N28 

1 





0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 6 - TURN-ON TIME 




0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT 













FIGURE 7- 


-TURN-OFF TIME 








100 




























I I I 

r^V CC =10V — 

.-_- I F = 20 lc _: 
\ Tj = 25°C Zl 










2 
















'~ 


50 




-' 


:.— ■- 






^» 




20 

- 10 


~ 






""^ » 




v? 


i 






; 
















I 




.._ .. 


•■^=^— 


— - 




^ 


^ 










•■ __ 


^ 






-"= 








i= 5.0 










































- 






■■■ 











. ^.^_ 








2.0 
1.0 




"*T 




























- 






,-V 








£ 






: =:= 






1.— 












-™ 


.--- 




\- 




0.5 











25.A.4NZB 
































0.2 
































' 



(mA) 



2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 
l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



20 30 50 



FIGURE 8 - SATURATED SWITCHING TIME 
TEST CIRCUIT 



Rq and Rl VARIED TO OBTAIN DESIRED 
CURRENT LEVELS. 



PULSE 
INPUT R D 



PULSE WIDTH . 

= 100msDUTY I— 

CYCLE = 1.0% 



4N25.A 
4N26 
4N27 
LEO ± 4N28 



RL 



~1 



t~. 



K 



PHOTO 
TRANSISTOR 



_l 



10,000 

* 1000 

< 
a 

S 100 

t < 

O LU 

h- cc 

^ 3 i.o 

o 
o 

I o.i 
o.oi 



FIGURE 9 - DARK CURRENT versus 
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 



















































































































































































/ CE = 10V 
l F -0 
l B = 

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Ta, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



3-7 



4N25, 4N25A, 4N26, 4N27, 4N28 



FIGURE 11 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE TESTCIRCUIT 



1 1 






























































































































































_= 100S2 
































*< 




























■*> 






^ 
































^. 




V 


































^. b 


l)USl 




V 
































X 


N 






> 


























, 


ioos 




■n 






























Sj 








S 











































































'30 50 70 100 200 300 500 700 1000 

f, FREQUENCY (kHz) 



FIGURE 10 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE 



1 n ,c 47 ,> ©CONSTANT 'C 

h \f 47!! T CURRENT V CC = 10 VOLTS 

MODULATION O j\ WV n INPUT | O 




IC (OC) = 2.0 mA 

i c (AC SINE WAVE = 2.0 mAP.PJ 



FIGURE 12 - ISOLATED MTTL 
TO MOS (P-CHANNEL) LEVEL TRANSLATOR 



TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 

FIGURE 13 - COMPUTER/PERIPHERAL INTERCONNECT 



1 o- 



FR0MMTTL i 

LOGIC | 

(5.0 mA PULSEI | 
L 



2o- 



y.-T~* 



4N25.A 
4N26 
4N27 
4N23 



5.0 V 

]-|5 

4 MPS6516 TO MOS CIRCUIT 



Y 



•24 k 




FIGURE 14 - POWER AMPLIFIER 



FIGURE 15 - INTERFACE BETWEEN LOGIC AND LOAD 








V 
j> b 












c 


2N6240 ^ 
4 . f 




INDUCT. 
LOAD 


1 






1 






" rt- 


, ^| 1 £ 

- 1N4005 f, 

c 


5 

c 

p 


<-^ 1 


4N2 


1 

5,A 
6 
7 
8 


hi 






2 6 i 


4N2 

3 4N2 

4N2 









3-8 



M) MOTOROLA 




NPN PHOTO DARLINGTON AND PN INFRARED 
EMITTING DIODE 

. . . Gallium Arsenide LED optically coupled to a Silicon Photo 
Darlington Transistor designed for applications requiring electrical 
isolation, high-current transfer ratios, small package size and low 
cost; such as interfacing and coupling systems, phase and feedback 
controls, solid-state relays and general-purpose switching circuits. 



High Isolation Voltage 
V| S0 = 7500 V (Min) 

High Collector Output Current 

@ lp = 10 mA - 

IC = 50 mA (Min) - 4N32.33 
10 mA (Min) - 4N29.30 
5.0 mA (Min) - 4N31 

Economical, Compact, 
Dual-ln-Line Package 



Excellent Frequency Response — 
30 kHz (Typ) 

Fast Switching Times @ \q = 50 mA 
t on = 2.0 MS (Typ) 

t off = 25 MS (Typ) - 4N29.30.31 
60Ms(Typ) - 4N32.33 

4N29A, 4N32A are UL Recognized - 
File Number E54915 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A 25°C unless otherw.se noted) 



Rating 



| Symbol | Value | 



INFRAREO EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current Continuous 


if 


80 


mA 


Forward Current - Peak 
(Pulse Width = 300 us. 2.0% Duty Cycle) 


if 


3.0 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Collector Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


5.0 


Volts 


Co I lee tor -Base Voltage 


v CBO 


30 


Volts 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 


PD 


150 


mW 


Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 




2.0 


mW/°C 



TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 



Total Device Dissipation (S> T A = 25°C 
Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 
3.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°c 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°c 



FIGURE 1 - MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION 

Figure 1 is based upon i 



nglu 











| 










































50 


°C 
























— — , 


> 


°c 










L 




\ 










\ 




\ 










\ 



P02 AVERAGE POWER OISSIP 



values in the equation: 

Til -T A = R aJ A (P D 1 + K l) P D2> 

Tj, Junction Temperature (100°C) 

T A Ambient Temperature 

Rtf ja Junction to Ambient Thermal 

Resistance (500°C/WI 
Pqi Power Dissipation in One Chip 
Pq2 Power Dissipation in Other Chip 
K fl Thermal Coupling Coefficient 

! 20%) 
Example: 

With P D 1 - 90 mW in the LED 
@ T A = 50°C. the Darlington 
P D IP D2> must be less ,nan 50 mW 



4N29, 4N29A 

4N30 

4N31 
4N32, 4N32A 

4N33 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

DARLINGTON OUTPUT 




iSlflft 



O 






STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2. CATHODE 

3. NC 

4. EMITTER 

5. COLLECTOR 

6. BASE 



[TL 



era 



a 






* 



NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND BARE DATUMS. 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL T OLERANC ES FOR LEADS: 
(+M<Z) 0.1 3(0.00 5)CM)|T | N^fi^ 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14. 5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


8.13 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


IT 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


_Lj 


1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


.P 


0.20 1 0.30 


0.008 I 0.012 


K 


2.54 | 3.81 


0.100 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


00 1 150 


00 
0.015 


150 


N 


0.38 I 2.54 


0.100 


P , 1.27 


2.03 


0.050 


0.080 



CASE 730A-01 



3-9 



4N29, 4N29A, 4N30, 4N31, 4N32, 4N32A, 4N33 



LED CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


'Reverse Leakage Current 

(Vr = 3.0 V, R L = 1.0 M ohms) 


|R 


- 


0.005 


100 


ma 


'Forward Voltage 
(If = 50 mA) 


v F 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(Vr = V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


C 


- 


150 


- 


pF 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS it a = 25°c and i F = o 


unless othe 


wise noted) 








Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


'Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(Vce = 10 V, Base Open) 


'ceo 


- 


8.0 


100 


nA 


'Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
dc = 100 mA, l E = 0) 


v (BR)CBO 


30 


110 


- 


Volts 


'Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100 mA, l B = 0) 


v (BR)CEO 


30 


75 


- 


Volts 


'Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 mA, l B = 0) 


v (BR)ECO 


5.0 


8.0 


- 


Volts 


DC Current Gain 

(V CE = 5.0 V, l c = 500 mA) 


hFE 


— 


15 K 


— 


— 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS i 



T A = 25"C unle 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


'Collector Output Current (1) 4N32, 4N33 
(Vce = 10 V, lp = mA, l B =0) 4N29, 4N30 

4N31 


'C 


50 
10 
5.0 


80 
40 


" 


mA 


Isolation Surge Voltage (2, 5) 
(60 Hz ac Peak, 5 Seconds) 

*4N29, 4N32 
*4N30, 4N31,4N33 


v ISO 


7500 
2500 
1500 


- 


- 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (2) 
(V = 500 V) 


- 


- 


10" 


" 


Ohms 


'Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage (1) 4N31 
(IC = 2.0 mA, lp = 8.0 mA) 4N29, 4N39, 4N32, 4N33 


v CE(sat) 


_ 


0.8 
0.8 


1.2 
1.0 


Volts 


Isolation Capacitance (2) 
(V = 0, f = 1.0 MHz) 


— 


- 


0.8 


- 


pF 


Bandwidth (3) 

dC = 2.0 mA, Rl = 100 ohms. Figures 6 and 8) 


" 


— 


30 


- 


kHz 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS (Figures 7 and 9), (4) 



Turn-On Time 

(l c = 50 mA, l F = 200 mA, V cc = 10 V) 


•on 


- 


2.C 


5.0 


MS 


Turn-Off Time 

(l c = 50 mA, lp = 200 mA, V cc = 10 V) 4N29, 30, 31 

4N32, 33 


'off 


" 


25 
60 


40 
100 


MS 



• Indicates JEDEC Registered Data. 

(1) Pulse Test: Pulse Width = 300 ms, Duty Cycle < 2.0%. 

(2) For this test, LED pins 1 and 2 are common and phototransistor pins 4, 5, and 6 are common. 

(3) l F adjusted to yield l c = 2.0 mA and i c = 2.0 mA P-P at 10 kHz. 

(4) t d and t r are inversely proportional to the amplitude of l F ; t s and tf are not significantly affected by l F . 

(5) Isolation Surge Voltage, V| SO , is an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



DC CURRENT TRANSFER 

FIGURE 2 - 4N29, 4N30. 4N31 CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 3 - 4N32, 4N33 







= 




























1 





















20 
10 










































25 


°Cn 




















5.0 






















-- 






































-15 








2.0 
1.0 






































1 










= 






-5 


I 

°C 








0.5 


































































































01 

































2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 
IF, FORWARD DIODE CURRENT (mA) 





EVCE 


1 1 






















50 








































-T 


= 75° 












E 20 

rP "> 


































25°C 

= 4— S^ 




Vjj 










3 5.0 














































5° 








fe 2.0 










































-55°C 








































" 0.5 






























































































0.1 































0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 
IF, FORWARD DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



3-10 



4N29, 4N29A, 4N30, 4N31, 4N32, 4N32A, 4N33 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

(Printed Circuit Board Mounting) 



FIGURE 4 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTIC 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER CUTOFF CURRENT 



22 
_2 

!'■» 

§ 1.6 
o 

> 

14 
1.2 
10 






i F . INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA| 



10 3 


— -T— 1 
— VCE = 


OV 



























— IF = 


















S 102 




















=5 






























£ io 1 


















































= 2 io° 
























S5 
^ u io-' 






























S ,0-2 




























































,0"' 












1 
















60 


-40 


-20 +20 +40 
T A . AMBIENT TEMPERATURE CO 




60 


+BU 



FIGURE 6 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE 




,0 2 3 5.0 7.0 ,0 20 30 50 70 100 

f, FREQUENCY (kHz) 



FIGURE 7 - SWITCHING TIMES 




1000 
500 










£= 




Vcc= iov 


— 


















IF = 41c _.. 


inn 








= u= 






^ Note 4; 


;,-: 


50 


t 




' 20 








f 




rnw^kL + - 


* : T^iI"" 


= 1 




— . 








'^w^m^tt" 


I'llta 
























^ 








td- 








TfRi^l 1 1 r- 




- — 


1.0 
05 






— t 


N2 


9/33 






, r rfti 1 i i= 


J-Fr 




0.2 
0.1 












-■H 




-mtt 









IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 8 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT 



CONSTANT 
CURRENT 
INPUT N.C. V CC 

O <?+10V 



I.OpF 



IC (DC) = 2.0 mA 

i c (AC SINE WAVE) -- 2.0 mA P.P. 




FIGURE 9 - SWITCHING TIME TEST CIRCUIT 



PULSE 
INPUT 



Ro 

OA/W- 



LE0 
2 I 



y-\ 



J 



VCC 
O t,0V 

| R L 

"U \ PULSE 

"1 OUTPUT 

I 

I PHOTO 
TRANSISTOR 






n 



PULSE ( 
WIDTHf 



3-11 



4N29, 4N29A, 4N30, 4N31, 4N32, 4N32A, 4N33 



TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 
FIGURE 10 - VOLTAGE CONTROLLED TRIAC 



51 1 



O— VW- 



10k 
-V\A< 1 



X 



IX- 



/ 



I I I 1.0 k 




FIGURE 11 -AC SOLID STATE RELAY 




Q2 
MPSA42 



\y 02 



<» MT2 



60 Hz AC POWER 



"" 1N4003 IT 

GATE / 
■• • — ' i> N 



2N6165 
MTi 



FIGURE 12 - OPTICALLY COUPLED ONE SHOT 



51 , r~" 



o — wv- 



~l c 



V 



X 




-wv ♦ — <wv- 

4.7 k I 10k 



o.oi mF 47k: 



PULSE WIOTH 
t = 5 RC 



FIGURE 13- ZERO VOLTAGE SWITCH 



T- 



1.3V 

@ 
2.0 mA 



> 4- 



4— VW 

4.7 k 



10 k ^ 10 k 

3 



100 uf 
15 V 



\ ] 15 V 

-vb_i_L. 



r " v t 



60 Hz 
AC POWER 



5.0 k \ tor p 
4W ( 120 VAC S 
R S | 10 k I for >£ 
] 8W I 230 VAC T 



3-12 



® 



MOTOROLA 



4N35 
4N36 
4N37 



NPN PHOTOTRANSISTOR AND 
PN INFRARED EMITTING DIODE 

...gallium-arsenide LED optically coupled to a silicon photo- 
transistor designed for applications requiring electrical isolation, 
high-current transfer ratios, small package size and low cost such as 
interfacing and coupling systems, phase and feedback controls, 
solid-state relays and general-purpose switching circuits. 

• High Electrical Isolation V|so = 7500 V (Min) 

• High Transfer Ratio — 

100% (min) @ lp = 10 mA, Vqe = 10 V 

• Low Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage - 

VCE(sat) = 0.3 Vdc (max) @ | F = 10 mA, Iq = 0.5 mA 

• UL Recognized File Number E5491 5 



MAXIMUM RATINGS IT A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 

L_ Rating | Symbol 

MNFRARED-EMITTER DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



'PHOTOTRANSISTOR MAXIMUM RATINGS 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

TRANSISTOR OUTPUT 




Reverse Voltage 


VRB 


6.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


if 


60 


mA 


Forward Current — Peak 

Pulse Width = 1 .0 ms, 2.0% Duty Cycle 


if 


3.0 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation <s> T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


pd 


100 

1.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Total Power Dissipation @> Trj = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
1.3 


mW 
mW/°C 



isnsiiai 



O 



— JfU 



STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. AN00E 

2. CATHODE 

3. NC 

4. EMITTER 

5. COLLECTOR 

6. BASE 



m. 



StS3T£ 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


7.0 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


70 


Volts 


Output Current — Continuous 


'C 


100 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation <s> T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


300 
4.0 


mW 
mW/°C 


Total Power Dissipation <s> Jq = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


pd 


500 
6.7 


mW 
mW/°C 


TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 









•Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 


25°C 




PD 


300 


mW 


Derate above 25°C 








3.3 


mW/°C 


Input to Output Isolation Voltage 


, Surge 




v ISO 






60 Hz Peak ac, 5 seconds 








7500 


Volts 


JEDEC Registered 


4N35 = 


3500 V 






Vpk 


Data @ 8 ms 


4N36 = 


2500 V 








4N37 = 


1500 V 








"Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


°C 


'Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°C 


•Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 



ri 



^Uld^ f 



mn 



* 



NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE DATUMS. 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TOLERANC ES FOR LEA0S: 
l+M.0 0.1 3 (0^005)(ji)| T | A(»ft|B(jii) [ 

4. 0IMENSI0N L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND T0LERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN ' MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 
B 


8.13 8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


C 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0200 


U 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


F 


1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 6SC 


0. 100 BSC 


J 


0.20 1 0.30 


0.008 | 0.012 


K 


2.54 | 3.81 


0.100 1 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


300 BSC 


M 


Oo | 150 


00 
0.015 


150 


N 


0.38 1 2.54 


0.100 


L'j 


1.27 


2m 


0.050 


0.080 



CASE 730A 01 



'Indicates JEDEC Registered Data 



3-13 



4N35, 4N36, 4N37 



Characteristic 1 


Symbol | 


Min | 


Typ l 


Max | 


Unit | 


LED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 








•Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R =6.0 V) 


'R 


~ 


0.005 


10 


ma 


"Forward Voltage 
(l F = 10 mA) 

(l F = 10mA,T A = -55°C) 
(l F = 10 mA, T A = 100°C) 


v F 


0.8 
0.9 
0.7 


1.2 


1.5 
1.7 
1.4 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(V R =0 V,f = 1.0 MHz) 


C 


" 


150 




pF 


•PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C and l F = unless otherwise noted) 








Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(V CE = 10 V, Base Open) 
(Vce = 3° v - Base °P en ' T A = 100°C) 


'CEO 


- 


3.5 


50 
500 


nA 
MA 


Collector-Base Dark Current 
(Vcb = 10 V ■ Emitter Open) 


'CBO 


— 




20 


nA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100 mA, I e = 0) 


V(BR)CBO 


70 


" 




Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 1.0 mA, l B = 0) 


v (BR)CEO 


30 


" 




Volts 


Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 uA, Ib =0) 


YtBRIEBO 


7.0 


8.0 




Volts 


•COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 








Current Transter Ratio 

(V CE = 10 V, l F = 10 mA) 

(V C E = 10 V, l F = 10 mA, T A = -55°C) 

(V CE = 10 V, l F = 10 mA, T A = 100°C) 


"C/'F 


1.0 
0.4 
0.4 


1.2 


- 




Input to Output Isolation Current (2) (3) 

(V io = 3550V pk ) 4N35 
(V io = 2500 V pk ) 4N36 
(V lo = 1500V pk ) 4N37 


•lO 


- 


- 


100 
100 
100 


MA 


Isolation Resistance (2) 
(V = 500 V) 


Rio 


ion 


_ 




Ohms 


Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage 
dC = 0.5 mA, l F =■ 10 mA) 


VcE(sat) 


— 


0.14 


0.3 


Volts 


Isolation Capacitance (2) 
(V = 0,f = 1.0 MHz) 


- 


— 


1.3 


2.5 


pF 


•SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS (Figure 1 ) 








Turn-On Time 

(Vcc= 10V,lc = 2.0mA,R L = 100n) 


l on 


— 


4.0 


10 


MS 


Turn-Off Time 

(Vpc = 10 V, lc = 2.0 mA, R(_ = 100 n) 


toff 




4.0 


10 


MS 



•Indicates JEDEC Registered Data. 

NOTES: 1. Pulse Test: Pulse Width = 300 ms. Duty Cycle < 2.0%. 

2. For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and phototransistor pins 4, 5, and 6 are common. 

3. Pulse Width < 8.0 ms. 



3-14 



4N35. 4N36, 4N37 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 1 - SWITCHING TIMES TEST CIRCUIT 



FIGURE 2 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



K _>^ *— O Output 



1 > — Input Pul: 



1 



V — 90% 



Test Circuit — 

Vary Input Pulse 
Amplitude for Various 
Collector Currents 



Output 

-|-V-10% 

M I I 

■>— ^ f— — ►) j«-*off 

Voltage Wave Forms 



































22 

o 






























































< 

| _2 






























































EOUSF 

E (VOLT 
































_... 






























ANTAN 
OLTAG 































i 























z 14 






































12 












l\-~fl 














































10 































10 100 

if. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 3 - COLLECTOR SATURATION REGION 



(2 0.5 


































> 

S 0-4 

< 


































































O 

c 0.3 


IA-' 
lF_ 
































C 






























s 

" 02 
o 




































































































s "■' 












1 








































> 



































0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 

IC. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 4- COLLECTOR BASE CURRENT 
versus INPUT CURRENT 















































































3 100 








\ 


'C8 = 1 
A = 25 


nv 


























z 








T 


c ] 
































































cc 






































o 




































UJ 






































CO 10 






































CC 
























































































































































d 












































































» 1.0 






































05 



















































































































2.0 5.0 10 

If, INPUT CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR LEAKAGE CURRENT 
versus TEMPERATURE 





f 


= 


= 


= 


= 
















T A = 25°C 
l F = 










































2 51,000 














£ 3 








= VCE 


= 30 


lAc^i 










£ ^ 


























"J o 100 
cc z 






= 20 V( 
















u Z 






\-**l 


























































S3 if 








O^IOVdc- 












o 






















CJ 


































































10 























10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 30 100 110 
T A . AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



FIGURE 6 - COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS 



50 

1 2° 

5 i.o 

5 0.6 

£ 0.2 

01 
o 

S 0.05 

< 

1 0.02 
o 

* 001 
0005 























l i 


! II I I II I 








-4- 




-. . 












! I J U 'I 












t- ■ 












| 


r^ ip = 2u 


mA 
















T ;< 




























"lOmAt: 


— 






— -t— 
















P 












— 1- 












■• 1 1 1| t 






5.0 mA" 






















I ' ' ; 










— 




























--] 


















! I i 


ft- | 




















-" 














+H= 






"1 


0mA[ 




















35 


i ! 
















































! I 


\ j 










=H 




'" r ! 7 


Z =F¥= 








+- 













0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 20 5.0 10 

V CE , COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



3-15 



4N35, 4N36, 4N37 



TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 



FIGURE 7 - ISOLATED MTTL TO MOS 
(P-CHANNEL) LEVEL TRANSLATOR 



FIGURE 8 -COMPUTER/PERIPHERAL INTERCONNECT 



FROM MTTL |~ H ~| 5 

LOGIC | X 

(5.0 mA PULSE) | -f" " 



4 MPS6516 TO MOS CIRCUIT 



4N35 
4N36 
4N37 



Y 



| 300 V. 

I TWISTED PAIR 




FIGURE 9 - POWER AMPLIFIER 




FIGURE 10 - INTERFACE BETWEEN LOGIC AND LOAD 



>X 



J I 2N6240 ^f 



4N35 
4N36 
4N37 



INDUCT 
L0A0 



3-16 



® 



MOTOROLA 



OPTICAL COUPLER WITH NPN 
TRANSISTOR OUTPUT 

. . . gallium-arsenide LED optically coupled to a silicon photo- 
transistor. Designed for applications requiring electrical isolation, 
high breakdown voltage and low leakage such as teletypewriter 
interfacing, telephone line pulsing and driving high-voltage relays. 

• High Isolation Voltage — 

V|SO = 7500 V (Min) 

• High Collector Emitter Breakdown Voltage - 

v (BR)CEO = 80V(Min) 

• Economical Dual-in-Line Package 

• 4N38A UL Recognized, File Number E54915 



•MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 
I Baling | Symbol | 

INFRARED EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


30 


Volts 


Forward Current - Continuous 


if 


80 


mA 


Forward Current - Peak 

Pulse Width = 300 fis. 20% Duty Cvcle 


if 


30 


Amp 


Teal Device Dissipation <a> T A =25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


150 
20 


mW 
mW/°C 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


80 


Volts 


Emitter Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


70 


Volts 


Collector Base Voltage 


v CBO 


80 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A " 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


150 
20 


mW 
mW/°C 



TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 



Total Device Dissipation <a T A = 25°C 
Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 
3.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to M50 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10s) 




260 


°C 



•Indicates JEDEC Regis 



FIGURE 1 - MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION 













I 














tA -■ ?5 


U C 


























M 


°C 


























7 


°C 










L 
















\ 
















\ 



PQ2. AVERAGE POWER DISSIPATION I 



Figure 1 is based upon using limit 
values in the equation: 
Tjl - T A = R 0JA (P D1 + K e P D2 ) 
where 

Tji Junction Temperature (100°C) 
T/\ Ambient Temperature 
^tfjA Junction to Ambient Thermal 

Resistance (500°C/W) 
Pqi Power Dissipation in One Chip 
Pq2 Power Dissipation in Other Chip 
Kq Thermal Coupling Coefficient 
(20%) 
Example 

With P D1 = 90 mW in the LED 
@ T A - 50°C, the transistor 
PD <PD2> must °e 'ess than 50 mW. 



4N38 
4N38A 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

TRANSISTOR OUTPUT 




igiiSift 




STYLE 1: 




PIN 1. 


ANODE 


2. 


CATHODE 


3. 


NC 


4. 


EMITTER 


6. 


COLLECTOR 


6. 


BASE 




NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND 8 ARE OATUMS 
2 T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL T OLERANC ES FOR LEAOS: 
[t£J0 0.13(6.005 )(M)|T r j A^B®] 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14. 5, 1973 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


8.13 


8.89 


JU20 


0.350 


8 


6 10 


6.60 


0.24¥^ 


0.260 


C 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 | 0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 0.020 


F 


1 02 


1.78 


0.040 | 0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


0.20 1 0.30 


0.008 | 0.012 


K 


2.54 1 3.81 


0.100 1 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


00 1 15° 


0° 1 150 
0.015 1 0.100 


N 


0.38 I 2.54 


P , 1.27 | 2.03 


0.050 0.080 



3-17 



4N38, 4N38A 



LED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Mm 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


"Reverse Leakage Current 
<V R = 3.0 V) 


|R 


~ 


0.005 


100 


M 


"Forward Voltage 
( l F = 10mA 1 


v F 


~ 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(V R - V, f = 1.0MHz) 


C 




150 




pF 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C and lp = unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


"Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(V C e = 60 V, Base Open) 


'CEO 


- 


3.5 


50 


nA 


"Collector-Base Dark Current 
<Vcb = 60 v . Emitter Open) 


'CBO 


- 


_ 


_ 


nA 


"Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100mA, Ie = 0) 


V(BR)CBO 


80 


120 


— 


Volts 


"Collector Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l c -= 1.0mA, l B = 0) 


v (BR)CEO 


80 


90 


— 


Volts 


"Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 

He = iooma, i b = o) 


V(BR)ECO 


7.0 


8.0 


~ 


Volts 


DC Current Gain 

(V CE = 5.0 V, l c = 500mA) 


hFE 




250 







COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Isolation Surge Voltage (2, 3) 

(60 Hz Peak ac, 5 Seconds) (3) 4N38, A 
*(60 Hz Peak ac) *4N38 

•4N38A 
"(60 Hz RMS for 1 second) *4N38A 


v ISO 


7500 
1500 
2500 
1775 


- 


- 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (2) 
(V- 500 V) 


- 


- 


ion 


- 


Ohms 


"Collector-Emitter Saturation 
(l c = 4.0mA, l F = 20 mA) 


v CE(sat) 


- 


- 


1.0 


Volts 


Isolation Capacitance (2) 
(V = 0, f = 1.0MHz) 


~~ 


" 


1.3 




pF 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



Delay Time 
Rise Time 


(l c = 10mA, V CC = 10V) 
Figures 6 and 8 


td 


- 


0.07 
0.8 


- 


MS 
MS 


Storage Time 
Fall Time 


(l c = 10mA, V cc = 10V) 
Figures 7 and 8 


ts 
tf 


~ 


4.0 
7.0 


: 


MS 
MS 



"Indicates JEDEC Registered Data. (1) Pulse Test; Pulse Width = 300 ms. Duty Cycle « 2.0%. 

(2) For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and Photo Transistor pins 4, 5 and 6 are common. 

(3) Isolation Surge Voltage, V|go. is an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



TYPICAL TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - COLLECTOR-CURRENT versus 
DIODE FORWARD CURRENT 



_:: 




....... 




':; 


\ 


-- 


- 


















- VCE= 10 V 




--* 










- 






























- 


- 


:■-: 


: : --: 


— - 


— - 































































T 


= -55 U C 




















..... 
















0° 
































= = , 


r:rr-^ 












-in 


: :..:. 















■-■-^A 








... 














. :"'.- 






















































5"C 








._.. 


























































































-\ 


■--r: 




~ 




— --: 


-:::::- - 








— 































0.5 10 



.0 5.0 10 20 50 100 

Ip, FORWARD DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 3 - COLLECTOR-CURRENT versus 
COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE 



2b 


































IF = 5 


]mA 






























15 


























































20 


mA 




















1 




















10 mA 




















1 







































1 





2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10 
VCE, COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



3-18 



4N38, 4N38A 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR SATURATION VOLTAGE 





































22 
































































1 


20 


































































1.8 


































































16 






































































































































12 


































































1 n 



































10 100 

ip. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA| 







I 
1 


n 


1 
25 If 


n 


! Mil 


























I 


- = 50 1 C 
























FITTER 
VOLTS 










"" T J " 
































o < 0.6 
































































--^ 










S o 0.4 




























/ 






































/ 








UJ Z3 






















— 


■» 


-'' 






















































































0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 6 - TURN-ON TIME 



FIGURE 7 -TURN-OFF TIME 



























1 

vcc = 


ov 






= Tj = 


20 lc: 
!5°C; 




















































































































































"*■"*>•, 









































































































































































































0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 

















V CC = 10 V 
= = = If = 20 ic = 

: : = Tj = 25'c ; 


























































































































































































' 


N 







































































































0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAI 



FIGURE 8 - SATURATED SWITCHING TIME 
TEST CIRCUIT 



Rn.md Ri VARIED TO OBTAIN OESIREO CURRENT LEVELS 



^ 



K " 



1 



_l 



FIGURE 9 - DARK CURRENT versus 
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 



























































































































CE = 10V 
l F = 



















































>B = 


































































































































1 ■ 




















































































































*~ 













































































-50 -25 + 25 +50 +75 +100 

Ta. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



3-19 



4N38, 4N38A 



TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 

The applications below utilize the 80 volt breakdown capability of the 4N38 and 4N38A elimin- 
ating the need for divider networks, zener diodes and the associated assembly costs. 



FIGURE 10 - TYPICAL TELETYPE INTERFACE 




70 V NPN Boost 



_^ 1 




6 


I 


T " 


i. 










D 


|l-5*^^ 












~i 






2 


4 




5 


i rr 


J MPS-A56 


70 V 


PNP Boost 




l/ 




V k 








3 

c 


\ 


Hv 


4 


^1 


( 


'< 



















R1 = 1.1 kH, 5.0 W for a 60 mA Systen 



FIGURE 11 - TELEPHONE LINE PULSE CIRCUIT 



_rL_n 




MPS-U06 / i[ /6 i 

or 
2N5681 



100 12 
2.0 W T 
— AAA. 



68 V - 1.0 W 
N4760 



Battery Feed 
Relay 

250 n 



FIGURE 12 - 4-AMPERE SOLENOID DRIVER 




3-20 



M) MOTOROLA 




PLASTIC NPN SILICON PHOTO TRANSISTORS 

. . . designed for applications in industrial inspection, processing and 
control, counters, sorters, switching and logic circuits or any design re- 
quiring extremely high radiation sensitivity, and stable characteristics. 

• Economical Plastic Package 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wide Application 

• Range of Radiation Sensitivities and Voltages for Design Flexibility 

• TO-92 Clear Plastic Package for Standard Mounting 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 

• Ideal Companion to the MLED92, 93, 94, and 95 IR Emitter 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Rating 


Symbol 


L14H1.3 


L14H2.4 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


60 


30 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


60 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


5.0 


5.0 


Volts 


Light Current 


'L 


- ^Xrt - 


mA 




Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


-^ 200 »- 


mW 
mW/°C 




Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


Tj.Tstg' 1 ' 


-65 to +100 


°C 



•Indicates JE DEC Registered Data. 
(1 ) Heat Sink should be applied to leads dur 
from exceeding 100°C. 



ng soldering to prevent case temperature 



FIGURE 1 - NORMALIZED LIGHT CURRENT versus 
RADIATION FLUX DENSITY 



































































I I I 
































r A = 25" 




























5.0 


































V 


/ 
































































2.0 
















9 


00 n 


nSOU 


RCE 












































































































































































































0.5 
















































































































0.2 






















287 


D°K 


T 


JN 


G 


Tt 


NSOU 


RCE 






































01 







































02 0.5 0.7 10 2.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 

H. RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 



L14H1 

thru 

L14H4 



TO-92 
PHOTO TRANSISTORS 

NPN SILICON 



0054 
0.064" 



°-°5Zdi 

0.067 



0.057 
067 



D.e Placement Will Bi 
Within the Boundane 
ot the Dotted Citcle 





STYLE 14: 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. COLLECTOR 

3. BASE 



NOTES: 

1. CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND ZONE "P" 

2. IS UNCONTROLLED. 

DIM "F" APPLIES BETWEEN "H" AND 
"L". DIM "D" & "S" APPLIES BETWEEN 
"L" & 12.70 mm (0.5") FROM SEATING 
PLANE. LEAD DIM IS UNCONTROLLED 
IN "H"& BEYOND 12.70 mm (0.5") 
FROM SEATING PLANE. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


4 32 


5.33 


0.170 


0.210 


B 


4.44 


5.21 


0.175 


0.205 


C 


3.18 


4.19 


0.125 


0.165 





0.41 


0.56 


0.016 


0.022 


F 


0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


G 


1.14 


1.40 


0.045 


0.055 


H 


- 


2.54 


- 


0.100 


J 


2.41 


2.67 


0.095 


0.105 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


6.35 


- 


0.250 


- 


N 


2.03 


2.92 


0.080 


0.115 


P 


2.92 


- 


0.115 


- 


FS 


-3.43 


_ 


0.135 


_ 


S 


0.36 


0.41 


0.014 


0.016 



All JEDEC dimensions and notes apply. 

CASE 29-02 

T092 



3-21 



L14H1 THRU L14H4 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current (Note 2) 
(Vce = 10 V) 


id 




~ 


100 


nA 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage (Note 2) 

(l c = 10mA) L14H2.4 

L14H1, 3 


v (BRICEO 


30 
60 


- 


- 


Volts 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage (Note 2) 

(I C = 100pA) L14H2.4 
(lp = 0) U4H1, 3 


v (BR)CBO 


30 
60 


- 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage (Note 2) 
(l E = 100 mA, lc ^ 0) 


V(BR)EBO 


5.0 


_ 


" 


Volts 


Saturation Voltage 

(IC = 10 mA, Ib = 1.0 mA) 


v CE(sat) 






0.4 


Volts 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted ) 


Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Light Current (Notes 1,4,5) 

(V CE = 5.0 V, R L = 100 H) L14H1.4 

L14H2, 3 


lL 


0.5 
2.0 




- 


mA 


Turn-On Time (Note 3) 


(V C £ = 30 V, l L = 800 mA, 

R L = 1.0 k<2) 


'on 


- 


- 


8.0 


/JS 


Turn-Off Time (Note 3) 


'off 


- 


- 


7.0 


/JS 



NOTES: 

1. Radiation Flux Density (HI equal to 10 mW/cm emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (H=s0). 

3. For unsaturated rise time measurements, radiation is provided by 
a pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode (A ~ 0.9 



(iml with a pulse width equal to or greater than 500 micro 

seconds 
4 Measurement mode with no electrical connection to the 

base lead 
5. Die faces curved side of package. 



FIGURE 2 - CONTINUOUS LIGHT CURRENT versus 
DISTANCE 



PULSED LIGHT CURRENT versus DISTANCE 




2.0 40 6.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 

d, DEVICE SEPARATION (mm) 




tl, DEVICE SEPARATION In 



3-22 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MLED60 
MLED90 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODES 

. . designed for applications requiring high power output, low drive 
power and very fast response time. This device is used in industrial 
processing and control, light modulators, shaft or position encoders, 
punched card and tape readers, optical switching, and logic circuits. 
It is spectrally matched for use with silicon detectors. 

• High Intensity - 550/jW/str (Typ) @ lp = 50 mA - MLED60 

350pW/str (Typ) @lp = 50 mA - MLED90 

• Infrared Emission - 930 nm (Typ) 

• Low Drive Current - Compatible with Integrated Circuits 

• Unique Molded Lens for Durability and Long Life 

• Economical Plastic Package 

• Small Size for High Density Mounting 

• Easy Cathode Identification - Wider Lead 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


30 


Volts 


Forward Current-Continuous 


if 


80 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation <5> T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


p D m 


1 20 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


Tj.Tstg 


40 to *85 


°C 



THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Characteristic ' 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


RflJAdl 


500 


°C/W 


Solder Temperature 


260°C for 3 sec 1/16" from case 



(DPnnted Circuit Board Mounting 



FIGURE 1 - INSTANTANEOUS RADIANT INTENSITY 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 




10 

< 50 
o 

< 

' 2.0 

< v. 

si 10 

5 5 02 

£-o.i 

6 005 

02 


































Tj = 25°C 
















S< 
















;j-X^ 




















































































































H 


tU9U 


















yT_S* 
















- 


' .■> 






















' 






















s 














































-O^ 












































S 






















z 


s 






















UL 
























2 


50 10 20 50 

if, INSTANTANEOUS F0 


100 200 500 
RWARD CURRENT (mA) 


1000 200 






INFRARED-EMITTING DIODES 
930 nm 

PN GALLIUM ARSENIDE 

120 MILLIWATTS 




H 




( 


C 
B 




/ 

M 


— 


J 



STYLE 2. 

PIN I ANODE 
2 CATHODE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


2.34 


2.59 


0.092 


0.102 


B 


2.11 


236 


0.083 


0.093 


C 


2 39 


264 


0.094 


0.104 


D 


0.64 


0.74 


0.025 


0.029 


F 


0.46 


0.56 


0.018 


0.022 


H 


1.57 


1.83 


0.062 


0.072 


J 


0.20 


0.30 


0.008 


0.012 


K 


9.66 


- 


0.380 


- 


M 


9° 


no 


9" 


11° 



3-23 



MLED60, MLED90 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Mm 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 
(Vr 3 V, R L 10 Megohm) 




IR 




50 


" 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Vo tage 

(Ir - 100 mA I 


~ 


V(BR)R 


30 


— 


— 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 

(IF ■■ 50 mAI 


2 


v F 


- 


1 2 


1 5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 
(Vr = V. f = 1 MHz) 


- 


c t 


— 


50 


— 


pF 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristics 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Axial Radiant Intensity 

n en ai MLED60 
'IF = 50 mA) MLED90 


1 


p o 


400 
200 


550 
350 


- 


Steradian 


Peak Emission Wavelength 


- 


Ap 


- 


930 


- 


nm 


Spectra Lme Had Width j ~~ 


A A 


- 


48 


- 


ran 



FIGURE 2 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 

I T 1 I Till 

.h 



FIGURE 3 - RADIANT INTENSITY versus 
JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 





F . INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT <mA| 



75 -60 -?5 25 50 75 100 150 

Tj JUNCTION TEMPERATURE l u CI 



FIGURE 4 - CONTINUOUS RADIANT INTENSITY 
versus FORWARDCURRENT 



\ — 


























A ?' 














































































































































































\ 


LEG 


my/" 


MLE 


3 90 














































































<-' 


























/ 






















f 




/ 
























', 


/ 
























/, 


/ 


























/ 



























FIGURE 5 - SPATIAL RADIATION PATTERN 

30° 20° 10° 1,0 10° 20° 30° 




P 1 2 4 60 10 20 40 60 80 100 

p, CONTINUOUS FORWARD CURRENT ImAI 

Output saturation effects are not evident at currents up to 2 A as shown on F igure 1 However, power output decreases due to heating of the 
semiconductor as indicated by F igure 3 To estimate output level, average lunction temperature may be calculated from: 

T JiAV T A ' "JA v f ! F D 

where D is the (lTjty cycle of the applied i urreni, f Use of the above method should be restricted to drive conditions employing pulses of 



3-24 



'M) MOTOROLA 



MLED92 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 



. . . designed for industrial processing and control applications such 
as light modulators, shaft or position encoders, end of tape detectors, 
and optical coupler applications. Supplied in TO-92 package for ease 
of mounting and compatibility with existing automatic inser- 
tion equipment. 

• High Power Output- 

P = 150 /jW (Typ) @ If = 50 mA 

• Infrared-Emission — 930 nm (Typ) 

• One Piece, Unibloc Package for High Reliability 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Rating 



Reverse Voltage 



Forward Current-Continuous 



Total Power Dissipation 3T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 



Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 



Symbol 



Pd<d 



T J T 5tg 



215 
2.86 



-65 to +100 



mW 
mW/°C 



THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Characteristic 



Thermal Resistance Junction to Ambient 



Symbol 



RflJAdl 



350 



(1) RfljAd' ' s measured with the device soldered into a typical printed circuit board. 



FIGURE 1 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL OUTPUT 

























If = 50 mA 
T A = 25°C 


j 


































/ 







































































































































880 900 



920 940 960 980 
A. WAVELENGTH (nm) 



LOW COST 
INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 

PN GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



°°L',),A 
06/ 


054 _ | "^ "* 






-- r 






0b/ 
06/ 




IIIIU 


Die Placement Will Be 


Within the Boundaries 


of the Dotted Circle 




D ~ : u 

-. i-' G 

STYLE 20: 

PIN 1. N.C. !~ -\ I 

2. CATHODE 

3. ANODE 




— N I 



SECT. A A 

L 



NOTES. 

I. CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND ZONE ' 

2 IS UNCONTROLLED. 

DIM "F" APPLIES BETWEEN "H" AND 
"L". DIM "D" & "S" APPLIES BETWEEN 
"L" S 12.70 mm (0 5") FROM SEATING 
PLANE. LEAD DIM IS UNCONTROLLED 
IN "H " & BEY0N0 12.70 mm (0.5") 
FROM SEATING PLANE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


4.32 


5.33 


0.170 


0.210 


8 


4.44 


5.21 


0.175 


0205 


C 


3.18 


4.19 


0.125 


0.165 





0.41 


056 


0.016 


0.022 


F 


0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0019 


G 


1.14 


1.40 


0.045 


0.055 


H 


_ 


254 


- 


0.100 


J 


2.41 


2.67 


0.095 


0.105 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


6.35 


- 


0.250 




N 


2.03 


2.92 


0.080 


0.115 


P 


2.92 




0.115 




R 


3.43 


- 


0.135 




S 


0.36 


0.41 


0.014 


0.016 



All JEDEC dimensions and notas apply. 

CASE 29 02 

TO 92 



3-25 



MLED92 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IT A 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Mm 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V H 3 V . H L 10 Megohm) 




|R 




50 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
H h 100 M A) 


- 


V(BR)R 


3 


- 


- 


Volts 


Instantaneous Forward Voltage (Note 3) 
(If 50 mA) 


2 


V F 


- 


1 2 


1 5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 
(V R V. f 10 MH?) 




c T 


- 


150 


- 


pF 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS ir A 


25°C unless otti 


■rwise noted) 












Characteristic 


Fig No 


Symbol 


Mm 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Total Pimu Output I Notes 1 and 3) 
(l F 50 mA) 


3 4 


p o 


50 


150 


- 


nVV 


Radiant Intensity (Note 21 
dp 50 ni A 1 




lo 




66 


- 


mW steradian 


Peak Emission Wavelength 




1 


■*p 




930 


- 


nm 


Spectral Line Half Width 


1 


A.' 


- 


48 


- 


nm 



1 Power Output. P . is the total power radiated by the device into a solid angle ot 2- steradians It is measured hy duet ting all radi, 
leaving the device within this solid angle onto a calibrated silicon solar i ell 

2 I rrd(ti.iin e trom ,, Light Emitting Oioor ' L.fc L)> i an be i ak ulated by 

l .v he re H is ir radiance in mW- cm 2 , l Q is radiant intensity in mW steradian. 

7^2 d is distam e from LED to the Uetei tor in cm 

3 Pulse Test Pulse Width- 300 u 5 D uty Cy i le - 2 „ 



FIGURE 2 FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 




10 100 10k 

iF. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 3 - POWER OUTPUT versus JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 



~ 


1 i 


1 ] f 


I 


'" "T 1 


: 


t^v * 


■ T" 
- + 


1 , 


- — 


1 


-t 
-■+ - 




♦ 


._.. + , 


_n'^ 


- 


-J ♦ 

i i 


! i 


... . 4 . _ 


- 1 1 



-/5 -50 25 u 25 50 lb 100 150 

Tj. JUNCTION TEMPERATURE i"C) 



FIGURE 4 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 



FIGURE 5 - SPATIAL RADIATION PATTERN 




2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 

F INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT imAI 




3-26 



'M) MOTOROLA 



MLED93 
MLED94 
MLED95 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 

. . . designed for industrial processing and control applications such 
as light modulators, shaft or position encoders, end of tape detectors, 
and optical coupler applications. Supplied in TO-92 package for ease 
of mounting and compatibility with existing automatic insertion 
equipment. 

• High Power Output — (Typ) 

MLED93 — 3 0mW 
MLED94 — 5.0 mW 
MLED95 — 7.0mW 
@ If = 1 00 mA (duty cycle ^2.0%) 

• Infrared-Emission — 930 nm (Typ) 

• One-Piece, Unibloc Package for High Reliability 



LOW COST 
INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 

PN GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



05?. 
06' 



054 
064 " 



05 7 
06' 



Die Placement Will Be 
Within the Boundaries 
of the Dotted Circle. 




MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


VR 


6.0 


Volts 


Forward Current-Continuous 


if 


100 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


pd<D 


215 
286 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J T stg 


-65 to +100 


°C 



THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance Junction to Ambient 


RwaO) 


350 


°C/W 


(1)RgjA(1) is measured with the device soldered into a typical printed circuit board 



FIGURE 1 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL OUTPUT 



CD 

i02 

























■F = E 


OmA 


















T fl = 25-C 





























































































































































900 920 940 

A. WAVELENGTH (nm| 




STYLE 20: 
PIN 1. N.C. 

2. CATHODE 

3. AN00E 



NOTES: 

1. CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND ZONE "P" 

2 IS UNCONTROLLED. 

DIM "F" APPLIES BETWEEN "H" AND 
"L". DIM "0" & "S" APPLIES BETWEEN 
"L" & 12.70 mm (0 5"l FROM SEATING 
PLANE LEAD DIM IS UNCONTROLLED 
IN "H"& BEYOND 12.70 mm (0.5") 
FROM SEATING PLANE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


432 


5.33 


0.170 


0.210 


R 


444 


5.21 


0.175 


0205 


C 


3.18 


4.19 


0.125 


0.165 





0.41 


056 


0.016 


0.022 


F 


0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


G 


1.14 


1.40 


0.045 


0.055 


H 


- 


2.54 


- 


0.100 


J 


2.41 


2.67 


0095 


105 


K 


12.70 


_ 


0.500 




I 


6.35 


- 


0.250 


- 


N 


2.03 


2.92 


0.080 


0115 


P 


292 


_ 


0.115 


- 


R 


3.43 


_ 


0.135 


- 


S 


0.36 


0.41 


0.014 


0.016 



All JEDEC dimensions and notes apply. 

CASE 29 02 

T092 



3-27 



MLED93, MLED94, MLED95 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A 25 C unless otherwise noted) 

Characteristic Fig No Symbol 

Reverse Leakage Current 1 lp 

(V R 6 V R L ■ 1 Megohm) 

Reverse Breakdown Voltage V (BR)R 

Or - 100 pAl 
Instantaneous Forward Voltage 2 ' vp 

(lp 50 itiA) 
Total Capacitance I Cy 

(V R V, f 10 MHz) 

OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A 25 C unless otherwise noted) 



Mm 



Characteristic 

Total Power Output (Notes 1 and 3) 
(l F 100 mA) 



Radiant Intensity (Notes 2 and 3) 
(l F 100 mAI 



Peak Emission Wavelength 
Spectral Line Half Width 

NOTE: 

1 Power Output P ib the total power radiated 

2 Irradiance from a Light Emitting Diode ILEDl 

I,, where H is irradiance in mW cm 2 
H ~^- 

d 2 d is distance from LED to the detect 

3 Pulse Test Pulse Width 300 ..s Duty Cycle 



Fig No 

3 4 



MLED93 
MLED94 
MLED95 

MLED93 
MLED94 
MLED95 



Symbol 

Pr, 



Min 

2 
4 
6 



Typ 



1 3 
150 



Typ 

3 
5 
7 

13 2 
22 
30 8 
930 
48 



nA 
Volts 
Volts 

pF 



nW steradian 



FIGURE 2 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



100 



if. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT imAi 
FIGURE 4 INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 




FIGURE 3 POWER OUTPUT versus 
JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 

T ' T " "T- 

t ■ t 




.:M. '!!)■'. II ■.•(>[ RATIIiii ' t. 
SPATIAL RADIATION PATTERN 

io° o to ?n° 30° 

- -. — , - .._-..-■..--.■ 




2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 

ip. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT imAi 



3-28 



M) MOTOROLA 




MLED900 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 

. . . designed for applications requiring high power output, low drive 
power and very fast response time. This device is used in industrial 
processing and control, light modulators, shaft or position encoders, 
punched card readers, optical switching, and logic circuits. It is 
spectrally matched for use with silicon detectors. 

• High Power Output - 550 ^W (Typ) @ lp = 50 mA 

• Infrared Emission — 930 nm (Typ) 

• Low Drive Current - 1 mA for 1 20 mW (Typ) 

• Unique Molded Lens for Durability and Long Life 

• Economical Plastic Package 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 
930 nm 

PN GALLIUM ARSENIDE 
120 MILLIWATTS 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current-Continuous 


If 


80 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ Ta = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd<i> 


120 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


Tj.T stg <2) 


-40 to +85 


°C 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 


Characteristic 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance. Junction to Ambient 


<?JA 


500 


°C/W 



(1 ) Printed Circuit Board Mounting 

(2) HeetSink should be applied to leads during soldering to prevent Case Temperature 
exceeding 85°C. 



I 
3 08 

CE 

c: 

5 06 

s 

o 
= 02 


86 


FIGURE 1 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL OUTPUT 






























i F = 5 


mA 


















T A -- 25-"C 


/ 














i 




































i 


















I A 




































/\ 


















I 


















900 920 940 960 
A. WAVELENGTH |nm| 


98 








STYLE 2: 

PIN 1. ANODE 
2. CATHODE 




LEAD IDENTIFICATION: SQUARE 
BONDING PAD OVER PIN 2. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


3.56 


4.06 


0.140 


0.160 


C 


4.57 


533 


0.180 


0.210 





0.46 


0.61 


0.018 


0.024 


F 


0.23 


0.28 


0.009 


0.011 


H 


1.02 


1.27 


0.040 


0.050 


K 


6.35 


- 


0.250 


- 


L 


0.33 


0.48 


0.013 


0.019 


Q 


1.91 N0M 


0.075 N0M 



CASE 171 02 



3-29 



MLED900 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 
(Vr = 3.0 V, R L = 1.0 Megohml 


- 


|R 


- 


50 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(Ir = 100 nA) 


- 


V (BR)R 


30 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 

dp = 50mA) 


2 


v F 


_ 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 
(V R = V, f = I.OMHzl 


- 


c T 


- 


150 


- 


pF 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 


Characteristics 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Total Power Output (Note 1) 
dp = 50 mA) 


3,4 


p o 


200 


550 


- 


nW 


Radiant Intensity (Note 2) 
(l = 10 mA) 




>0 


- 


2.4 


- 


mW/steradian 


Peak Emission Wavelength 


1 


\p 


- 


930 


- 


nm 


Spectral Line Half Width 


1 


A\ 


- 


48 


- 


nm 



NOTE: 

1 . Power Output, P , is the total power radiated by the device into a solid angle of 2rr steradians 
radiation leaving the device, within this solid angle, onto a calibrated silicon solar cell. 

2. Irradiance from a Light Emitting Diode (LED) can be calculated by: 



red by directing all 



H= I, 



where H is irradiance in mW/cmf l is radiant intensity i 
d is distance from LED to the detector in cm. 



nW/steradian; 



2.2 

o 

i 20 

o 5? 

?SI6 
?? 



FIGURE 2 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



| TT| T I 

EfE:::E:rT:::E : 

1 1 — j. 

j "jj yS~ 

i ~~ZZl ~^*""T 



10 100 

if. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 4 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 



20 








III 














! '° 








III 

Tj = 25°C 












./ 


£ 5.0 


















---■ 






















^ __ 




° 7n 
















/ 




















y 








1 '■° 






















3 0.5 












^ - 






















^ 










z . 










' 




















_^ 














£ 0.1 








,.:' 














z 






















. 0.05 






















cf 






















0.02 























FIGURE 3 - POWER OUTPUT versus JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 




Tj, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C) 



FIGURE 5 - SPATIAL RADIATION PATTERN 

30° 20° 1Q° 10 10° 20° 30° 




2.0 5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 

if. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT ImA) 

Output saturation effects are not evident at currents up to 2 A as shown on Figure 4. However, saturation does occur due to heating of the 
semiconductor as indicated by Figure 3 To estimate output level, average junction temperature may be calculated from: 

T J(AVI = T A * 9 JA v f'fD 

where D is the duty cycle of the epplied current, lp. Use of the above method should be restricted to drive conditions employing pulses of 
less than 10 Ms duration to avoid errors caused by high peak junction temperatures. 



3-30 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MLED930 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 

. . . designed for applications requiring high power output, low drive 
power and very fast response time. This device is used in industrial 
processing and control, light modulators, shaft or position encoders, 
punched card readers, optical switching, and logic circuits. It is 
spectrally matched for use with silicon detectors. 

• High-Power Output- 650, /iW (Typ) @ lp = 100 mA 

• Infrared-Emission - 900 nm (Typ) 

• Low Drive Current - 10 mA for 70 /-(W (Typ) 

• Popular TO-18 Type Package for Easy Handling and Mounting 

• Hermetic Metal Package for Stability and Reliability 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Ratinq 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


1 

3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current-Continuous 


if 


150 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation (3 T A = 25°C 
Derate above ?5°C 


Pd'1) 


250 
9 5 


mW 
mW/°r. 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J. T s tg 


-65 to +125 


°C 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 


Characteristics 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


<?JA 


400 


°C/W 



(l)Printed Circuit Board Mounting 



□ 




FIGURE 1 - 


RELATIVE SPECTRAL OUTPUT 






1.0 
0.8 
























IF -50 mA 
T A = 25°C 


































< 
o 


0.6 




































































o 


0.4 




































































3 
o 


07 




















































































































80 


840 


880 920 960 


1,00 








X, WAVELENGTH (nm) 





INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 

900 nm 

PN GALLIUM ARSENIDE 

250 MILLIWATTS 



CONVEX LENS 





STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. ANODE 
PIN 2. CATHODE 

NOTES: 

1. PIN 2 INTERNALLY CONNECTED 
TO CASE 

2. LEADS WITHIN 0.13 mm (0.005) 
RADIUS OF TRUE POSITION AT 
SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM 
MATERIAL CONDITION. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


B 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


5.08 


6.35 


0.200 


0.250 


D 


0.41 


0.48 


0.0 IE 


0.019 


F 


0.51 


1.02 


0.020 


0.040 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.10H BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° BSC 


45° BSC 



CASE 209-01 



3-31 



MLED930 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R = 3.0 V] 


- 


|R 


- 


2.0 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 

<I R = 100 nA) 


_ 


V(BR)R 


3.0 


8.8 


~ 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(l F = 50mAI 


2 


v F 


" 


1.25 


15 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 
(V R = V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


- 


c T 


- 


150 


- 


pF 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unlessotherwise noted) 


Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Total Power Output (Note 1) 
(lp = 100 mAI 


3, 4 


Po 


200 


650 




nW 


Radiant Intensity (Note 2) 
(l F = 100 mAI 




'o 




1.5 




mW/steradian 


Peak Emission Wavelength 


1 


xp 




900 




nm 


Spectral Line Half Width 


1 


AA 




40 




nm 



1 Power Output, P , is the total power radiated by the device into a solid angle of 2n steradians It is measured by directing all radiation 
leaving the device, within this solid angle, onto a calibrated silicon solar cell 

2 Irradiance from a Light Emitting Diode (LED) can be calculated by: 

l where H is irradiance in mW/cm 2 ; l is radiant intensity in mW/steradian; 
h2 d is distance from LED to the detector in cm 



FIGURE 2 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



5 2.0 
o 


































| 1.6 










Tj 


= 25°C 






















































> 

£ 1.2 
< 

s 
































































o 

w 0.8 

o 


































































< 

£ 0.4 

< 


































































Z 





































500 1000 2000 



if, INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 
FIGURE 4 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 



-,0.05 
0.02 





— 14 

= = :Tj = 


1 

25°C2 




















^ 


?'- 










^ 


7* — H 


























































,-■- 


? - -Hj- 













FIGURE 3 - POWER OUTPUT versus JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 



J.U 


















2.0 


































1.0 




















































0.7 


































0.5 


































01 



















i -50 -25 25 50 75 100 

Tj, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C) 
FIGURE 5 - SPATIAL RADIATION PATTERN 
30° 20° 10° 1.0 10° 20° 30° 



500 1000 2000 




3-32 



ffi) MOTOROLA 



M0C119 



NPN PHOTO DARLINGTON AND PN INFRARED 
EMITTING DIODE 

. . . Gallium Arsenide LED optically coupled to a Silicon Photo 
Darlington Transistor designed for applications requiring electrical 
isolation, high-current transfer ratios, small package size and low 
cost; such as interfacing and coupling systems, phase and feedback 
controls, solid-state relays and general-purpose switching circuits. 



High Isolation Voltage — 

V|SO = 7000 V (Min) 

High Collector Output Current 

@ l F = 10 mA - 

IC= 30 mA (Min) 

Economical, Compact, Dual-ln-Line Package 

Base Not Connected 



• Excellent Frequency Response — 
30 kHz (Typ) 

• Fast Switching Times @ \q = 2.5mA 
t r = 10 ms (Typ) 
tf = 50 MS (Typ) 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



Symbol 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


30 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


if 


100 


mA 


Forward Current - Peak 
(Pulse Width = 300 #is, 2.0% Duty Cycle) 


if 


30 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation <s> Ta = 25°C 


Pd 


150 


mW 


Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 




2.0 


mW/°C 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


7.0 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


30 


Volts 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 



Total Device Dissipation @ T/\ = 25°C 
Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
3.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°c 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°c 





m fi m 




FIGURE 1 - DEVICE SCHEMATIC 




> 
^ 


_j 








i 






l±J EJ EJ 





OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

DARLINGTON OUTPUT 




161 [Si ft 




STYLE 3 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2. CATHODE 

3. NC 

4. EMITTER 

5. COLLECTOR 

6. NC 



SI 



6ra3 



TT 



-JgL^ 



-i^~~r 



* 



NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE DATUMS. 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TOLERANCES EO R LEADS: 
[+f>[0~O. )3~(0 .005)(M)lT j A(m)|B(m)| 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14. 5, 1973. 



DIM 
A 
B 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 
8 13 
6 10 


MAX 
8.89 


MIN 
320 


MAX 
0350 
260 1 


6.60 


0.240 


C 


i_2J2 


508 


0.115 


0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


F 


1.02 


1.78 


0O40 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


0.20 1 0.30 


0.008 1 0.012 


K 


2.54 | 3.81 


0.100 1 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


Oo 1 150 


Oo 
0.015 


150 


N 


0.38 | 2.54 


0.100 


P 


u ,27 


2 03 


0.060 


0.080 



CASE 730A 01 



3-33 



M0C119 



LED CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

IV R = 3.0 V, R L = 1.0 M ohms) 


'R 


- 


0.005 


100 


MA 


Forward Voltage 
(l F = 10mA) 


VF 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(V R = V.f = 1.0MHz) 


C 


— 


150 


_ 


pF 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C and l F = unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
IV CE = 10 V, l F = 0) 


'CEO 


- 


8.0 


100 


nA 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100 nA, \q = 0) 


v (BR)CEO 


30 


60 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 10mA, l F = 0) 


v (BR)ECO 


7.0 


8.0 


- 


Volts 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted ) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Output Current (1) 
(V CE = 2.0 V, l F = 10mA) 


ic 


30 


70 


- 


mA 


Isolation Surge Voltage (2, 5), 60 Hz ac Peak, 5 Second 


v IS0 


7000 


- 


- 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (2) 
(V= 500 V) 


- 


- 


10" 


- 


Ohms 


Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage (1) 
(l c = 10mA, l F = 10mA) 


v CE<sat) 


- 


0.8 


1.0 


Volts 


Isolation Capacitance (2) 
<V= 0, f = 1.0 MHz) 


- 


- 


1.0 


- 


pF 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS (Figures 4,5) 



Rise Time 

(V CC = 10 V, l c = 2.5 mA, R L = 10012) 


*r 


- 


10 


- 


MS 


Fall Time 

<V CC = 10 V, l c = 2.5 mA, R L = 10012) 


«f 


- 


50 


- 


MS 



(1) Pulse Test: Pulse Width = 300 ms. Duty Cycle < 2.0%. 

(2) For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and Photo Transistor pins 4 and 5 are common. 

(3) l F adjusted to yield l c = 2.0 mA and i c = 2.0 mA P-P at 10 kHz. 

(4) tjj and t r are inversely proportional to the amplitude of l F ; t s and tf are not significantly affected by If 

(5) Isolation Surge Voltage, V|sq. ' s an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



3-34 



M0C119 



DC CURRENT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS 



80 

< 70 

B 

z 60 

1 50 
o 
cc 

£ 40 
u 

d 30 

o 

u 

i? 20 
10 




FIGURE 2 - COLLECTOR CURRENT versus 
COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE 

















if 


= 15 mA . 












<^ 


-- 


— 


if 






















— 


- 


= 10mA 










..__ 1. 




















IF = 5.0 mA 










F- 4 — < 

= 2.0 mA 

1 1 
















if 



0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 
Vce. COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 3 - COLLECTOR CURRENT versus 
DIODE CURRENT 



2W 
































































































































VCE = 
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































/ 






































// 

































10 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 100 

l F . 0IOOE CURRENT (mA) 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - SWITCHING TEST CIRCUIT 



FIGURE 5 - VOLTAGE WAVEFORM 



CONSTANT 
CURRENT 
INPUT NX. V CC 

O O O+10V 



INPUT O— )\ — WV • — ^ 




IC (DC) = 2.0 mA 

i c (AC SINE WAVE) = 2 mA P.P 



,_r 



i i 





FIGURE 6- FORWARD CHARACTERISTIC 



































22 




























































/ 


| 20 






























































OUSF 
(VOLT 
oo 






























































INSTANTAN 
VOLTAGt 


























































































































1.2 






























































10 

































10 100 

i F . INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



3-35 



MOC119 



TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 7 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER DARK CURRENT 
versus TEMPERATURE 

















































































































m3 






















































































































































102 
























































































































































ml 























FIGURE 8 - TRANSFER EFFICIENCY 
versus TEMPERATURE 



450 












































440 






















> 






















£ 430 






















c3 






















it 420 






















cc 






















Si 410 






















< — 






















J5 400 






















z 






















g 390 






















a. 























30 40 50 60 

TEMPERATURE (°C) 



70 80 90 100 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

TEMPERATURE (°C) 



3-36 



® 



MOTOROLA 



5000 VOLTS - HIGH ISOLATION COUPLER 

. . . Gallium Arsenide LED optically coupled to a Silicon Photo- 
transistor designed for applications requiring high electrical isolation, 
high transistor breakdown-voltage and low-leakage, small package 
size and low cost; such as interfacing and coupling systems, logic to 
power circuit interface, and solid-state relays. 

• High Isolation Voltage -V|SO = 500 ° v < Min ) 

• High Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage - 

V(BR)CEO = 80 V (Typ) @ l c = 1 .0 mA 

• High Collector Output Current €> lp = 10 mA - 

IC = 5.0 mA (Typ) - MOC1005 
= 3.0 mA (Typ) - MOC1006 

• Economical, Compact, Dual-ln-Line Plastic Package 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



| Symbol | Value j 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


>F 


80 


mA 


Forward Current — Peak 

Pulse Width = 300ms, 2.0% Duty Cycle 


IF 


3.0 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation <a T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


7.0 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


70 


Volts 


Total Power Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25° C 


p D 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 



Total Power Dissipation <s> T A = 25°C 
Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 

3.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 




260 


*C 



FIGURE 1 - MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION 











| 














' T A = 25 




























_!>0 


°C 


























7 


»C 










L 
















\ 
















\ 



P02. AVERAGE POWER DISSIPATION (mW) 



Figure 1 is based upon using limit 

values in the equation: 

T J1 - T A = R 0JA <P D t + K 9 P Q2 ) 

where: 

Tji Junction Temperature (100°CI 
T A Ambient Temperature 

R 0JA Junction to Ambient Thermal 
Resistance <500°C/W) 

Pqi Power Dissipation in One Chip 

Pq2 Power Dissipation in Other Chip 
K$ Thermal Coupling Coefficient 
(20%) 

Example: 

With P D1 =90 mW in the LED 
@ T A = 50°C, the transistor 
P D (PD2' must °« ,ess than 50 mVV 



MOC1005 
M0C1006 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

TRANSISTOR OUTPUT 




AAA 




STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. AN00E 

2. CATHODE 

3. NC 

4 EMITTER 

5. COLLECTOR 

6. BASE 



(TL 



6^3 






£ 



ra 



tt 



NOTES 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE DATUMS. 

2 T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3 POSITIONAL TOLERANCES FOR LEADS: 
I4IO 0.1 3 (0.005)@[t | A^gg 

4 DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEA0S 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI YI4.5, 1973. 



DIM 
A 
B 
C 
T 


MILLK 

MIN 

8.13 

6 10 

2 92 
"0.41"" 


flETERS 
MAX 
8.89 
6.60 


INC 
MIN 
0.320 
0.240 ' 


HES 
MAX 
0.350 

260 "" 


5.08 
0.51" 


0.115 


0.200 


0.016 


0.020 


F 
G 
j 


[1.02 


1 78 


0.040 


0.070 


2.54 
0.20 1 


BSC 


0.100 BSC 


0.30 


0.008 I 0.012 


K 


2.54 1 3.81 


0.100 | 0.150 


L 


7 62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


0° [ 15° 


00 
0.015 


150 


N 0.38 I 2.54 


100 


P 


1.27 


2.03 


0.050 


0.080 



3-37 



MOC1005, MOC1006 



LED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 



Reverse Leakage Current (Vr = 3 V) 



Forward Voltage (\f - 10 mA| 



Capacitance (V R = V. f = 1 .0 MHz) 



Symbol 



|R 



V F 



Typ 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 
Collector Output Current (1 ) 
(Vce = 10 V, l F = 10 mA, l B = 0) 



MOC1005 
MOC1006 



Isolation Surge Voltage. (1 1 
DC (2), 
AC (3) 



Isolation Resistance (4| (V = 500 V) 



Collector-Emitter Satur ation (Iq ~ 2.0 mA, lp = 50 mA) 
Isolation Capacitance (4) (V = 0, f = 1 .0 MHz) 



Bandwidth (5) (lc = 2 mA, R L = 100 Ohms, Figure 1 1 ) 
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



v IS0 



v CE(sat) 



2.0 
10 



5000 
5000 



5.0 
3.0 



10000 
10000 



1011 



Delay Time 



Rise Time 



Storage Time 



Fall Time 



(l c = 10 mA, V CC = 10 V) 
Figures 6 and 8 



MOC1005 
MOC1006 
MOC1005 
MOC1006 



dC= 10 mA, V(x= 10 V) 
Figures 7 and 8 



MOC1005 
MOC1006 
MOC1005 
MOC1006 



0.07 
0.10 
0.8 
2.0 



4.0 
2.0 
8.0 
8.0 



(1| Pulse Test Pulse Width = 300 /js. Duty Cycle sS 2 0% 

(2| Peak DC Voltage — 1.0 Minute 

(3| Nonrepetitive Peak AC Voltage — 1 Full Cycle, Sine Wave, 60 Hz 

(4) For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and Photo Transistor pins 4. 5 and 6 are common 

(5) l F adjusted to yield l c ~ 2 mA and i c = 2.0 mA p-p at 10 kHz 



pF 



Ohms 



pF 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C 


and lp = unless otherwise noted) 






Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(Vce= 10 V, Base Open) 


'CEO 


— 


35 


50 


nA 


Collector-Base Dark Current 
(Vcb = 10 V, Emitter Open) 


'CBO 




~ 


20 


nA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100/jA, l E = 0) 


v (BR)CBO 


70 


100 




Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
0C= 1.0 mA. Ib = 0) 


v (BR)CE0 


30 


80 




Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 M A. I B = 0) 


v (BR)ECO 


70 






Volts 


DC Current Gain (V CE = 5.0 V, l c = 500 ^A) 


hFE 


— 


250 


— 


— 



FIGURE 2 -MOC1006 



FT 
































= 
























































p** 


-^ 


c 








-V CE -10V- 




























































































= Tj- -SS'C5 






















































































































































































f N **no*c 











































































































































































































TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

FIGURE 3- MOC 1006 

100 
50 



t.O 5.0 10 20 50 

If, FORWARD DIODE CURRENT (mA) 




2.0 1.0 10 20 M 10 

l F . FORWARO DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



3-38 



MOC1005, MOC1006 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR SATURATION VOLTAGE 



2 
_2 

CO 

ll 



: -;:: = =? 


-.- - - 



10 100 

if. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT |mA| 



£ *Z 0.8 






-- 


III 






r 


II 




















^— — — 


l F = 50l C 










1 


















Tj 


= 25°C 










1 




























1 






























/ 




/ 


















IOC1005 




J 




' 




















3f J 






























■:§£ 


' 






■ = ' 




















"1^5 
























1 









0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 

IC. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 6 - TURN-ON TIME 



FIGURE 7 - TURN-OFF TIME 



10 










-L 












z = 


r 

"cc 


10 V 






5.0 








s^r. 


-:- 


-- ; r 


U 












l F = 20 lc = 

Tj = 25°C =: 
































■^ 




■V - 






















r _J 




1.0 


k. 












±*m 














.' 


0.5 






> 


s^— ^ 


















-— 1"~ 


I — 














~*^ 
























0.2 
01 


































'd^ 


tt 




"• 


h *C 
















0.05 








Ipq 


Morions 
















Y~ 


























no? 

































0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 

Iq. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



20 30 50 



























j 


= v 


1 

cc =iov 


_ 













- 


















Tj = 25°C — 














-tf 
,7 
























** 






























c^ 




\yt 


I 














































A : 








= 


























1 




- _i 






I] 






















: tc Sa ! 






























"^t — 






— 


















- 


< 


^^i^s 












M0C1005 ~~ ' 




































1 


, , 










1 


1 







2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 8 - SATURATED SWITCHING 
TEST CIRCUIT 



Rq and R L VARIED TO OBTAIN OESIREO 
CURRENT LEVELS 



INPUT H D 1 



PULSE WIDTH 
= IOOksDUTY 
CYCLE = 10% 



r~ 



MOC1005 
_ MOC1006 
LED %~y 



C. 



K 



i 



PHOTO 
TRANSISTOR 



64 4 



_J 



3 3 io 



FIGURE 9 - DARK CURRENT versus 
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 



























































































































> CE = 10V 
l F -0 
l B = 















































































































































































































































































































































































































-50 -25 +25 +50 +75 

Ta. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C> 



3-39 



MOC1005, MOC1006 



FIGURE 10 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE 



k 1-0 

z 

| 0.7 

| 0.5 

a. 

1 0.3 

oc 

£ 02 



1 1 






1 




















































































































































= loon 


































































































»n 


































v,g 






































































I 


IMS 





















































































































30 50 70 



100 200 300 500 700 1000 

f. FREQUENCY (kHz) 



FIGURE 11 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT 



in„F n<< O CONSTANT IC 

,Uur *'•• 'CURRENT VCC" 10 VOLTS 

INPUT I O 




tc (DC) = 2.0 mA 

I C (AC SINE WAVE = 20mAPP) 



FIGURE 12 - POWER AMPLIFIER 



FIGURE 13 - INTERFACE BETWEEN LOGIC AND LOAD 




y> I 2N63 

| M0C1005 % I 
6 i M0C1006 _£ 



r 



INOUCT 
LOAD 



1 



FIGURE 14 - UNIVERSAL CMOS LOGIC TRANSLATOR 

(Programmable Constant Current Drive) 

+5 -18 V 



FIGURE 15 - ISOLATED DC MOTOR CONTROLLER 

O +24 V 




INPUT COMPATIBLE 
WITH CMOS. TTL, 
DTL, HTL 
INPUT 



3-40 



M) MOTOROLA 




OPTO SCR COUPLER 

These devices consist of a gallium-arsenide infrared emitting 
diode optically coupled to a photo sensitive silicon controlled rectifier 
(SCR). They are designed for applications requiring high electrical 
isolation between low voltage circuitry, like integrated circuits, and 
the ac line. 

• High Blocking Voltage 

MOC3000, 3001 — 400 V for 220 Vac Lines 
MOC3002, 3003 — 250 V for 1.10 Vac Lines 

• Very High Isolation Voltage 

Viso = 7500 V Min 

• Standard 6-Pin DIP 

• UL Recognized, File Number E54915 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



Symbol 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



OUTPUT DRIVER MAXIMUM RATINGS 



TOTAL DEVICE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



(1) Isolation surge voltage, V|gr> is an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



M0C3000 
M0C3001 
MOC3002 
M0C3003 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

with 
PHOTO SCR OUTPUT 

400 and 250 VOLTS 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


7.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


•f 


60 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


pd 


100 
1.33 


mW 
mW/°C 




Peak Forward Voltage MOC3000, 1 
MOC3002, 3 


V DM 


400 
250 


Volts 


Forward RMS Current 
(Full Cycle, 50 to 60 Hz) T A = 25°C 


^(RMS) 


300 


mA 


Peak Nonrepetitive Surge Current 
(PW= 10 ms. DC= 10%) 


'tsm 


3.0 


A 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25° C 


pd 


400 
5.33 


mW 
mW/°C 



Isolation Surge Voltage (1 ) 

(Peak ac Voltage, 60 Hz, 

5 Second Duration) 


v IS0 


7500 


Vac 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-40 to +100 


°C 


Ambient Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-55 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 









Anode 1 \__ 

Cathode 2 (**" 

NC 3 [^ 




~l 6 SCR Gate 

| 5 SCR Anode 
""| 4 SCR Cathode 


T* 


>r^ 




u 















iSiiSift 



O 

www 

——If I-— 



STYLE 7: 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2 CATHODE 

3 NC 

4 SCR CATHODE 

5 SCR ANODE 

6 SCR GATE 



m. 



ffra 




a 









NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND BARE DATUMS. 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE S FOR LE ADS. 
r£|0O.13(O.OO9(S)|T [ A(M)|B(M)| 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5. 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


8.13 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


B 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


C 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


F 


1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


O.K 


0BSC 


J 


0.20 


0.30 


0.008 


0.012 


K 


2.54 


3.81 


0.100 


0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


00 


150 


Oo 


150 


N 


0.38 


2.54 


0.015 


0.100 


P 


1.27 


2.03 


0.050 


0.080 



CASE 730A-01 



3-41 



MOC3000, MOC3001, MOC3002, MOC3003 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



| Typ 



LED CHARACTERISTICS 



Reverse Leakage Current 
(Vr = 3.0 V) 


|R 


— 


0.05 


10 


MA 


Forward Voltage 
(\f= 10 mA) 


v F 


— 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance 
(V = 0. f = 1.0 MHz) 


Cj 


— 


50 


— 


pF 



DETECTOR CHARACTERISTICS 



Peak Off-State Voltage M0C3000. 3001 
( R GK= 10 kfl. T A = 100°C) MOC3002, 3003 


VDM 


400 
250 


_ 


_ 


Volts 


Peak Reverse Voltage M0C3000, 3001 
(Rqk= 10kll, T a = 100°C) MOC3002, 3003 


V RM 


400 
250 


— 


_ 


Volts 


On-State Voltage 
(l TM = 0.3 A) 


VTM 


— 


1.1 


1.3 


Volts 


Off-State Current 
(V D M = 400 V. R G k = 10 kn. T A = 100°C) M0C3000, 3001 
(V DM = 250 V, Rqk = 1 kil. T A = 1 00°C) MOC3002, 3003 


•dm 


- 


- 


150 
50 


„A 


Reverse Current 
(Vrm = 400V, R GK = 10 kfl. T A = 100°C) MOC3000. 3001 
(V RM = 250 V, R GK = 1 k!l. T A = 1 00°C) MOC3002. 3003 


!rM 


- 


- 


150 
50 


M A 


Capacitance (V = 0, f = 10 MHz) 
Anode - Gate 
Gate - Cathode 


Cj 


- 


20 
350 


- 


pF 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS 



LED Current Required to Trigger 
(V A k=50V, R GK = 10k(l) MOC3001.3003 

M0C3CO0. 3002 
(V AK = 100 V, R GK =27kn) MOC3001.3003 

M0C3000, 3002 


"FT 


- 


10 
15 
6.0 
8.0 


20 
30 

11 
14 


mA 


Isolation Resistance 
(V|Q = 500 Vdc) 


Riso 


100 


— 


— 


Gn 


Capacitance Input to Output 
(Vio^O, f = 1.0 MHz) 


ClSO 


— 


— 


2.0 


pF 


Coupled dv/dt, Input to Output 
(R GK =10kn) 


dv/dt 


— 


500 


— 


Volts//is 


Isolation Surge Voltage 
(Peak ac Voltage, 60 Hz, 5 Second Duration) 


v ISO 


7500 


— 


— 


Vac 



3-42 



MOC3000, MOC3001, MOC3002, MOC3003 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 
Ta = 25°C 



FIGURE 1 — FORWARD VOLTAGE versus 
FORWARD CURRENT 



FIGURE 2 — ANODE CURRENT versus 
ANODE-CATHODE VOLTAGE 



22 
_20 
S 18 

13 

§16 
o 

14 
1.2 
10 






10 100 

i F , INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT |mA) 



1000 
500 

200 
100 
50 

20 
10 
5.0 

2.0 
1.0 





















































































lj - IUITL 






































































































T.I 


= 25°C 
































































































































































0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 12 1.4 1 
V AK . ANODE-CATHOOE VOITAGE (VOLTS) 



6 1.8 2.0 



FIGURE 3 — LED TRIGGER CURRENT 
versus TEMPEATURE 



FIGURE 4 - FORWARD LEAKAGE CURRENT 
versus TEMPERATURE 















- No 






i: - 

v - 

kil- 






















VAK = 50 














































































































«r 


K = < 


.? kf 


1 _ 
























=1 1— 

= i0kn 
























I I 

- = 27 kn — 


















































- 


56 kl 


1 



























































10.000 
5.000 



-25 25 50 

T A . AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 




40 55 70 85 

T A . AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



3-43 



® 



MOTOROLA 



M0C3009 

M0C3010 
M0C3011 



OPTICALLY ISOLATED TRIAC DRIVER 

These devices consist of a gallium-arsenide infrared emitting diode, 
optically coupled to a silicon bilateral switch and are designed for 
applications requiring isolated triac triggering, low-current isolated 
ac switching, high electrical isolation (to 7500 V peak), high detector 
standoff voltage, small size, and low cost. 

• UL Recognized File Number 54915 

• Output Driver Designed for 1 15 Vac Line 

• Standard 6-Pin DIP 



MAXIMUM RATINGS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



Symbol 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



OUTPUT DRIVER MAXIMUM RATINGS 



TOTAL DEVICE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



(1) Isolation surge voltage, V|sq. 'S an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

PHOTO TRIAC DRIVER 
OUTPUT 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


"F 


50 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
1.33 


mW 
mW/°C 








Off-State Output Terminal Voltage 


V DRM 


250 


Volts 


On-State RMS Current T/y = 25°C 
(Full Cycle, 50 to 60 Hz) Ta = 70°C 


'T(RMS) 


100 
50 


mA 
mA 


Peak Nonrepetitive Surge Current 
(PW = 10 ms, DC= 10%) 


!tSM 


1.2 


A 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


pd 


300 
4.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



Isolation Surge Voltage (1) 
(Peak ac Voltage, 60 Hz, 
5 Second Duration) 


v ISO 


7500 


Vac 


Total Power Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


330 
4.4 


mW 
mW/°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-40 to +100 


°C 


Ambient Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-40 to +70 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-40 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 



i8hSii8i 




STYLE 6: 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2. CATHODE 

3. NC 

4. MAIN TERMINAL 

5. SUBSTRATE 

6. MAIN TERMINAL 









Anode 1 Q 
Cathode 2 Q 




~~\ 6 Main Terminal 

— ■ 5 Triac Driver Substrate 
— ' OO NOT Connect 

12 * Main Terminal 


KJ 

















EL 



tWisgrei 




TT 



^uiJ^ r 



a 



i 

* 



NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND BAREDATUMS. 

2. -T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TOLERANCES FOR LEADS: 

|+fc|0O.13(O.OO5)®|T 1 A(M)lB(M)| 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


8.13 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


B 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


C 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


f 


1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


0.20 


0.30 


0.008 


0.012 


K 


2.54 


3.81 


0.100 


0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


00 


15° 


Oo 


15° 


N 


0.38 


2.54 


0.015 


0.100 


P 


1.27 


2.03 


0.050 


0.080 



CASE 730A 01 



3-44 



MOC3009 , MOC3010 , MOC3011 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



Typ 



LED CHARACTERISTICS 



Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R = 3.0 V) 


|R 


" 


0.05 


100 


MA 


Forward Voltage 
(l F = 10mA) 


v F 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 



DETECTOR CHARACTERISTICS Op = unless otherwise noted) 



Peak Blocking Current, Either Direction 
(Rated Vqrm, Note 1) 


'DRW 


- 


10 


100 


nA 


Peak On-State Voltage, Either Direction 
(ITM = 100 mA Peak) 


V TM 


- 


2.5 


3.0 


Volts 


Critical Rate of Rise of Off-State Voltage, Figure 3 


dv/dt 


- 


2.0 


- 


V/ M s 


Critical Rate of Rise of Commutation Voltage, Figure 3 
(hoad = 15 mA) 


dv/dt 


- 


0.15 


- 


V/ M s 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS 



LED Trigger Current, Current Required to Latch Output MOC3009 
(Main Terminal Voltage = 3.0 V) MOC3010 

MOC3011 


'FT 


- 


15 
8.0 
5.0 


30 
15 
10 


mA 


Holding Current, Either Direction 


lH 


- 


100 


- 


MA 



Note 1. Test voltage must be applied within dv/dt rating. 

2. Additional information on the use of the MOC3009/301 0/301 1 
is available in Application Note AN-780. 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 
T A = 25°C 



FIGURE 1 - ON STATE CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - TRIGGER CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 








input 


Pulse 


Width 


= 80 


AJS 


















E +400 

z 


l F = 20 mA 
f = 60 Hz 




















T 


A = 2 


°C 
























QC 

W 
< 


























































Z 

^-400 


























































-800 































-14 -12 -10 -80 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10 12 14 
V TM . ON STATE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



lb 






























13 






















































































































09 


























































0.7 


























































ns 































40 -20 20 40 60 80 100 

T A , AMBIENT TEMPERATURE CO 



3-45 



MOC3009 , MOC3010 , MOC301 1 



FIGURE 3 - dv/dt TEST CIRCUIT 



v CCO ,AAA- 



MOC3009 
MOC3010 
MOC3011 




^V|n 



nruin: 



Commutating Stat 

dv/dt ~ 



dv/dt = 8.9 f V;, 



It I 



V 10k ^ 
O-VW r 21 



FIGURE 4 - dv/dt versus LOAD RESISTANCE 



24 






















2.0 










Static 






























> 
< 
S'1.2 


Vi n = 30 V RMS 
Test Circuit in Figur 
















e3 






































Commuta 


ing 












08 










































04 























0.8 1.2 

R L . LOAD RESISTANCE (kn) 



1.6 2.0 



FIGURE 5 - dv/dt versus TEMPERATURE 



FIGURE 6 - COMMUTATING dv/dt versus FREQUENCY 



24 

20 

^ 16 
> 
u 
5 12 

I 8 



















1 








r~ 

























Commutating dv/dt 






















Circu 


tinr 


igure 


3 


































^. , 






























R l 


= 2k 


S2 


^ 


^ 


















































— 


-r-- 




























R L = 510 Si 




"— 








- __ 












-., 





























































*"" 

































0.24 
0.20 



























dv/dt = 


)15 V/ns 
































Test Circuit in Figure 3 


























dv/dt = 8.9 V in t 




































































































































































































































































%l 








































^ + 















































































































































































26 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

T A , AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



100 1000 10,000 

I, MAXIMUM OPERATING FREQUENCY (Hz) 



FIGURE 7 - MAXIMUM NONREPETITIVE SURGE CURRENT 



30 


1 

Ta 


25°C 




























1 


F = 


20 


n 


lA 




























20 






































































10 




























































1 
1 






n 


























1 













PW, PULSE WIDTH (ms) 



3-46 



MOC3009 . MOC301 . MOC301 1 



TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUITS 



FIGURE 8 - RESISTIVE LOAD 



O^ 



MOC3009 
MOC3010 
MOC3011 



180 
-AA/V- 



w 



120 V 
60 Hz 



FIGURE 9 - INDUCTIVE LOAD WITH SENSITIVE GATE TRIAC 
(IGT 1 15 mA) 



O^ 



MOC3009 

MOC3010 
MOC301 1 



6 180 

-O vw- 



It 



120 V 
60 Hz 



FIGURE 10- INDUCTIVE LOAD WITH NON-SENSITIVE GATE TRIAC 
(15 mA < Iqt < 50 mA) 



6 180 



C^- 



MOC3009 
MOC3010 
MOC301 1 



]f 



120 V 
60 Hz 



3-47 



® 



MOTOROLA 



OPTICALLY ISOLATED TRIAC DRIVER 

These devices consist of a gallium-arsenide infrared emitting 
diode, optically coupled to a silicon bilateral switch. They are 
designed for applications requiring isolated triac triggering. 

• UL Recognized File Number E54915 

• Output Driver Designed for 220 Vac Line 

• V|so Isolation Voltage of 7500 V Peak 

• Standard 6-Pin Plastic DIP 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



Symbol 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current - Continuous 


if 


50 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Triac Driver 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
1.33 


mW 
mW/°C 



OUTPUT DRIVER MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Off-State Output Terminal Voltage 


V DRM 


400 


Volts 


On-State RMS Current T A = 25°C 
(Full Cycle, 50 to 60 Hz) T A = 70°C 


'T(RMS) 


100 
50 


mA 
mA 


Peak Nonrepetitive Surge Current 
(PW = 10 ms, DC = 10%) 


'tsm 


12 


A 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


300 
4.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



TOTAL DEVICE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Isolation Surge Voltage (1) 
(Peak ac Voltage, 60 Hz, 
5 Second Duration) 


v IS0 


7500 


Vac 


Total Power Dissipation <g> T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


330 

4.4 


mW 
mW/°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-40 to +100 


°C 


Ambient Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-40 to +70 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-40 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 



(1) Isolation surge voltage, V|sq. ' s an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 









Anode 1 [^ 

Cathode 2 Q 

3d 




~\ 6 Main Terminal 

— I 5 Triac Driver Substrate 
— I DO NOT Connect 

^] 4 Main Terminal 


KJ 

















M0C3020 
MOC3021 



OPTO COUPLER 

PHOTO TRIAC DRIVER 
OUTPUT 

400 VOLTS 



^ 


A 





ftfSlft 



MAIN TERMINAL 
SUBSTRATE 
MAIN TERMINAL 




NOTES. 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND BAREOATUMS. 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TOLERANCES FOR LE ADS: 
\^{0 0.13IO.Q05 )(jii)|T | A(M)|Bjffi)] 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5, 1973. 



DIM 
A 
B 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 
8.13 


MAX 
8.89 


MIN 
0320 


MAX 


'0.350 

0.260 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


-§- 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 




1.02 


1.78 


0040 


0.070 




2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 




0.20 1 0.30 


0.008 | 0.012 


K 


2.54 | 3.81 


0.100 I 0.150 




7 62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


0° 


150 


Oo 1 15» 


N 0.38 


2.54 


0.015 0.100 


P_J_ 1.27 


2.03 


0.050 


0080 



3-48 



MOC3020, MOC3021 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



| Symbol | Min | Typ ~f 



Characteristic 



LED CHARACTERISTICS 



Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R = 3.0 V) 


|R 




005 


100 


MA 


Forward Voltage 
<I F = 10mAI 


v F 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 



DETECTOR CHARACTERISTICS (l F = unless otherwise noted) 



Peak Blocking Current, Either Direction 
(Rated Vqrm. Note 1) 


'DRM 




10 


100 


nA 


Peak On-State Voltage. Either Direction 
(Ijm = 100 mA Peak) 


vtm 


- 


2.5 


3.0 


Volts 


Critical Rate of Rise of Off-State Voltage, Ta = 85°C 


dv/dt 




10.0 


- 


V/ M s 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS 



LED Trigger Current, Current Required to Latch Output 

(Main Terminal Voltage = 3.0 V, Note 2) MOC3020 

MOC3021 


'FT 


- 


15 
8.0 


30 
15 


mA 


Holding Current, Either Direction 


lH 




100 


- 


MA 



Note 1 . Test voltage must be applied within dv/dt rating. 

2. All devices are guaranteed to trigger at an \f value less than or equal to max Ipy. Therefore, recommended operating \p lies 
between maxlpx(30 mA for MOC3020, 15 mA for MOC3021) and absolute maxlp(50 mA). 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 
T A = 25°C 
FIGURE 1 - ON-STATE CHARACTERISTICS 



+8UU 






























< 

~ +400 

z 


























































cc 

£ o 

<* 


























































z 
o 

j -400 


























































-800 































-3.0 -2.0 -l.O 1.0 2.0 

V TM , ON-STATE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 2 - TRIGGER CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 



a 

W 1.3 
< 

I 1.2 

o 

1 " 

1 1.0 
85 ° 9 

CD 

!2 0.8 

cc 

t 0.7 
0.6 



































































































































































































































-20 20 40 60 80 100 

T A . AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



FIGURE 3 - TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT 



v C c 



220 




o^ 



In this circuit the "hot" side of the line is switched and the 
load connected to the cold or ground side. 
The 39 ohm resistor and 0.01 /iF capacitor are for snub- 



Additional information on the use of optically coupled triac 
drivers is available in Application Note AN-780A. 



Vac ki n 9 of the triac, and the 470 ohm resistor and 0.05 (iF 

capacitor are for snubbing the coupler. These components 

0.01 fit mayor may not be necessary depending upon the particular 

1 triac and load used. 

Load)— O 
Ground 



3-49 



® 



MOTOROLA 



ZERO VOLTAGE CROSSING 
OPTICALLY ISOLATED TRIAC DRIVER 

This device consists of a gallium arsenide infrared emitting diode 
optically coupled to a monolithic silicon detector performing the 
function of a Zero Voltage crossing bilateral triac driver. 

They are designed for use with a triac in the interface of logic systems 
to equipment powered from 115 Vac lines, such as teletypewriters, 
CRTs, printers, motors, solenoids and consumer appliances, etc. 

• Simplifies Logic Control of 1 10 Vac Power 

• Zero Voltage Crossing 

• High Breakdown Voltage: V DRM = 250 V Min 

• High Isolation Voltage: V )S q = 7500 V Min 

• Small, Economical, 6-Pin DIP Package 

• Same Pin Configuration as MOC301 0/301 1 

• UL Recognized, File No. E54915 

• dv/dtof 100 V/|UsTyp 



MAXIMUM RATINGS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 

| Symbol | Value 



Rating 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



OUTPUT DRIVER MAXIMUM RATINGS 



TOTAL DEVICE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



M0C3030 
M0C3031 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

ZERO CROSSING 

TRIAC DRIVER 

250 VOLTS 




Reverse Voltage 


VR 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current - Continuous 


'F 


50 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation @ Ta = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Output Driver 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


120 
1.33 


mW 
mW/°C 



Off-State Output Terminal Voltage 


V DRM 


250 


Volts 


On-State RMS Current Ta = 25°C 
(Full Cycle , 50 to 60 Hz) Ta = 85°C 


'T(RMS) 


100 
50 


mA 
mA 


Peak Nonrepetitive Surge Currant 
(PW= 10 ms) 


"tsm 


1.2 


A 


Total Power Dissipation 9 Ta = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


300 

4.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



i8iiSii8i 



1. DIMENSIONS A AND BARE DATUMS. 
-T IS SEATING PLANE. 
POSITIONAL TOLERANCES FOR LEADS 



T 2 

•J- 4. D 



) . 1 3< 0.005)(jii)|T j A<g>JB(wi> ! 



I l l I Z I I 3 I '"""" * DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEAOS 
\f W ffi , WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

-JtL 5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5. 1973. 




DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN ! MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 
B 


8.13 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


C 


2.92 


508 


0.115 


0.200 


"D 1 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0020 


t 


1.02 1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


0.20 ! 0.30 


0.008 I 0.012 


K 


2.54 1 3.81 


O.IOOj 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


300 BSC 


M 


0" 1 15° 


00 


15° 


N 


0.38 I 2 54 


0.015 


100 


P j 1.27 


2.03 j 


0.050 


0.080 



ANODE 

CATHODE 

NC 

MAIN TERMINAL 

SUBSTRATE 

MAIN TERMINAL 



Isolation Surge Voltage (1) 
(Peak ac Voltaoe. 60 Hz, 
5 Second Duration) 


Viso 


7500 


Vac 


Total Power Dissipation 9 Ta = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


330 
4.4 


mW 
mW/°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-40 to +100 


°C 


Ambient Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-40 to + 85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-40 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 


(1) Isolation surge voltage, Vjsq. •» » n internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



COUPLER SCHEMATIC 



Anode L ~~ 1 

2 T 
:«thort« t~ — I 



Cathode Q 

3 

NC Q 



at | Main 

Terminal 



K 



~~\ Substrate 



~\ Main 
t— ^ Terminal 



3-50 



MOC3030 MOC3031 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IT A = 23°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



Typ 



LEO CHARACTERISTICS 



Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R = 3.0 V) 


'R 


- 


0.05 


100 


PA 


Forward Voltage 
(l F = 30mA) 


VF 




1.3 


1.5 


Volts 



DETECTOR CHARACTERISTICS (lp = unless otherwise noted) 



Peak Blocking Current, Either Direction 
(Rated Vqrm. Note 1) 


"DRM 


- 


10 


100 


nA 


Peak On-State Voltage, Either Direction 
(ITM = 100 mA Peak) 


VTM 


_ 


1.8 


3.0 


Volts 


Critical Rate of Rise of Off-State Voltage 


dv/dt 


- 


100 


- 


V/ns 


COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS 


LED Trigger Current, Current Required to Latch Output 
(Main Terminal Voltage = 3.0 V, Note 2) 


MOC3030 
MOC3031 


•FT 


" 


- 


30 
15 


mA 


Holding Current, Either Direction 


•h 


- 


100 


- 


**A 


ZERO CROSSING CHARACTERISTICS 


Inhibit Voltage 

(lp = Rated lp T , MT1-MT2 Voltage above which device will 
trigger.) 


not 


V .H 


- 


15 


25 


Volts 


Leakage in Inhibited State 

(lp = Rated l FT , Rated V DRM , Off State) 


■r 


- 


100 


200 


mA 



Note 1. Test voltage must be applied within dv/dt rating. 

2. All devices are guaranteed to trigger at an lp value less than or equal to max l FT . Therefore, recommended operating lp lies 
between max l FT (30 mA for MOC3030, 15 mA for MOC3031) and absolute max l F (50 mA). 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 
T A = 25°C 



FIGURE 1 - ON-STATE CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - TRIGGER CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 



_ +600 

< 

~ +400 

^ o 

£ -200 

°± -400 

-600 

-800 



1 1 

Output Pulsewidth - 


80 u% 














l F = 30mA 
f = 60 Hz 
T A = 25°C 







































































































































































1.3 

1.2 






















































































1.0 
0.9 
0.8 
0.7 















































































































































-40 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 

V TM . ON STATE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



] 20 40 60 

T., AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°CI 



3-51 



MOC3030 , MOC3031 



FIGURE 3 - HOT-LINE SWITCHING APPLICATION CIRCUIT 




| Load [— Q 



Typical circuit for use when hot line switching is required. 
In this circuit the "hot" side of the line is switched and 
the load connected to the cold or neutral side. The load 
may be connected to either the neutral or hot line. 
Rj n is calculated so that lp is equal to the rated I ft of 
the part, 15 mA for the MOC3031 or 30 mA for the 
MOC3030. The 39 ohm resistor and 0.01 fxF capacitor 
are for snubbing of the triac and may or may not be 
necessary depending upon the particular triac and load 
used. 



FIGURE 4 - INVERSE-PARALLEL SCR DRIVER CIRCUIT 



% 




Suggested method of firing two, back-to-back SCR's, 
with a Motorola triac driver. Diodes can be 1N4001; 
resistors, R1 and R2, are optional 1 k ohm. 



3-52 



^) MOTOROLA 




DIGITAL LOGIC COUPLER 

. . . gallium arsenide IRED optically coupled to a high-speed 
integrated detector. Designed for applications requiring electrical 
isolation, fast response time, and digital logic compatibility such as 
interfacing computer terminals to peripheral equipment, digital con- 
trol of power supplies, motors and other servo machine applications. 
Intended for use as a digital inverter, the application of a current 
to the IRED input results in a LOW voltage; with the IRED off the 
output voltage is HIGH. 

• High Isolation Voltage — 

V|S0 = 7500 V (Min) 

• Fast Switching Times @ lp = 16 mA, Vrjc = 5.0 V 

t on - 420 ns (Typ) - MOC5005 

= 225 ns (Typ) - MOC5006 
t off = 320 ns (Typ) - MOC5005 

= 270 ns (Typ) - MOC5006 

• Economical, Compact, Dual-ln-Line Plastic Package 

• Built-in Hysteresis (Figure 2) 

• UL Recognized, File No. E54915 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



| Symbol \ Value | Unit | 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


30 


Volts 


Forward Current Continuous 

Peak 
Pulse Width = 300 jus, 2.0% Duty Cycle 


If 


50 
3.0 


mA 
Amp 


Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in IC 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



OUTPUT GATE MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Supply Voltage 


v C c 


7.0 


Volts 


Supply Current @ Vqc = 5.0 V 


! cc 


15 


mA 


Device Dissipation <a T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 


PD 


200 


mW 



TOTAL DEVICE RATINGS 



Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 


Pd 


200 


mW 


Maximum Operating Temperature 


T A 


85 


°c 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +100 


°c 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 




260 


°C 



FIGURE 1 - COUPLER SCHEMATIC 

Anode 1 f> 



Cathode 2 O- 




-O 4 Output 



M0C5005 
M0C5006 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

HIGH-SPEED 
DIGITAL OUTPUT 



li ^y 
I 


r 1 i 
, i 


{ 



fSlfSiiSi 




C 


t 

B 

I 



TO 
— JfU 



STYLE 5: 

PIN 1. ANODE 
2 CATH00E 

3. NC 

4. OUTPUT 
5 GROUND 
6- V CC 



[±L 



Ktx3 



J a y^~l 



^ 



tt 



NOTES: 

). DIMENSIONS A AND BARE DATUMS 
2. T IS SEATING PLANE 
3 POSITIONAL TOLERANCES FOR LEADS: 
!4>|0 0.13 (0.005)(M)j T j^AiMil^] 

4. OIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEA0S 

WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 
5 DIMENSIONING AND T0LERANCING PER 

ANSI YI4.5. 1973. 



DIM 

:; 

c 


MILLIK 

MIN 
8.13 " 
6 10 
2.92 


1ETERS 
MAX 

8.89 
6 60 
5.08 
51 


INC 
MIN 
0.320 
0.240 

115 
0016 


HES 
MAX 

350 
, 6.260 
0.200 " 





0.41 


0020 


F 
G J 


1.02 _j 


1.78 


10.040 


0.070 


2.54 


8SC 


0.100 BSC 
0.008T0012 


i 


0.20 1 0.30 


■ K 


2.54 1 3.81 


0.100 1 0.150 


nr 


7 62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 00 1 150 
N ' 0.38 1 2.54 


00 
0015 


150 


0.100 


L p 


1.27 


1 2.03 


0050 


0080 



CASE 730A 01 



3-53 



MOC5005, MOC5006 



: 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



Typ 



IRED CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Reverse Leakage Current (Vr = 3.0 V, R L = 1 .0 Mnl 


|R 


- 


0.05 


10 


>iA 


Forward Voltage dp = 10 mA) 


v F 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance (V R = V. f = 1 .0 MHz) 


C 


" 


100 


- 


pF 



ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 



Isolation Voltage ( 1 ) 60 Hz, AC Peak, 5 s 


V|SO 


7500 


_ 


_ 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (V = 500 VI (1) 




- 


ion 


- 


Ohms 


Isolation Capacitance (V = 0, f = 1 .0 MHz) (1 ) 


- 


- 


1.3 


- 


pF 



DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C) 












Supply Current (lp = 0, VqC = 5.0 v > 


'CCIoff) 


1.5 


2.5 


3.5 


mA 


Supply Current dp = 16 mA, Vcc = 5.0 V) 


'CC(on) 


2.5 


4.0 


8.0 


mA 


Output Voltage Low dp = 16 mA, Vqq = 5.0 V, Igink = 10 mA ' 


VOL 


- 


0.35 


0.6 


Volts 


Output Voltage High dp = mA, V cc = 5.0 V, Source = 200mA) 


V H 


4.0 


4.75 


- 


Volts 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



Turn-On Time 


MOC5005 

dp = 16 mA, V cc = 5.0 V, MOC5006 

Figure 3) MOC5005 

MOC5006 


ton 


- 


420 
225 


700 
350 


ns 


Fall Time 


<f 


: 


250 
200 


- 


ns 


Turn-Off Time 


MOC5005 

dp = 16 mA, V cc = 5.0 V, MOC5006 

Figure 3) MOC5005 

MOC5006 


«off 


- 


320 
270 


700 
350 


ns 


Rise Time 


t r 


- 


250 
125 


- 


ns 



(1 1 For this test IRED pins 1 and 2 are common and Output Gate pins 4, 5, 6 are common. 



FIGURE 2 - TYPICAL OUTPUT VOLTAGE 
versus DIODE CURRENT 



FIGURE 3 - TEST CIRCUIT 



100 
90 

_ 80 

S 70 

o 
> 60 

= 50 

o 

o 

^ 40 
< 

s 

o 30 

z 

> 
20 

10 






-4- 




•*- 






V 


CC = 


5.0 V 


































c 
















1 




1 
















=> 




















i 


i ' 


t 






























































SeeF 


igure 


3 














-*■ 




■♦- 








I r ~ Probe Cap 
I •* 16 pF 



6.0 10 14 

l F , DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



3 ^ 90% 

——t ff 

la / 



3-54 



® 



MOTOROLA 



M0C5010 



OPTICALLY ISOLATED AC LINEAR COUPLER 

. . . gallium arsenide IRED optically-coupled to a bipolar monolithic 
amplifier. Converts an input current variation to an output voltage 
variation while providing a high degree of electrical isolation between 
input and output. Can be used for line coupling, peripheral equip- 
ment isolation, audio, medical, and other applications. 

• 250 kHz Bandwidth 

• Low Impedance Emitter Follower Output: Z < 200 £2 

• High Voltage Isolation: V|SO = 7 500 V (Min) 

• UL Recognized, File Number E54915 



MAXIMUM RATINGS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 



Symbol 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Peak 

Pulse Width = 300 ,us. 20% Duty Cycle 


if 


50 


mA 


Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in IC 
Derate above 25°C 


pd 


100 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



AC AMPLIFIER 



Supply Voltage 


v C c 


15 


Volts 


Supply Current @ Vfjc = 12 V 


ice 


13 


mA 


Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 


pd 


200 


mW 



TOTAL DEVICE 



Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 


P D 


200 


mW 


Maximum Operating Temperature 


T A 


85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +100 


°C 





FIGURE 1 - COUPLER SCHEMATIC 




















! 


^ S 


i 










3 O— 






2 k > 




















— utput 









OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

AC LINEAR AMPLIFIER 




[«1 fSl 1*1 . STYLES: 

| PIN 1. ANODE 



www, 



2 CATHODE 

8 3 NC 

I 4 OUTPUT 

■*- fc nonniLin 



5. GROUND 




NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE DATUMS. 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL TOLERANCES FOR LEADS: 
! f^jO 0.13 (0.005%l T Am J*^ 

4. DIMENSION LT0 CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND T0LERANCING PER 
ANSI YI4. 5, 1973. 



: MlLLin 
dim: min 

A ' 8.13 
B 6.10 


(IETERS 
MAX 
8.89 

6 60 
5.08 


INCHES 
MIN ; MAX 
0.320 i 0.350 " 
0.240] 0.260 


C , 2.92 


0.115 ' 0.200 


D ' 0.41 


0.51 


0.016 ! 0.020 


F ' 102 


1.78 


0.040 ! 0.070 


G 2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J ' 0.20 | 0.30 


0.008 0.012 


K 2.54 3.81 


0.100 ' 0.150 


L 7 62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M j QQ I 150 

N 038 '2.54 


Oo l 16" 
015 ' 100 


L P 127 


203 


0.050 0.080 J 



CASE 730A-01 



3-55 



MOC5010 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



Typ 



IRED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°CI 



DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 



| Unit | 



Reverse Leakage Current I Vr = 3.0 V, R|_ = 1 .0 Mil ) 


|R 


_ 


0.05 


10 


juA 


Forward Voltage dp = 10 mAI 


v F 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Capacitance <V R = V, f = 1 .0 MHz] 


C 


- 


100 


- 


pF 



Isolation Voltage (1 ) 60 Hz, AC Peak 


V|SO 


7500 


- 


- 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (V = 500 V) (1 ) 


- 


- 


10 11 


- 


Ohms 


Isolation Capacitance (V = 0, f = 1 .0 MHz) (1 ) 


- 


- 


1.3 




pF 



Supply Current dp = 0, Vqc = 12 V) 


ice 


2.0 


6.0 


10 


mA 


Transfer Resistance — Gain (VCC = ^ " ^' 
l s jg= I.OmAp-p, lBias = 12 mA (v cc = 12 V) 


Gr 


100 


100 
200 


- 


mV/mA 


Output Voltage Swing - Single Ended (VCC = 12 V) 


vo 


- 


4.0 


- 


Volts 


Single-Ended Distortion (2) 


THD 


See Figure 2 


Step Response 


t 


- 


1.4 


- 


MS 


DC Power Consumption <Vcc = 6.0 V) 

(V C C = 12 V) 


p 


- 


30 
72 


- 


mW 


Bandwidth 


BW 


100 


250 


- 


kHz 


DC Output Voltage (I led = 0), V C E = 12 v 


v 


0.2 


1.0 


6.0 


Volts 



(1 ) For this test IRED pins 1 and 2 are common and Output Gate pins 4, 5, 6 are common. 

(2) Recommended lp = 10 to 15 mA at Vcc = 12 V. 



FIGURE 2 - TYPICAL TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION 



FIGURE 3 - NORMALIZED FREQUENCY RESPONSE 





:{ 




i — i 


, .... 
























^>^Hi-r o|ee 


















/ 








MOC5010 £2.2kn 

























































































































































































































































^ 0.1 



1.0 1.0 12 IS 20 

Isitnal • P < mA > 

Typical total harmonic distortion 9 25°C ((or 
units with tain of 200 mV/mA at lg| as = 12 mA, 
V cc = 12 V, f = 50 kHz.Load - ISw Insert] ). 



1.0 k 10 k 100 k 1.0 M ' 2.0 M 10 M 
FREQUENCY (Hz) 



FIGURE 4 - TELEPHONE COUPLER APPLICATION 

V cc = +12 V 




1.0MF 

i( ov out 



3-56 



M) MOTOROLA 




HIGH CTR DARLINGTON COUPLER 

. . . Gallium Arsenide LED optically coupled to a Silicon Photo 
Darlington Transistor designed for applications requiring electrical 
isolation, high breakdown voltage, and high current transfer ratios. 
Provides excellent performance in interfacing and coupling 
systems, phase and feedback controls, solid state relays, and 
general purpose switching circuits. 

• High Transfer Ratio 

500% — MOC8020 
1000% — MOC8021 

• High Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage — 

V(BR)CEO = 50 Vdc (Min) 

• High Isolation Voltage — 

v ISO = 750 ° Vac p eak 

• UL Recognized, File No. E54915 

• Economical Dual-ln-Line Package 

• Base Not Connected 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.; 

I Symbol 



Rating 



INFRARED-EMITTING DIODE 



PHOTO DARLINGTON TRANSISTOR 



TOTAL DEVICE 



FIGURE 1 - DEVICE SCHEMATIC 

m nn m 






1 



"BT 



"H H" 



Reverse Voltage 


VR 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


if 


50 


mA 


Forward Current — Peak 

Pulse Width = 300 ms, 2.0% Duty Cycle 


if 


3.0 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


50 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


VECO 


5.0 


Volts 


Collector Current — Continuous 


'C 


150 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 
3.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-55 to +100 


U C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-55 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 



M0C8020 
M0C8021 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

DARLINGTON OUTPUT 




iSirSift 




NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND BARE OAT'JMS. 
2 T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSITIONAL T OLER ANCES FOR LEADS: 

W\<?a } 3jp.oo5)$j)T ri *®P®1 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5, 1973. 





MILLIMETERSj 


INCHES 


DIM 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 
B 
C 


8.13 1 
6.10 


8.89^ 
6.60 


0320 
0.240 


0.350 


0.260 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0016 


0.020 


F 


1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


0.20 1 0.30 


0.008 1 0.012 


K 


2.54 3.81 


0.100 | 0.150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


M 


00 I 150 


Oo 
0.015^ 


150 


N 0.38 | 2.54 


0.100 


P , 1.27 


2.03 


0.050 


0.080 



3-57 



MOC8020, MOC8021 



LED CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R =3.0 V) 


|R 


- 


0.005 


10 


mA 


Forward Voltage 
(l F = 10mAI 


v F 


- 


1.2 


2.0 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(V R =0 V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


C 


- 


100 


- 


pF 



PHOTO DARLINGTON CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°Cand l F = 0, unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(V CE = 10 V) 


!CEO 


- 


8.0 


100 


nA 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(IC= 1.0 mA) 


V|BR)CEO 


50 


60 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
<I E = 100 mA) 


V(BR)ECO 


5.0 


8.0 


- 


Volts 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS |T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 


Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Output Current 

(V CE = 5.0 V, l F = 10 mA) MOC8020 
MOC8021 


ic 


50 

100 


90 
150 


- 


mA 


Isolation Surge Voltage (1,2), Vac 60 Hz Peak ac, 5 Second 


V|SO 


7500 


- 


- 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (1) 
(V = 500 V) 


- 


- 


ion 


- 


Ohms 


Isolation Capacitance (1) 
(V = 0, f = 1.0 MHz) 


- 


- 


0.8 


- 


pF 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



Turn-On Time <I F = 10 mA, V CE = 50 V, R 2 = 100 n) 


l on 


- 


13 


- 


MS 


Turn-Off Time <I F = 10 mA, Vqe = 50 V, R 2 = 100 SI) 


toff 


- 


60 


- 


MS 



(1) For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and Photo Transistor pins 4 and 5 are common. 

(2) Isolation Surge Voltage, V|sq, is an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



< 5 





FIGURE 2 - 


- FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 






























22 






















































20 






















































18 






















































16 






















































14 














































































































i n 





























FIGURE 3 - COLLECTOR CURRENT versus 
COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (MOC8020) 













l F = 15mA 
























10 mA 


















































































mA 


















5.0 




















/ 


















// 

Jo 


f 








2.0 


mA 








K 















10 100 

INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 
V CE , COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



3-58 



M) MOTOROLA 




80-VOLT DARLINGTON COUPLER 

. . . Gallium Arsenide LED optically coupled to a Silicon Photo 
Darlington Transistor designed for applications requiring electrical 
isolation, high breakdown voltage, and high current transfer ratios. 
Characterized for use as telephony relay drivers but provides excellent 
performance in interfacing and coupling systems, phase and feedback 
controls, solid state relays, and general purpose switching circuits. 

• High Transfer Ratio @ Output = 50 mA - 

300% - MOC8030 
500% - MOC8050 

• High Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage — 

V(BR)CEO = 80Vdc(Min) 

• High Isolation Voltage - 

V| S0 = 7500 Vac Peak 

• Excellent Stability Over Temperature 

• Economical Dual-ln-Line Package 

• Base Not Connected 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Rating 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE 



PHOTO DARLINGTON TRANSISTOR 



TOTAL DEVICE 



Total Device Dissipation <S> T A = 25°C 
Equal Power Dissipation in Each Element 
Derate above 25°C 



Operating Junction Temperature Range 



Storage Temperature Range 



Soldering Temperature (10 s) 



PD 



Tj 



250 
3.3 



-55 to +100 



FIGURE 1 - DEVICE SCHEMATIC 



m n. 




I Symbol I Value T 



mW 
mW/°C 



-07 



M0C8030 
M0C8050 



OPTO 
COUPLER/ISOLATOR 

DARLINGTON OUTPUT 




Reverse Voltage 


v R 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


if 


80 


mA 


Forward Current - Peak 

Pulse Width = 300 ms, 2.0% Duty Cycle 


if 


3.0 


Amp 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Transistor 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


80 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


5.0 


Volts 


Collector Current - Continuous 


'C 


150 


mA 


Total Power Dissipation <s> T A = 25°C 
Negligible Power in Diode 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


150 
2.0 


mW 
mW/°C 



fgifSift 



C 

' W W Si 



STYLE 3: 

r PIN 1. ANODE 

| 2. CATHODE 

a 3 NC 

4. EMITTER 



1 5. COLLECTOR 



6. NC 




NOTES: 

1 DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE OATUMS. 
2. -T IS SEATING PLANE. 
3 POSIT IONAL TOLER AN CES FOR LE APS: 
[~4>T0 0.1 3 (0.005)®[T | A(W)|B®| 

4. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 
WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 

5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 
ANSI Y14.5. 1973 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 
B 


8.13 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 


C 


2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 


D 


0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 


F 


1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


J 


0.20 I 0.30 


0.008 


0.012 


K 


2.54 | 3.81 


0.100 


0150 


L 


7.62 BSC 


0.300 BSC 


Bfl 


00 


15" 


00 
0.016 


150 


N 


038 


2.54 


0.100 


P , 1.27 2.03 


0.050 


0.080 



3-59 



MOC8030, MOC8050 



LED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R = 3.0 V) 


|R 


- 


0.005 


10 


mA 


Forward Voltage 

(l F = 10 mA) 


v F 


- 


1.2 


2.0 


Volts 


Capacitance 

(V R = V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


C 


- 


100 


- 


pF 



PHOTO DARLINGTON CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°Cand l F = 0. unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Dark Current 
(V CE = 60 V) 


'CEO 


- 


25 


1000 


nA 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
0c= 1.0 mA) 


v (BR)CEO 


80 


95 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 mA) 


v (BR)ECO 


5.0 


8.0 


- 


Volts 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Output Current 

(Vce = 1-5 V, lp = 10mA) MOC8050 
MOC8030 


'C 


50 
30 


100 
50 


- 


mA 


Isolation Surge Voltage (1,2), Vac 60 Hz Peak ac, 5 Second 


V|SO 


7500 


- 


_ 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (1) 
(V = 500 V) 


- 


- 


1011 


- 


Ohms 


Isolation Capacitance (1) 
(V = 0,f= 1.0 MHz) 


— 


- 


0.8 


- 


pF 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



Turn-On Time dp = 10 mA, Vqe = 50 V, R 2 = 100 n) 


*on 


- 


13 


- 


MS 


Turn-Off Time dp = 10 mA, Vrjg = 50 V, R 2 = 100 n) 


toff 


- 


60 


- 


MS 



(1) For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and Photo Transistor pins 4 and 5 are common. 

(2) Isolation Surge Voltage, V|so. is an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 3 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER DARK CURRENT 
versus TEMPERATURE 

































2.2 
























































,' 


20 






















































































































16 


























































14 


























































1 ? 




























































1 f) 































10* 



103 



102 






10 100 

if. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



30 40 50 60 70 80 90 

TEMPERATURE IN "CENTIGRADE 



3-60 



MOC8030, MOC8050 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



COLLECTOR CURRENT versus COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE 



70 

1 ^ 

1 50 

1 40 

o 

t 

!3 30 



FIGURE 4 -MOC8050 



FIGURE S - MOC8030 













l F = 15mA 
















/ 








10 mA 












/ 




















/ 




















\ 




















// 










mA 










'/ 








5.0 




















/ 


















// 


f 








2.0 


mA 








^ 















).2 0.4 0.6 08 1.0 12 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 
V CE , COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



70 

< 

1 60 

















i 

IF = 15 mA 








































| 
















10 mA 












I'll- j_ 


i 










// 




Ij 










7 






5.0 mA 


/ <*•— - r 


" " " ! 








J£ — 1 — 1 — 


1 ! 

2.0 mA 



2 4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 16 1.8 2 

VCE, COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



COLLECTOR CURRENT versus COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE 
(at 25° and 70°C) 



FIGURE 6 - MOC8050 



FIGURE 7- MOC8030 

























IF = 


0mA 










Ta = 


25°C 








































?0°C 





















































































0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 14 16 18 2.0 

VCE, COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 





70 


% 


60 








SO 
















40 






h 






30 






o 




o 


20 




10 
























1 




lF = 


0mA 

















































TA 


25°C 




















70°C 

































































0.2 04 0.6 0.8 1.0 12 1.4 16 1.8 2.0 

VCE, COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



^ 10 



COLLECTOR CURRENT versus DIODE CURRENT 
FIGURE 8 - MOC8050 FIGURE 9 - MOC8030 

200 



100 











































































hV 




































































0V 













































































































































































































































































































































































































































^ 10 





















































































































'ce = ; 




































































1.0 


































v 





































































































































































































































































































































































































1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 70 100 

If, DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 70 100 

IF. DIODE CURRENT (mA) 



3-61 



MOC8030, MOC8050 



INTERFACING TTL OR CMOS LOGIC TO 50-VOLT. 1000-OHMS RELAY 
FOR TELEPHONY APPLICATIONS 

In order to interface positive logic to negative-powered electromechanical relays, a change in voltage 
level and polarity plus electrical isolation are required. The MOC8050 can provide this interface and 
eliminate the external amplifiers and voltage divider networks previously required. The circuit below 
shows a typical approach for the interface. 





Relay Ground 



3-62 



M) MOTOROLA 




MRD150 



PLASTIC NPN SILICON PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

. . . designed for application in punched card and tape readers, pattern 
and character recognition equipment, shaft encoders, industrial 
inspection processing and control, counters, sorters, switching and 
logic circuits, or any design requiring radiation sensitivity, stable 
characteristics and high-density mounting. 

• Economical Plastic Package 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wide Application 

• Small Size for High-Density Mounting 

• High Light Current Sensitivity {0.20 mA) for Design Flexibility 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 








Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


VCEO 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


6.0 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation <s> T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


50 
0.67 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


Tj(D.T st g 


-40 to +100 


°C 



( 1 ) Heat Sink should be applied to leads during soldering to prevent Case 
Temperature from exceeding 85°C. 



2.0 

_ ' 8 

< 

I 1.6 

5 1.4 

= 1.2 

o 

x 1.0 

C3 

« 0.8 

o 

o 0.6 

s ° 4 

j? 0.2 



FIGURE 1 - COLLECTOR EMITTER SENSITIVITY 




1 III II 
_V CC = 20V 
COLOR TEMP = 2870"K 




























































































































TYPX 
































































































































































































































1 
1 





1 0.2 0.5 

H, RAOIATIOf 


1.0 2.0 5.0 10 2 
i FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm?) 






40 VOLT 

MICRO-T 

PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

NPN SILICON 

50 MILLIWATTS 





PIN 1. EMITTER 
2. COLLECTOR 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


1.98 


2.34 


0.078 


0.092 


C 


1.22 


1.47 


0.048 


0.058 


D 


0.25 


0.41 


0.010 


0.016 


F 


0.10 


0.15 


0.004 


0.006 


H 


0.51 


0.76 


0.020 


0.030 


K 


4.06 


- 


0.160 


- 


M 


3" 


7" 


3° 


7° 



NOTE: 

1. INDEX BUTTON ON PACKAGE 

BOTTOM IS 0.25/0.51 mm (0.010/0.020) 
DIA & 0.05/0.13 mm (0.002/0.005) OFF 
SURFACE. 

CASE 173-01 



3-63 



MRD150 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Units 


Collector Dark Current 
( V CC = 20 v . Base Open) 
(Note 2) T A = 25°C 
T A = 85°C 




'CEO 


- 


5.0 


0.10 


„A 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(IC = 100 ^A; Base Open; Note 2) 


- 


v (BR)CEO 


40 


_ 


_ 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 fiA; Base Open, Note 2) 


" 


v (BR)ECO 


6.0 


_ 


- 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Units 


Collector Light Current 

(Vcc = 20 V; R L = 100 ohms; Base Open) 
(Note 1) 


1 


«L 


0.20 


0.45 


- 


rnA 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 3) 


2 and 3 


«r 


- 


2.5 


- 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 3) 


2 and 3 


tf 


- 


4.0 


- 


MS 


Wavelength of Maximum Sensitivity 


9 


^s(typ) 


- 


0.8 


- 


jim 



NOTES: 

1. Radiation Flux Density (H) equal to 5.0 mW/cm 2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (H = 0). 



3 For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation is 
provided by a pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting 
diode (A = 0.9 Mm) with a pulse width equal to or greater than 
10 microseconds (see Figure 2 and Figure 3). 



FIGURE 2 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT 

vcc 

?+20 V 



FIGURE 3 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST WAVEFORM 




= 1.0 mA i ^ 
PEAK I > L " ,0 ° ! OUTPUT 



0.1 V — 











t 




— - 


t r 





«l 





3-64 



MRD150 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER CHARACTERISTICS 





COLOR TEMP = 2870'K 


H = lOmWW 








< 0.8 










































z 


fH 












/ 









£ 0.6 




























<= 
























































o 




















u 0.2 


'• ' ' 




































• 




















































i 


jr ' 























5.0 10 16 20 

VCE. COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR 
SATURATION CHARACTERISTICS 



> 1.2 
cc 

I 0.8 

I 0.6 

u 

^ 0.4 
o 

£ o 





























ll 


















































































































I 












| 






























V 




0. 




TlA 




10.5 


L 






















































cc 

"TL 


L( 
NC 


R 
S 


T 
E 


:m 

NS 


' = 287CTK 1 































URC 














y 


\ 












































^ 


















































J 



0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0" 10 20 50 100 

H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm2) 



10,000 


FIGURE 6 


-DARK CURRENT 


versus TEMPERATURE 
















































































































































































ao 




























5 100 




























































































Q 10 


























































































o 






























£ , n 






























o 
























































































































— 






























0.01 































20 40 60 

Ta, ambient TEMPERATURE (°C) 





25 
20 
15 
10 
5.0 



FIGURE 7- 


DARK CURRENT versus VOLTAGE 




1 1 
T A = 25°C 
















■5. 




H = 


















z 
cc 












































CC 

< 






















o 
cc 






















UJ 






















o 






















d 






















— 























10 20 30 40 50 

VCE. COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 







FIGURE 8- 


ANGULAR RESPONSE 


























80 










































1 60 










































cc 

> 40 

< 










































cc 

20 


































































FIGURE 9 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



100 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 100 

ANGLE (Ongrtts) 





IUU 

80 

60 

40 

20 





































se 




































I 


















> 

< 


































CC 























































0.4 0.5 0.6 



0.7 0.8 0.9 

X, WAVELENGTH (jim) 



1.0 1.1 1.2 



3-65 



® 



PLASTIC NPN SILICON PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

. . . designed for application in punched card and tape readers, pattern 
and character recognition equipment, shaft encoders, industrial 
inspection processing and control, counters, sorters, switching and 
logic circuits, or any design requiring radiation sensitivity, stable 
characteristics and high-density mounting. 

• Economical Plastic Package 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wide Application 

• Small Size for High-Density Mounting 

• High Light Current Sensitivity (0.50 mA) for Design Flexibility 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 

• Complement to MLED60/90 LEDs 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


6.0 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation <a T& = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
1.3 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


TjID.Tstg 


-40 to +85 


°C 



(1) Heat Sink should be applied to leads during soldering to prevent Case 
Temperature from exceeding 85°C. 



F 

~ 10 

M 5.0 
o 

o^ 30 
£ £ 2.0 

n 

o £ i.o 

■z. |_ 

£| 

-I 0.5 
tr I— 
3 0.3 

| 0.2 

- 0.1 


IGURE 1 - NORMALIZED LIGHT CURRENT versus 
RADIATION FLUX DENSITY 


* 


















































3a As SOURCE 


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































y" 















































































































2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 2 
H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 






MRD160 



40 VOLT 

PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

NPN SILICON 




A 



STYLE 2: 

PIN 1. ANODE 
2. CATHODE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


2.34 


2.59 


0.092 


0.102 


B 


2.11 


2.36 


0.083 


0.093 


C 


239 


2.64 


0.094 


0.104 





0.64 


0.74 


0.026 


0.029 


F- 


0.46 


0.56 


0.018 


0.022 


H 


1.57 


1.83 


0.062 


0.072 


J 


0.20 


0.30 


0.008 


0.012 


K 


9.65 


- 


0.380 


- 


M 


9° 


11° 


9° 


11° 



CASE 234-04 



3-66 



MRD160 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 25°C unless noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Units 


Collector Dark Current 
(V C C = 20 V; Note 2) 

T A = 25°C 
T A = 85°C 




'CEO 


- 


5.0 


0.10 


HA 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l C " ,I 100MA;Note2) 


- 


v (BRICEO 


40 


- 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 mA; Note 2) 


- 


v (BR)ECO 


6.0 


- 


- 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 25°C unless noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Units 


Collector Light Current 

(Vcc = 20 V; R L = 100 ohms; Note 1) 


1 


l|_ 


0.50 


1.5 


- 


mA 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 3) 


2 and 3 


«r 


- 


2.5 


- 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 3) 


2 and 3 


tf 


- 


4.0 


- 


M* 



NOTES: 

1. Radiation Flux Density (t-0 equal to 5.0 mW/cm? emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (H«s0). 



3. For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation is 
provided by a pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting 
diode (X = 0.9 tim) with a pulse width equal to or greater than 
10 microseconds (see Figure 2 and Figure 3). 



FIGURE 2 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT 

vcc 

?+20 V 



FIGURE 3 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST WAVEFORM 




i - 1.0 mA I s n .n„^. 
PEAK \> R L = '°° n OUTPUT 




3-67 



MRD160 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - CONTINUOUS LIGHT CURRENT varsus DISTANCE FIGURE 5 - PULSED LIGHT CURRENT versus DISTANCE 

100 
50 



0.02 
0.01 



































rr source = mled6o zzz 














U 


= 25°C 


V 




















> ^ 




















X 


X- 






































V 






-s- 














V 




s 
















^ 


>* 




















s 
















50 mA- 


















'F 


















25 mA — 






















































1C 


mA 



2.0 4.0 6.0 8 



10 12 14 16 

d, LENS SEPARATION (mm) 



_, 1.0 
0.5 

0.2 
0.1 



1 










- SOL 


















RCE = MLED60 












\\ I 






















- 25°C 
































=: 


I=T^ 


==^a 






EEEEJ 






= 




































1.0 A - 




































=t— -j 

















^^3 0.5 A : 














I -^ 




































0.10A 


















I — ^__ 


















[ ■ — - 


















I 



1.0 6.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 

d, LENS SEPARATION (mm) 



FIGURE 6 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 





100 
80 
60 
40 

20 





















































~ 














£ 
















o 


















< 


















£ 


















































0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1. 

I, WAVELENGTH (urn) 







FIGURE 7- 


ANGULAR RESPONSE 




100 


















80 


































60 


































40 


































20 




/ 


















































60 40 20 20 40 60 

0, ANGLE DEGREES 



FIGURE 8 - SATURATION CHARACTERISTICS WITH 
TUNGSTEN SOURCE 



g 






I 




















I 


I 




URATI 
























T A = 25°C 

2870°K 

TUNGSTEN 
























2_ 1.0 














































SOUR 


CE 


EMITT 
E (VOL 


















































I 
















CTOR 
LTAG 


































































il °- 4 






































L 




























3 0.2 


I c = 200kA 


\ 








s. 50 


0^A 


sj.0 mA' 








2.0 mA 






























> 










I 


I 

















1.0 2.0 5.0 

H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 



3-68 



'M) MOTOROLA 



MRD300 
MRD310 



NPN SILICON HIGH SENSITIVITY 
PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

. . . designed for application in industrial inspection, processing and 
control, counters, sorters, switching and logic circuits or any design 
requiring radiation sensitivity, and stable characteristics. 

• Popular TO-18 Type Package for Easy Handling and Mounting 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wider Application 

• Minimum Light Current 4 mA at H = 5 mW/cm 2 (MRD300) 

• External Base for Added Control 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 



50 VOLT 

PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

NPN SILICON 

250 MILLIWATTS 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 


Rating (Note 1) 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


50 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


VECO 


7.0 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


80 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation <s> Ta = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Junction and Storage 
Temperature Range 


Tj.Tstg 


-65 to +200 


°C 








FIGURE 1 - LIGHT CURRENT versus IRRADIANCE 




16 

< 

E 
K 12 

z 

cc 
cc 

3 8.0 

t- 

X 
CD 

^4.0 





IMI I I 
V CC = 20V 
TUNGSTEN SOURCE 












/ MRD300 




























































































































































































'mf 


0310 















































































































.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 5 
H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 







STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. BASE D--JU- 

3 COLLECTOR 




NOTES: 

1. LEADSWITHIN .13 mm (.005) RADIUS 
OF TRUE POSITION AT SEATING 
PLANE, AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL 
CONDITION. 

2. PIN 3 INTERNALLY CONNECTED TO 
CASE. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


B 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


457 


6.48 


0.180 


0.255 


D 


0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


F 


- 


1.14 


- 


0.045 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° BSC 


45° BSC 



3-69 



MRD300, MRD310 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 

(V CC = 20 V, H^OI T A = 25°C 
T A = 100°C 


•ceo 


- 


5.0 
4.0 


25 


na 
MA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l C = 100 mA) 


v (BR)CBO 


80 


120 




Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
<I C = 100 mA) 


v (BR)CEO 


50 


85 


~ 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 liA) 


V(BR)ECO 


7.0 


8.5 




Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Device 
Type 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Light Current 
(Vcc = 20 V, R|_ = 100 ohms) Note 1 


MRD300 
MRD310 


'L 


4.0 
1.0 


8.0 
3.5 


: 


mA 


Light Current 
(Vcc = 20 V, R|_= 100 ohms) Note 2 


MRD300 
MRD310 


'L 


- 


2.5 
0.8 


- 


mA 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 3) (R|_ = 100 ohms 

l(_ = 1.0 mA peak) 




tr 


- 


2.0 


2.5 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 3) (R|_ = 100 ohms 

l|_ = 1.0 mA peak) 




tf 




2.5 


4.0 


MS 



NOTES: 

Radiation flux density (H) equal to 5.0 mW/cm 2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 
Radiation flux density (H) equal to 0.5 mW/cm 2 (pulsed) from 
a GaAs (gallium-arsenide) source at XasO.9 Mm. 
For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation Is pro- 
vided by pulsed QeAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode 
(X * 0.9 Mm) with a pulse width equal to or greater than 10 
microseconds (see Figure 6) l|_ " 1.0 mA peak. 



3-70 



MRD300, MRD310 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER 
SATURATION CHARACTERISTIC 



FIGURE 3 - NORMALIZED LIGHT CURRENT 
varus TEMPERATURE 

























T 
C 


Ml 1 1 
UNGSTEN SOURCE 


o 
> 0.8 

CD 











T)A 










\. 


.0 


OLC 


RTEMP 


= 28 


70°K 
















V 












o 0.6 












. 








\ 














































t- 
i 0.4 

GC 






















\ 






















^ 


I 








\ 












U 

3 02 

o 












L V 


\ 


^ 








v 


^. 


- — 


































■" n 






I I I 
























- ( 


.3 





5 






1.0 


2 







5 









10 


2 


30 



1.4 



n 1.2 
< 1.0 

I 0.8 

- 0.6 

0.4 

0.2 




I I 

Vcc = 20 V i 
















Note 1 



















































































































































































H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (rmV/cm2) 



-50 -25 25 50 75 100 125 150 

Ta. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



FIGURE 4 - RISE TIME versus 
LIGHT CURRENT 



FIGURE 5 - FALL TIME versus 
LIGHT CURRENT 

































s 60 














Note 3 












































I 5 -° 


























































= 4.0 

>- 


























































Z 3.0 
























































■ 500 n — 


£ 2.0 
o 

a. 

^ 1.0 












































































































■ 50 n 




































2 







5 






1.0 2 







5 









10 2 



7.0 

1 6.0 

s 

»3 5.0 

< 

t 4-0 

Z 
OC 

5 3.0 

o 

5 20 

a. 

* 1.0 































Note 3 


































































































■»>. 
































-- 500 n 








"^s*; 


»* "*--. 






























-■ 250 n 




















:; ioo n 




















son 











































lL, LIGHT CURRENT (mA) 



1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 
lL. LIGHT CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 6 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT AND WAVEFORM 



NX. O 




lL = 1.0 mA 




3-71 



MRD300, MRD310 



FIGURE 7 - DARK CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 































< 10 






: H=0 
























3 
























►- 




























£ 1.0 
































ec 
































^ 
































* 0.1 
































































o 
































£ Of 


— : 






























































CJ 
































l! 0.001 
































o 
































































S o.oooi 






























































































































0.00001 

































-50 -25 25 50 75 100 125 

Ta, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



FIGURE 8 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



FIGURE 9 - ANGULAR RESPONSE 





















80 


































1 6 ° 


































> 40 
< 


































S 20 


































n 



















10U 




































=s 




































1 60 


















> 40 

< 


































20 





















































0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 



0.8 0.9 1.0 

X, WAVELENGTH (^m) 



40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 

ANGLE (DEGREESI 



3-72 



'M) MOTOROLA 



NPN SILICON HIGH SENSITIVITY 
PHOTO DARLINGTON TRANSISTORS 



designed for application in industrial inspection, processing and 
control, counters, sorters, switching and logic circuit or any design 
requiring very high radiation sensitivity at low light levels. 

• Popular TO 18 Type Hermetic Package for Easy Handling and 

Mounting 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wider Application 

• Minimum Light Current 12 mA at H = 0.5 mW/cm 2 (MRD360) 

• External Base for Added Control 



• Switching Times - 

t r @ l L = 1.0 mA peak = 15/us(Typ) - MRD370 
tf @ l L = 1.0 mA peak = 25 lis (Typ) - MRD370 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating (Note 1) 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


10 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


50 


Volts 


Light Current 


'L 


250 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J- T stg 


-65 to +200 


°C 



FIGURE 1 - LIGHT CURRENT versus IRRADIANCE 























bz:... 










_._." 


- _. 




i i 
















p_ j_ H 


i [ ... 1 - 










0360^ 


















^— ^ 














RD370 
























































































































| 




_l_ J 


' 








„ 


S> 2870 
















H 


°K 
























1 ^ ! ' 


i 









0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 
H, RADIATION FLUX 0ENSITY (mW/crn^) 



MRD360 
IMR0370 



PHOTO DARLINGTON 

TRANSISTORS 

NPN SILICON 

40 VOLTS 

250 MILLIWATTS 




L "B 



SEATING 
PLANE 



D— IU 



ft 




STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. BASE 

3. COLLECTOR 



NOTES: 

1. LEADS WITHIN .13 mm (.005) RADIUS 
OF TRUE POSITION AT SEATING 
PLANE, AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL 
CONDITION. 

2. PIN 3 INTERNALLY CONNECTED TO 
CASE. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


• 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


4.57 


6.48 


0.180 


0.255 





0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


F 


- 


1.14 


- 


0.045 


6 


2.54 8SC 


0.100 BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.S4 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


_ 


0.500 


_ 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45°BSC 


45" BSC 



CASE 82-05 

TO-18 Type 



3-73 



MRD360, MRD370 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A ■ 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 

(V CE = 10 V, H«0) T A =25°C 


'CEO 


- 


10 


100 


nA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l C = 100 mA) 


V(BR)CBO 


50 


100 


- 


Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l C = 100 nA) 


v (BR)CEO 


40 


80 


~ 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 mA) 


V(BR)EBO 


10 


15.5 


~ 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted.) 



Characteristic 


Device Type 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Light Current 

V cc = 5.0 V, R L = 10 Ohms (Note 1) 


MRD360 
MRD370 


'L 


12 
3.0 


20 
10 


- 


mA 


Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage 
(l(_ = 10 mA, H = 2 mW/cm 2 at 2870°K) 




v CE(sat> 


" 


0.6 


1.0 


Volts 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 2) <R(_ = 100 ohms 

l(_ = 1.0 mA peak) 


MRD360 
MRD370 


tr 


- 


15 
15 


100 
100 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 2) (R(_ = 100 ohms 

l(_ = 10 mA peak) 


MRD360 
MRD370 


tf 


- 


65 
40 


150 
150 


MS 



NOTES: 

1. Radiation flux density (H) equal to 0.5 mW/cm 2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2780°K. 

2. For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation is pro- 
vided by pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode 
(A. ** 0.9 Mm) with a pulse width equal to or greater than 500 
microseconds (see Figure 6) l(_ = 1.0 mA peak. 



3-74 



MRD360, MRD370 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER 
SATURATION CHARACTERISTIC 



FIGURE 3 - COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS 







































1.2 






































































1.0 






































































0.8 






























































_l 


20 mA 


0.6 
































JOrnA 
































"^ 




04 






























2.0 mA** 

1 LI.. 









^^H 


= 1.0mW/cm 2 














































































' 


























































0.2 










































































































































0.1 

1 













2.0 


4.0 


6.0 


8.0 


10 



H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm?) 



V C E. COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 4 - NORMALIZED LIGHT CURRENT 
versus TEMPERATURE 





















































































































































- 


















































































































































































VCE = 5.0V 

























































-60 -40 -20 



20 40 60 80 100 120 140 

Ta, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE CO 



FIGURE 5 - DARK CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 

1000c 




20 40 60 80 100 

Ta. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C> 



FIGURE 6 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT AND WAVEFORM 




It. = 1 mA 







3-75 



MRD360, MRD370 



FIGURE 7 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



FIGURE 8 - ANGULAR RESPONSE 











/ 










80 








/ 


























60 


































40 


































20 


































n 



















0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1. 

X, WAVELENGTH (jim) 



1.U 
0.9 
0.8 
0.7 
0.E 












""" — i 


X 












j 








N 












/ 










\ 










-f 










Vi 






0.5 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 






f 










\ 




















\ 








— 7 


/ 

— 










\ 







0.1 


— 


■/ 
















V 






n 




/ 


















^ 






-16 -12 


8-4 +4 +8 


+12 


+16 +2 










ANGLE (DEGREES) 













3-76 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MRD450 



PLASTIC NPN SILICON PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

. . . designed for application in industrial inspection, processing and 
control, counters, sorters, switching and logic circuits or any design 
requiring radiation sensitivity, and stable characteristics. 

• Economical Plastic Package 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wide Application 

• Minimum Sensitivity (0.2 mA/mW/cm^) for Design Flexibility 

• Unique Molded Lens for High, Uniform Sensitivity 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Rating (Note 1) 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


60 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


100 
13 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Junction Temperature Range 


Tj(D 


-40 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-40 to +85 


°C 



(1 ) Heat Sink should be applied to leads during soldering to prevent Case Temperature fron 
exceeding 85°C. 



SRCEO. collector-emitter 

RADIATION SENSITIVITY 
(mA/mW/cm2) 


FIGURE 1 -COLLECTOR EMITTER SENSITIVITY 




I II! I I 

vrjc = 20V 

"COLOR TEMP = 2870K 
^TUNGSTEN SOURCE 
























































































TYP 








































- 




























; 


































































































































1 












l/ll 


\l 
































































































1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 2 
H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY <mW/cm2) 






40 VOLT 

PHOTO TRANSISTOR 

NPN SILICON 

100 MILLIWATTS 




i: 



STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. EMITTER 
2. COLLECTOR 
Q 




NOTE: 

1. LEAD IDENTIFICATION: SQUARE 
BONDING PAD OVER PIN 2. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


3.56 


4.06 


0.140 


0.160 


C 


4.57 


5.33 


0.180 


0.210 


D 


0.46 


0.61 


0.018 


0.024 


F 


0.23 


028 


0.009 


0.011 


H 


1.02 


1.27 


0.040 


0.050 


K 


6.35 


- 


0.250 


- 


L 


033 


0.48 , 


0.013 


0.019 


Q 


1.91 N0M 


0.075 N0M 



3-77 



MRD450 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 
(V CC = 20 V. Note 2) 

T A = 25°C 
T A = 85°C 


'CEO 


- 


5.0 


0.10 


MA 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(IC = 100 mA; Note 2) 


v (BR)CEO 


40 




- 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 nA; Note 2) 


v (BR)ECO 


60 


- 


- 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Radiation Sensitivity 
(Vcc = 20 V, R L = 100 ohms. Note 1) 


1 


s RCEO 


0.2 


0.8 


- 


mA/mW/cm 2 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 3) 


2 and 3 


«r 


- 




2.5 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 3) 


2 and 3 


«f 


- 




4.0 


MS 


Wavelength of Maximum Sensitivity 


9 


*s 


- 


0.8 


- 


tim 



NOTES: 

1. Radiation Flux Density (H) equal to 5 mW/cm 2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (H%0). 



3. For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation is 
provided by a pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting 
diode (\ ^0.9 jiml with a pulse width equal to or greater than 
10 microseconds (see Figure 2 and Figure 3) 



FIGURE 2 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT 

vcc 

9*20 V 



FIGURE 3 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST WAVEFORM 



i- 1.0 mA i < 
PEAK i > B l = ™ !l OUTPUT 



0.1 V 


t, 




<f 


[ 









3-78 



MRD450 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 4 - COLLECTOR-EMITTER CHARACTERISTICS 















COLOR TEMP = 2870*K 








H = tf» mNNl"^ 






























































7.0 
5.0 


- — - 




























— ■ 


. 


3.0 





























2.0 










- *-= — 










"1.0 " 










r — 



















5.0 



10 



15 



20 



Vce. COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 
FIGURE 6 - DARK CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 



> 1.2 



Z! 0.4 
o 

" 0.2 



FIGURE 5 - COLLECTOR SATURATION 
CHARACTERISTICS 















1 








I 


COLOR TEMP = 2870\! 




































II 


1 






















J 














\ 














1 








I 




































t 
















\ 


c 


= 


)1 mA 




J 


1.0 






5.0 




























































































































































J 















01 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 

H, RADATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 

FIGURE 7 - DARK CURRENT versus VOLTAGE 





















































































































vce 


= 20 



























































































































































































































































































































































































































20 40 60 80 

T A , AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°CI 



FIGURE 8 - ANGULAR RESPONSE 

























* 20 


— 


T A = 2 
H = 


5°C 
































3 
o 
* 15 

< 










































1 10 










































O 

° 5.0 
o 

































































10 20 30 40 50 

V CE , COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 

FIGURE 9 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



1UU 




























1 \ 












' 





, 








S 






y 


§ 60 


















> 40 

< 


































20 





















































40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 

ANGLE (DEGREES) 

























































60 


































40 


































20 





















































0.4 0.5 0.6 



0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 

X, WAVELENGTH (Mm) 



3-79 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MRD500 
MRD510 



PIN SILICON PHOTO DIODE 



. . designed for application in laser detection, light demodulation, 
detection of visible and near infrared light-emitting diodes, shaft or 
position encoders, switching and logic circuits, or any design requiring 
radiation sensitivity, ultra high-speed, and stable characteristics. 

• Ultra Fast Response - «1 .0 ns Typ) 

• High Sensitivity _ MRD500 (1.2 M A/mW/cm2 Min) 

MRD510 (0.3 MA/mW/cm2 Min) 

• Available With Convex Lens (MRD500) or Flat Glass (M RD510) for 

Design Flexibility 

• Popular TO-18 Type Package for Easy Handling and Mounting 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wide Application 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 



PHOTO DIODE 
PIN SILICON 

100 VOLTS 

100 MILLIWATTS 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


100 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation <S> T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
0.57 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


TjTstg 


-65 to +200 


°C 





MRD500 

(CONVEX LENSI 

CASE 209-01 




MRD510 
(FLAT GLASS) 
CASE 210-01 




NOTES 

1 PIN 2INTERNALLYC0NNECTE0 
TO CASE 

2 LEADS WITHIN 13 mm (00051 
RADIUS OF TflUE POSITION AT 
SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM 
MATERIAL C0N0ITI0N 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


531 


514 


0.209 




1 


452 


4.95 


178 


0.195 


C 


5.06 


6.35 


0.200 


0.250 





0.41 


0.40 


016 


0.019 


F 


51 


1.02 


0.020 


0.040 


G 


2* BSC 


10 BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039. 


0.046 


J 


0.14 


122 


0.033 


0.041 


K 


1270 




0.500 




I 


335 


4.01 


0.132 




M 


45° ISC 


45" BSC 



CASE 209-01 




NOTES 

1 PIN 2 INTERNALLY CDNNEC1 
TO CASE 

2 LEADS WITHIN 13 10005) 
RADIUS OF TRUE POSITION 
AT SEATING PLANE AT MAXI 
MATERIAL CONDITION 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 1 MAX 




5 31 


5J4 


0.209 1 0.230 




4.52 


«w 


0.171 0.195 




4.57 


513 


0.1M 1 0.210 




0.4f 


0.41 


0.016 1 0.019 




2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 




0.99 


117 


0.039 I 0.O4S 




0J4 


122 


0.031 0.041 




12.70 




0.500 1 - 




45" BSC 


4S BSC 



CASE 210-01 



3-80 



MRD500, MRD510 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 


25°C unles 


otherwise noted) 








Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Dark Current 

(Vr = 20 V, R|_ = 1.0 megohm; Note 2) 
T A = 25°C 
T A = 10O°C 


4 and 5 


id 




14 


2.0 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(Ir = 10mA) 


- 


V (BR)R 


100 


300 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 

(Ic = 50 mA] 


- 


v F 


- 


0.82 


1.1 


Volts 


Series Resistance 
(l F = 50 mA) 


~ 


Rs 


_ 


1.2 


10 


ohms 


Total Capacitance 

(Vr = 20 V.f = 1.0 MHz) 


6 


c T 


~ 


2.5 


4 


pF 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Ta = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Radiation Sensitivity 

(V R = 20 V, Note 1) MRD500 

MRD510 


2 and 3 


Sr 


1.2 
0.3 


3 
0.42 


- 


MA/mW/cm2 


Sensitivity at 0.8 tun 

(Vr = 20 V. Note 3) MRD500 

MRD510 


^ 


s (\ = 0.8(im! 


- 


6.6 
1.5 


- 


MA/mW/cm? 


Response Time 

(Vr = 20 V, R L = 50 ohms) 


_ 


l (resp) 




1.0 




ns 


Wavelength of Peak Spectral Response 


7 


*s 


- 


0.8 


- 


nm 



1. Radiation Flux Density (H) equal to 5.0 mW/cm 2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (HasO). 

3. Radiation Flux Density (H) equal to 0.5 mW/cm 2 a t 0.8 fim. 



3-81 



MRD500, MRD510 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - IRRADIATED VOLTAGE - CURRENT 
CHARACTERISTIC FOR MRDSOO 





























I 


I'ii 


' 


I 


-4 i i 10 I ! 


^ 




r i — i — i | 




I 


! i i 5.0 ! 


- - 1 


1 1 1 i -r — 


! 






















i.U 












( 




! 


I ! ' 




I 




! 


1.0 i 


■"~ 1 


I 1 — \— - 


! 


i ! 








I 


i 


0.5 i 




I 


I I ! ! ! 





10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

V R , REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 3 - IRRADIATED VOLTAGE - CURRENT 
CHARACTERISTIC FOR MRD 510 

















1 1 

=ZH = 20mW/cm2 = 








10. 




" 




































_5.0 




—- 




































2.0 














































































1.0 




~— 






















































0.5 













































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Vr, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 4 - DARK CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 



FIGURE 5 - DARK CURRENT versus REVERSE VOLTAGE 

















i 




















= 20V 

= 


















vr 


















H 


























































































































































































































































^- 


















-7*- 


















^ 











































































































































50 75 100 

Ta, TEMPERATURE (°C) 



0.2 
















I 
T = 25°C _ 




< 0.15 
















H = 







































































< 
o 

-0.05 


































































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Vr, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 6 - CAPACITANCE versus VOLTAGE 



FIGURE 7 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL RESPONSE 





































f = 1. 


IMHz 
























v 




















\ 


^ 















































































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Vr, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 












































































































































































































0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 
X, WAVELENGTH (fin) 



3-82 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MRD3010 
MRD30U 



250 V NPN SILICON PHOTO TRIAC DRIVER 

. . . designed for applications requiring light and infrared 
LED TRIAC triggering, small size, and low cost. 

• Hermetic Package at Economy Prices 

• Popular TO-18 Type Package for Easy Handling and Mounting 

• High Trigger Sensitivity 

HpT = 0.5 mW/cm 2 (Typ-MRD301 1) 



OPTICALLY TRIGGERED 
TRIAC DRIVER 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Off-State Output Terminal Voltage 


V DRM 


250 


Volts 


On-State RMS Current T A = 25°C 
(Full Cycle, 50 to 60 Hz) T A = 70°C 


•tirmsi 


100 
50 


mA 
mA 


Peak Nonrepetitive Surge Current 
<PW = 10 ms, DC = 10%) 


•tsm 


1.2 


A 


Total Power Dissipation @T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


400 
2.28 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Ambient Temperature Range 


T A 


-40 to +70 


°C 


Junction Temperature Range 


Tj 


-40 to +100 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-40 to +150 


°C 


Soldering Temperature (10 s) 


- 


260 


°C 










H 










STYLE 3: 

PIN 1. MAIN TERMINAL 

2. MAIN TERMINAL 

3. SUBSTRATE 
(do not connect) 

NOTES: 

1. LEADSWITHIN .13 mm (.005) RADIUS 
OF TRUE POSITION AT SEATING 
PLANE. AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL 
CONDITION. 

2. PIN 3 INTERNALLY C0NNECTE0 TO 
CASE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


■ 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


4.57 


6.48 


0.180 


0.255 


D 


0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


F 


- 


1.14 


- 


0.045 


Q 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


i 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


_ 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.168 


M 


45° BSC 


45° BSC 



3-83 



MRD3010, MRD3011 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (t a - 25°c uni, 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



Typ 



DETECTOR CHARACTERISTICS (l F = uni, 



Peak Blocking Current, Either Direction 
(Rated Vdrm, Note 1) 


'drm 


- 


10 


100 


nA 


Peak On-State Voltage, Either Direction 
(IjM = 10 ° mA Peak) 


V TM 


- 


2.5 


3.0 


Volts 


Critical Rate of Rise of Off-State Voltage, Figure 3 


dv/dt 


- 


2.0 


- 


V/^s 


Critical Rate of Rise of Commutation Voltage, Figure 3 
('load = 15 mA) 


dv/dt 


- 


0.15 


- 


V//js 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Maximum Irradiance Level Required to Latch Output 

(Main Terminal Voltage 3.0 V, R L = 150 fi) MRD3010 
Color Temperature = 2870°K MRD301 1 


HFT 




1.0 
0.5 


5.0 
2.0 


mW/cm 2 


Holding Current, Either Direction 

Initiating Flux Density = 5.0 mW/cm 2 


'H 




100 


- 


HA 



NOTE 1. Test voltage must be applied within dv/dt rating. 



FIGURE 1 -ON STATE CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - dv/dt TEST CIRCUIT 








npul 


PiiIsp 


Wicltl 


= 80 


K 


















400 


H = 5mW'Cm2@2870° 
! -- 60 H/ 


















T 


A = 2 


°C 











































1 
i i 


! 






























400 


























































800 































-14 -12 -10 -80 -60 -40 -2.0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 
V TM , 0N-STATt VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



vcc 




Rimn 



Commutating 
dv/dt 




dv/dt = 8 9 f V. 



FIGURE 3 - dv/dt versus LOAD RESISTANCE 



FIGURE 4 - dv/dt versus TEMPERATURE 



11 






















20 










St 


tic 






























1.6 


Vin 
Test 


30 V 
Circuit 


MS 

n Figur 
















2 














1.2 


























Co 


nmutat 


rig- 












0.8 










































0.4 























0.8 1.2 

R L , LOAD RESISTANCE (kS2) 























Stati 


1 
tlv/dt 

























Commutating dv/dt 






















Citcu 


t in 


rigui 


el 
































































R| 




k» 


O 






















































' — 


-f 1 




























R L = 510!! 




"— ~ 


— 


— 


__ 












- .. 
























' — 




































"^ 

































26 30 40 



50 



60 



70 



T A , AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C> 



3-84 



MRD3010, MRD3011 



FIGURE 5 - COMMUTATING dv/dt versus FREQUENCY 



FIGURE 6 - MAXIMUM NONREPETITIVE SURGE CURRENT 



10 100 1000 10.000 

f, MAXIMUM OPERATING FREQUENCY (Hz) 



1000 
























; + 




dv/dt = 


15 V/us 










£ 3.0 

s 
< 




n 






llll 


C 
















II 












































Test Circuit in Figure 2 
dv/dt = 8.9 V in t 


l» = IS" 






























































s 






























H = 5.0 mW/cm' ®> 2870 U K 


> 


. t 


















! 






















S 100 
































L 


















































































■f 


























§ 2.0 


--~ 


-» 


■• 




1 

1 


"—■ * 


— . 


■■ 


1 
























> 


















































o 












































































































































| 10 


















































c 




































































































































































































































































ii; 










1 






















































1.0 
























1 



























PW, PULSE WIOTH(ms) 



RESISTIVE LOAD 



INDUCTIVE LOAD 



1 390 



V, • VW 4 120 V 



X 



V • WV <i 

o 




TRIAC l GT < 15 mA 
R - 2.4 k 
C1 = 0.1 /l/F 

TRIAC l G T > 15 mA 
R = 1.2 kft 
CI = 0.2 pF 



3-85 



@ 



MOTOROLA 



MRD3050,MRD3051, 

MRD3054, 
MRD3055.MRD3056 



NPN SILICON PHOTO TRANSISTORS 

. . . designed for application in industrial inspection, processing and 
control, counters, sorters, switching and logic circuits or any design 
requiring radiation sensitivity, and stable characteristics. 

• Hermetic Package at Economy Prices 

• Popular TO-18 Type Package for Easy Handling and Mounting 

• Sensitive Throughout Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Range 

for Wider Application 

• Range of Radiation Sensitivities for Design Flexibility 

• External Base for Added Control 

• Annular Passivated Structure for Stability and Reliability 



30 VOLT 

PHOTO TRANSISTORS 

NPN SILICON 




MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


30 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Voltage 


v ECO 


5.0 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


V C BO 


40 


Volts 


Total Power Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


400 
2.28 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


TjTstg 


-65 to +200 


°C 



THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


R 0JA 


438 


°C/W 



30 

_ 27 

< 

1 24 

| 2. 

cc 

= 18 





VCC = 20 V 


1 














SOURCE TEMP = 2870°K 
TUNGSTEN SOURCE 
TYPICAL CURVE FOR MRO: 














056 























































































































































4.0 6.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 

H, RA0IATI0N FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm2) 



STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. BASE 

3. COLLECTOR 




NOTES: 

1. LEADS WITHIN .13 mm (.005) RADIUS 
OF TRUE POSITION AT SEATING 
PLANE. AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL 
CONDITION. 

2. PIN 3 INTERNALLY CONNECTED TO 
CASE. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


B 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


4.57 


6.48 


0.180 


0.255 





0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


F 


- 


1.14 


- 


0.045 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° BSC 


45° BSC 



3-86 



MRD3050, MRD3051, MRD3054, MRD3055, MRD3056 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 
(Vqc = 20 V, R L = 1.0 Megohm, Note 2) T A = 25°C 

T A = 85°C 


'CEO 


- 


0.02 
5.0 


0.1 


MA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100 mA) 


v (BR)CBO 


40 


100 


- 


Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(IC = 100 nA) 


v (BR)CEO 


30 


75 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 mA) 


v (BR)ECO 


5.0 


8.0 


- 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A - 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector-Light Current 
(Vcc = 20 V, R L = 100 ohms, Note 1) MRD3050 

MRD3051 
MRD3054 
MRD3055 
MRD3056 


1 


'L 


0.1 
0.2 
0.5 
1.5 
2.0 


8.0 


_ 


mA 


Photo Current Saturated Rise Time (Note 3) 


4 


Msat) 


- 


1.0 


- 


MS 


Photo Current Saturated Fall Time (Note 3) 


4 


tf(sat) 


- 


1.0 


- 


us 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 4) 


4 


tr 


- 


2.0 


- 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 4) 


4 


tf 


- 


2.5 


- 


MS 


Wavelength of Maximum Sensitivity 


- 


*s 


- 


0.8 


- 


u m 



NOTES: 

1. Radiation flux density (H) equal to 5.0 mW/cm 2 emitted from 
a tungsten source at a color temperature of 2870°K. 

2. Measured under dark conditions. (HasO). 

3. For saturated switching time measurements, radiation is pro- 
vided by a pulsed xenon arc lamp with a pulse width of 



approximately 1.0 microsecond (see Figure 4). 
For unsaturated switching time measurements, radiation is pro- 
vided by a pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode 
(A?=0.9 M m > with a pulse width equal to or greater than 10 micro- 
seconds (see Figure 4). 



3-87 



MRD3050, MRD3051, MRD3054, MRD3055, MRD3056 



TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - COLLECTOR EMITTER 
CHARACTERISTICS - MRD3056 



I I I 

SOURCE TEMP = 2870°K _, 














TUN 


GSTEN 


SOURC 


E 


























H = 


10 mW/ 


cm^ 


























































50 __ 






















































2U 

1 


















1.0 


















1 





6.0 10 15 20 

VCE. COLLECTOR EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 3 - PHOTO CURRENT varus TEMPERATURE 





1 1 

NORMALIZED TO Ta = 25°C 




1 
VCC = 20V 












N0TE1 


z 
£ 1-5 












** 










^ 


^ 


q 




COLLECTOR EMITTER j 


^y^ 




O 








^^ 








^--*" 






COLLECTOR BASE 


I 0.5 


























z 






























-50 -25 25 50 75 100 

Ta. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



FIGURE 4 - PULSE RESPONSE TEST CIRCUIT AND WAVEFORM 



NX. O- 




0.1 V 







FIGURE 5 -DARK CURRENT versus TEMPERATURE 

















pr=n 














































— 1000 






















































































a: 




























= 100 






























u 
























































































































o 






























u 1.0 




























































o 






























6 0.1 


—M 


e= 


























a 


^ 




























0.01 































-40 -20 20 40 60 80 100 

Ta. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



3-88 



MRD3050, MRD3051, MRD3054, MRD3055, MRD3056 



TYPICAL CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS 

(Extracted from Motorola Application Note AN-508, "Applications of Phototransistors in Electro-Optic Systems") 



FIGURE 6 - STROBE FLASH SLAVE ADAPTER 



FIGURE 7 - LIGHT OPERATED SCR ALARM USING 
SENSITIVE-GATE SCR 




MRD 
3050 



O + 10V 



10V 

Alarm 



/ 



;r~i 



FIGURE 8 - CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR FOR PROJECTION LAMP. 



10 Vrms 
±0.5% 



Input 

105 to 

180 Vac H5V 

100W 




IN 4004 
(4) 



R2 
3.3k/1W 



Ql and Q2: MPS6616 
Q3: MRD3054 



1.5 k 

-* — «' 





Output Adj. 

Potentiometer L rj 

(Range 50-80 V) ^7.5k/2W 



-mS R6 

> 2.0 k 



Q3 E 

— r 



0.1 »jF 
100 V 



B2 
2N 
4870 
Bl 



f 



SCR 
2N4444* 



"2N4444 to be used with a heat sink. 



3-89 




MOTOROLA 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR AND PHOTODARLINGTON 
OPTO COUPLERS 

Extensive series of popular industry couplers in the standard 
dual-in-line plastic package. 

• High Isolation Voltage - 7500 V 

All Motorola couplers are specified at 7500 V ac peak (5 
seconds). This usually exceeds the originator's specification. 

• Specifications Correspond to Originator's Specifications 

All parameters other than isolation voltages are tested to the 
originator's specifications (both condition and limits), including 
parameters which may not be shown on this data sheet. 

• UL Recognition, File No. E54915 

All Motorola devices shown here are UL Recognized. 



rSi iSi ft 




TILH9, 128, 157 ONLY 


ALL OTHERS 


STYLE 3: 


STYLE 1: 


PIN 1. ANODE 


PIN 1. ANODE 


2. CATHODE 


2. CATHODE 


3. NC 


3. NC 


4. EMITTER 


4. EMITTER 


5. COLLECTOR 


5. COLLECTOR 


6. NC 


6. BASE 



NOTES: 

1. DIMENSIONS A AND B ARE DATUMS 

2. T IS SEATING PLANE. 

3. POSI TIONAL TO LERANCES FOR LEADS: 
fffi0O.13( O.OO5)®|T | A(m)|B(m)| 

4 DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEADS 

WHEN FORMED PARALLEL. 
5. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER 

ANSI Y14. 5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


■f 


8.13 


8.89 


0.320 


0.350 


6.10 


6.60 


0.240 


0.260 




2.92 


5.08 


0.115 


0.200 




0.41 


0.51 


0.016 


0.020 




1.02 


1.78 


0.040 


0.070 




2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 




0.20 


0.30 


0.008 


0.012 




254 


3.81 


0.100 


0.150 




7.62 BSC 


0.31 


0BSC 




00 


15° 


0° 
0.015 


150 




38. 


2.54 


0.100 




1 27 


203 


0.050 ! 0.080 



PLASTIC PACKAGE 



OPTO 
COUPLERS/ISOLATORS 



Transistor Couplers 

H11A1, 2.3.4,5 

H11A520, 550. 5100 

IL1, 12, 15,74 

MCT2. 2E, 26 

MCT271.272, 273 

MCT274, 275. 277 

TIL111. 112, 114, 115 

TIL116, 117 

TIL124, 125, 126 

TIL153, 154, 155 



Darlington Couplers 

H11B1,2,3,255 

MCA230, 231,255 

TIL113, 119, 127, 128 

TIL156, 157 




CASE 730A-01 



3-90 



OPTO COUPLERS ISOLATORS 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless 


otherwise noted) 


























Collector- 






Current 






Collector 


Emitter 


LED 


PARAMETER 


Transfer 


Isolation 


Saturation 


Dark 


Breakdown 


Forward 




Ratio 




Voltage (1) 


Voltage 


Current 


Voltage 


Voltage 


TEST 










l F = 


l F =0 




CONDITION 


lp and Vce as 


shown 


Input to Output 


lp and lc as shown 


Vce as shown 


IC as shown 


lp as shown 


SYMBOL 


CTR 




v ISO 


VCE(SAT) 


•CEO 


v (BR)CEO 


v F 


% 




Volts Peak 


Volts 


nA 


Volts 


Volts 






if 


v C e 






'F 


ic 




vce 








if 


Device Type 


Min 


mA 


Volts 


Min 


Max 


mA 


mA 


Max 


Volts 


Min 


ic 


Max 


mA 


H11A1 


50 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


0.5 


50 


10 


30 


10 


1.5 


10 


H11A2 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


05 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


H11A3 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


0.5 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


H11A4 


10 


10 


10 


7500 


04 


10 


05 


50 


10 


30 


10 


1.5 


10 


H11A5 


30 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


0.5 


100 


10 


30 


10 


1.7 


10 


H11A520 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


20 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


1.5 


10 


H11A550 


50 


10 


10 


7500 


04 


20 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


H11A510O 


100 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


20 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


H11B1* 


500 


1.0 


5 


7500 


10 


1.0 


1.0 


100 


10 


25 


10 


15 


10 


H11B2* 


200 


1.0 


50 


7500 


1.0 


10 


10 


100 


10 


25 


10 


1.5 


10 


H11B3" 


100 


10 


5.0 


7500 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


100 


10 


25 


10 


15 


50 


H11B255* 


100 


10 


5.0 


7500 


- 


- 


- 


100 


10 


55 


1 


15 


20 


IL1 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.5 


16 


1.6 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


60 


IL12 


10 


10 


5 


7500 


— 


— 


— 


250 


50 


20 


1.0 


15 


10 


IL15 


6 


10 


10 


7500 


0.5 


50 


20 


100 


50 


30 


1.0 


15 


60 


IL74 


12 5 


16 


5.0 


7500 


0.5 


16 


2.0 


500 


5.0 


20 


10 


1.75 


10 


MCA230* 


100 


10 


5.0 


7500 


10 


50 


50 


100 


10 


30 


0.1 


1.5 


20 


MCA231* 


200 


10 


1.0 


7500 


12 


10 


50 


100 


10 


30 


1.0 


1.5 


20 


MCA255* 


100 


10 


5.0 


7500 


1.0 


50 


50 


100 


10 


55 


1 


15 


20 


MCT2 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


16 


20 


50 


10 


30 


10 


1.5 


20 


MCT2E 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


16 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


1.5 


20 


MCT26 


6 


10 


10 


7500 


0.5 


60 


16 


100 


5.0 


30 


10 


15 


20 


MCT271 


45 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


16 


20 


50 


10 


30 


1.0 


15 


20 


MCT272 


75 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


16 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


20 


MCT273 


125 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


16 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


20 


MCT274 


225 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


16 


20 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


20 


MCT275 


70 


10 


10 


7500 


04 


16 


20 


50 


10 


80 


10 


15 


20 


MCT277 


100 


10 


10 


7500 


- 


- 


- 


50 


10 


30 


1.0 


15 


20 


TIL111 


80 


16 


0.4 


7500 


0.4 


16 


2.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


14 


16 


TIL112 


20 


10 


50 


7500 


0.5 


50 


20 


100 


50 


20 


10 


1.5 


10 


TIL113' 


300 


10 


10 


7500 


1.0 


125 


50 


100 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


TIL114 


80 


16 


04 


7500 


0.4 


16 


20 


50 


10 


30 


10 


14 


16 


TIL115 


20 


10 


5.0 


7500 


05 


50 


20 


100 


50 


20 


10 


15 


10 


TIL116 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


04 


15 


2.2 


50 


10 


30 


10 


15 


60 


TIL117 


50 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


05 


50 


10 


30 


10 


14 


16 


TIL119* 2 


300 


10 


2.0 


7500 


10 


10 


10 


100 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


TIL124 


10 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


10 


50 


10 


30 


1.0 


1.4 


10 


TIL125 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


10 


50 


10 


30 


1.0 


1.4 


10 


TIL126 


50 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


10 


50 


10 


30 


10 


1.4 


10 


TIL127" 


300 


10 


1.0 


7500 


10 


50 


125 


100 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


TIL128* 2 


300 


10 


2.0 


7500 


10 


10 


10 


100 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


TIL153 


10 


10 


10 


7500 


04 


10 


10 


50 


10 


30 


10 


14 


10 


TIL154 


20 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


1.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


14 


10 


TIL155 


50 


10 


10 


7500 


0.4 


10 


1.0 


50 


10 


30 


10 


14 


10 


TIL156" 


300 


10 


10 


7500 


10 


50 


125 


100 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 


TIL157*2 


300 


10 


2.0 


7500 


10 


10 


10 


100 


10 


30 


10 


15 


10 



'Darlington 

(1 ) Isolation Surge Voltage V|so ,s an internal device dielectric breakdown rating. 

For this test LED pins 1 and 2 are common and phototransistor pins 4, 5, and 6 are common. 

(2) See Case 730A-01 , Style 3. 



3-91 



3-92 



OPTOELECTRONICS 



Applications Information 



Si 




4-1 



AN-440 



THEORY AND CHARACTERISTICS 
OF PHOTOTRANSISTORS 



Prepared By: 
John Bliss 



INTRODUCTION 

Phototransistor operation is based on the sensitivity of 
a pn junction to radiant energy. If radiant energy of prop- 
er wave-length is made to impinge on a junction, the cur- 
rent through that junction willincrease. Thisoptoelectronic 
phenomenon has provided the circuit designer with a device 
for use in a wide variety of applications. However, to 
make optimum use of the phototransistor, the designer 
should have a sound grasp of its operating principles and 
characteristics. 

HISTORY 

The first significant relationships between radiation and 
electricity were noted by Gustav Hertz in 1887. Hertz ob- 
served that under the influence of light, certain surfaces 
were found to liberate electrons. 

In 1900, Max Planck proposed that light contained 
energy in discrete bundles or packets which he called 
photons. Einstein formulated this theory in 1905, show- 
ing that the energy content of each proton was directly 
proportional to the light frequency: 

E = hf, (1) 

where E is the photon energy, 
h is Planck's constant, and 
f is the light frequency. 

Planck theorized that a metal had associated with it a 
work function, or binding energy for free electrons. If a 
photon could transfer its energy to a free electron, and 
that energy exceeded the work function, the electron could 
be liberated from the surface. The presence of an electric 
field could enhance this by effectively reducing the work 
function. Einstein extended Planck's findings by showing 
that the velocity, and hence the momentum of an emitted 
electron, depended on the work function and the light 
frequency. 



PHOTO EFFECT IN SEMICONDUCTORS 

Bulk Crystal 

If light of proper wavelength impinges on a semiconduc- 
tor crystal, the concentration of charge carriers is found 
to increase. Thus, the crystal conductivity will increase: 

a = q (Me n + Mh P). (2) 

where a is the conductivity, 

q is the electron charge, 
H e is the electron mobility, 
Hh is the hole mobility, 

n is the electron concentration, and 

p is the hole concentration. 

The process by which charge-carrier concentration is 
increased is shown in Figure 1 . The band structure of the 
semiconductor is shown, with an energy gap, or forbidden 
region, of Eg electron volts. Radiation from two light 
sources is shown striking the crystal. Light frequency f i 
is sufficiently high that its photon energy, hfj, is slightly 
greater than the energy gap. This energy is transferred to 
a bound electron at site one in the valence band, and the 
electron is excited to a higher energy level, site one in the 
conduction band, where it is free to serve as a current 
carrier. The hole left behind at site one in the valence band 
is also free to serve as a current carrier. 

The photon energy of the lower-frequency light, hf2, 
is less than the band gap, and an electron freed from site 
two in the valence band will rise to a level in the forbidden 
region, only to release this energy and fall back into the 
valence band and recombine with a hole at site three. 

The above discussion implies that the energy gap, Eg, 
represents a threshold of response to light. This is true, 
however, it is not an abrupt threshold. Throughout the 
photo-excitation process, the law of conservation of mo- 



4-2 



CONDUCTION 


BAND 


1 G 


) 




E 


9 / 

\7 


%V \ 




y- 




VALENCE 


BAND 


SEMICONDUCTOR CRYSTAL ENERGY STRUCTURE 



FIGURE 1 — Photoeffect in a Semiconductor 

mentum applies. The momentum and density of hole- 
electron sites are highest at the center of both the valence 
and conduction bands, and fall to zero at the upper and 
lower ends of the bands. Therefore, the probability of an 
excited valence-band electron finding a site of like mo- 
mentum in the conduction band is greatest at the center 
of the bands and lowest at the ends of the bands. Conse- 
quently, the response of the crystal to the impinging light 
is found to rise from zero at a photon energy of Eg electron 
volts, to a peak at some greater energy level, and then to 
fall to zero again at an energy corresponding to the differ- 
ence between the bottom of the valence band and the top 
of the conduction band. 

The response is a function of energy, and therefore of 
frequency, and is often given as a function of reciprocal 
frequency, or, more precisely, of wave length. An example 
is shown in Figure 2 for a crystal of cadmium-selenide. On 
the basis of the information given so far, it would seem 
reasonable to expect symmetry in such a curve; however, 
trapping centers and other absorption phenomena affect 
the shape of the curve 1 . 

The optical response of a bulk semiconductor can be 
modified by the addition of impurities. Addition of an 
acceptor impurity, which will cause the bulk material to 
become p-type in nature, results in impurity levels which 
lie somewhat above the top of the valence band. Photo- 
excitation can occur from these impurity levels to the con- 
duction band, generally resulting in a shifting and reshaping 
of the spectral response curve. A similar modification of 
response can be attributed to the donor impurity levels in 
n-type material. 

PN Junctions 

If a pn junction is exposed to light of proper frequency, 
the current flow across the junction will tend to increase. 
If the junction is forward-biased, the net increase will be 
relatively insignificant. However, if the junction is reverse- 
biased, the change will be quite appreciable. Figure 3 shows 
the photo effect in the junction for a frequency well within 
the response curve for the device. 



Photons create hole-electron pairs in the crystal on both 
sides of the junction. The transferred energy promotes 
the electrons into the conduction band, leaving the holes 
in the valence band. The applied external bias provides an 
electric field, £, as shown in the figure. Thus the photo- 
induced electrons in the p-side conduction band will flow 
down the potential hill at the junction into the n-side and 
from there to the external circuit. Likewise, holes in the 
valence band of the n-side will flow across the junction 
into the p-side where they will add to the external current. 




4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 

o 
\, WAVELENGTH (A) 

FIGURE 2 — Spectral Response of Cadmium Selenide 



SIDE 
CONDUCTION BAND 



HaA 




SIDE 
CONDUCTION BAND 



uu-n 



^©8 



VALENCE BAND 



VALENCE BAND 



"I* 



VRB 



FIGURE 3 - Photo Effect in a Reverse-Biased PN Junction 



1. See references for a detailed discussion of these. 



4-3 



Under dark conditions, the current flow through the 
reverse-biased diode is the reverse saturation current, I . 
This current is relatively independent of the applied volt- 
age (below breakdown) and is basically a result of the 
thermal generation of hole-electron pairs. 

When the junction is illuminated, the energy trans- 
ferred from photons creates additional hole-electron pairs. 
The number of hole-electron pairs created is a function of 
the light intensity. 

For example, incident monochromatic radiation of H 
(watts/cm 2 ) will provide P photons to the diode: 



(3) 



r he ' 

where X is the wavelength of incident light, 
h is Planck's constant, and 
c is the velocity of light. 

The increase in minority carrier density in the diode 
will depend on P, the conservation of momentum restric- 
tion, and the reflectance and transmittance properties of 
the crystal. Therefore, the photo current, Ix, is given by 



IX = T?FqA, 



(4) 



where 17 is the quantum efficiency or ratio of current car- 
riers to incident photons, 

F is the fraction of incident photons trans- 
mitted by the crystal, 

q is the charge of an electron, and 

A is the diode active area. 

Thus, under illuminated conditions, the total current 
flow is 



I = Io + IX- 



(5) 



If l\ is sufficiently large, I can be neglected, and by 
using the spectral response characteristics and peak spectral 
sensitivity of the diode, the total current is given approxi- 
mately by 



I^5SrH, 



(6) 



where 5 is the relative response and a function of radiant 
wavelength, 

Sr is the peak spectral sensitivity, and 
H is the incident radiation. 

The spectral response for a silicon photo-diode is given 
in Figure 4. 

Using the above relations, an approximate model of the 
diode is given in Figure 5. Here, the photo and thermally 
generated currents are shown as parallel current sources. 
C represents the capacitance of the reverse-biased junction 
while G represents the equivalent shunt conductance of 
the diode and is generally quite small. This model applies 
only for reverse bias, which, as mentioned above, is the 
normal mode of operation. 






0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 

X, WAVELENGTH (firm) 
FIGURE 4 — Spectral Response of Silicon Photodiode 




FIGURE 5 - Approximate Model of Photodiode 

Photo Transistor 

If the pn junction discussed above is made the collector- 
base diode of a bipolar transistor, the photo-induced cur- 
rent is the transistor base current. The current gain of the 
transistor will thus result in a collector-emitter current of 

I C = (hfe+l)Ix, (7) 

where Iq is the collector current, 

hf e is the forward current gain, and 
IX is the photo induced base current. 

The base terminal can be left floating, or can be biased up 
to a desired quiescent level. In either case, the collector- 
base junction is reverse biased and the diode current is the 
reverse leakage current. Thus, photo-stimulation will re- 
sult in a significant increase in diode, or base current, and 
with current gain will nsult in a significant increase in 
collector current. 

The energy-band diagram for the photo transistor is 
shown in Figure 6. The photo-induced base current is 
returned to the collector through the emitter and the ex- 
ternal circuitry. In so doing, electrons are supplied to the 
base region by the emitter where they are pulled into the 
collector by the electric field £. 



4-4 




FIGURE 6 - Photoeffect in a Transistor 

The model of the photo diode in Figure 5 might also be 
applied to the phototransistor, however, this would be se- 
verely limited in conveying the true characteristics of the 
transistor. A more useful and accurate model can be ob- 
tained by using the hybrid-pi model of the transistor and 
adding the photo-current generator between collector and 
base. This model appears in Figure 7. 

Assuming a temperature of 25°C, and a radiation source 
at the wave length of peak response (i.e., 5 = 1), the follow- 
ing relations apply: 



I\ * SRCBO • H, 

gm = 40 i c , and 
n>e = hfe/gm. 



(8a) 
(8b) 
(8c) 



where SrcBO ' s tne collector-base diode radiation sensitiv- 
ity with open emitter, 

g m is the forward transconductance, 
i c is the collector current, and 
rb e is the effective base-emitter 




In most cases r'b « r^e, and can be neglected. The 
open-base operation is represented in Figure 8. Using this 
model, a feel for the high-frequency response of the device 
may be obtained by using the relationship 



ft* 



_g_m 

2^rC P 



(9) 



where ft is the device current-gain-bandwidth product. 




FIGURE 8 — Floating Base Approximate Model of Phototransistor 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 
OF PHOTOTRANSISTORS 

Spectral Response 

As mentioned previously, the spectral response curve 
provides an indication of a device's ability to respond to 
radiation of different wave lengths. Figure 9 shows the 
spectral response for constant energy radiation for the 
Motorola MRD300 phototransistor series. As the figure 
indicates, peak response is obtained at about 8000 A 
(Angstroms), or 0.8 jim. 



uo 

80 
60 
40 
20 































































\ 
















\ 





FIGURE 7 - Hybrid-pi Model of Phototransistor 



0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 

X., WAVELENGTH (jlm) 
FIGURE 9 - Constant Energy Spectral Response for MRD300 



4-5 




FIGURE 10 - Polar Response of MRD300. Inner Curve with Lens. Outer Curve with Flat Glass. 



Angular Alignment 

Lambert's law of illumination states that the illumina- 
tion of a surface is proportional to the cosine of the angle 
between the normal to the surface and the direction of 
the radiation. Thus, the angular alignment of a photo- 
transistor and radiation source is quite significant. The 
cosine proportionality represents an ideal angular response. 
The presence of an optical lens and the limit of window 
size further affect the response. This information is best 
conveyed by a polar plot of the device response. Such a 
plot in Figure 10 gives the polar response for the MRD300 
series. 



00 
80 
60 
40 














1 
' 1 


20 








1 














2600 2700 2800 2900 

SOURCE COLOR TEMPERATURE (°k) 



FIGURE 12 - Relative Response of MRD300 
versus Color Temperature 




0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 

FIGURE 11 - DC Current Gain versus Collector Current 



DC Current Gain 

The sensitivity of a photo transistor is a function of the 
collector-base diode quantum efficiency and also of the dc 
current gain of the transistor. Therefore, the overall sensi- 
tivity is a function of collector current. Figure 1 1 shows 
the collector current dependence of dc current gain. 

Color Temperature Response 

In many instances, a photo transistor is used with a 
broad band source of radiation, such as an incandescent 
lamp. The response of the photo transistor is therefore 
dependent on the source color temperature. Incandescent 



4-6 



sources are normally operated at a color temperature of 
2870°K, but, lower-color-temperature operation is not 
uncommon. It therefore becomes desirable to know the 
result of a color temperature difference on the photo sensi- 
tivity. Figure 1 2 shows the relative response of the MRD300 
series as a function of color temperature. 

Temperature Coefficient of Ip 

A number of applications call for the use of photo- 
transistors in temperature environments other than normal 
room temperature. The variation in photo current with 
temperature changes is approximately linear with a positive 
slope of about 0.667%/°C. 

The magnitude of this temperature coefficient is prima- 
rily a result of the increase in hp£ versus temperature, 
since the collector-base photo current temperature coeffi- 
cient is only about 0.1%/°C. 



Q - 


2.5 


K 2 


2.0 


1- b 




t< 


1.5 


? f- 




uj — 




ir £ 


1 


o t 




K > 




ffii= 


0.5 


-1 </> 




^ z 

O uj 





U c/> 





V CC = 20 V j 















































2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 

H, .RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 



FIGURE 14 - Open Base Sensitivity versus Radiation for MRD300 



9.0 
8.0 
























— — 
















I 
























5.0 






I 


s* 




















I 




















5.0 
4.0 
3.0 














4.0 




1 














I 

- 




r 














3 







\ 




















2.0 


Y 














2.0 




r 












-I = 1 


I 
.0 mW/cm' 






f~ 



















' 












! I 





2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 
V C6 , COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 

FIGURE 13 - Collector Characteristics for MRO300 

Collector Characteristics 

Since the collector current is primarily a function of 
impinging radiation, the effect of collector-emitter volt- 
age, below breakdown, is small. Therefore, a plot of the 
Irj— Vce characteristics with impinging radiation as a param- 
eter, are very similar to the same characteristics with Ir as 
a parameter. The collector family for the MRD300 series 
appears in Figure 13. 

Radiation Sensitivity 

The capability of a given phototransistor to serve in a 
given application is quite often dependent on the radiation 
sensitivity of the device. The open-base radiation sensitiv- 
ity for the MRD300 series is given in Figure 14. This indi- 
cates that the sensitivity is approximately linear with respect 
to impinging radiation. The additional capability of the 
MRD300 to be pre-biased gives rise to interest in the sensi- 
tivity as a function of equivalent base resistance. Figure 
1 5 gives this relationship. 



V CC = 20 V 

H - 5.0 mW/cm 2 . 








SOURC 


E TEMP = 


2870°K 





































Q - 
<*> 

1 i 
el 

£< 

5 E 

iu — 

O t 
t > 



0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 

(C 

jjj R B , EQUIVALENT BASE RESISTANCE (Uffl 

DC 

FIGURE 15 - Effect of Base Resistance on Sensitivity of MRD300 

Capacitance 

Junction capacitance is the significant parameter in 
determining the high frequency capability and switching 
speed of a transistor. The junction capacitances of the 
MRD300 as a function of junction voltages are given in 
Figure 16. 

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS 
OF PHOTOTRANSISTORS 

Linearity 

The variation of hpg with respect to collector current 
results in a non-linear response of the photo transistor over 



8.0 
6.0 
4.0 


1 

1 C CB vers 


"« V CB 








A 






























2.0 



















C CE vers 


us V CE 









V, VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 



FIGURE 16 - Junction Capacitances versus Voltage for MRD300 



4-7 



large signal swings. However, the small-signal response is 
approximately linear. The use of a load line on the col- 
lector characteristic of Figure 1 3 will indicate the degree 
of linearity to be expected for a specific range of optical 
drive. 

Frequency Response 

The phototransistor frequency response, as referred to 
in the discussion of Figures 7 and 8, is presented in Figure 
17. The device response is flat down to dc with the rolloff 
frequency dependent on the load impedance as well as on 
the device. The response is given in Figure 1 7 as the 3-dB 
frequency as a function of load impedance for two values 
of collector current. 



the device behavior. These are given as functions of col- 
lector current in Figure 19. With this information, the de- 
vice can be analyzed in the standard hybrid model of Figure 
20(a); by use of the conversions of Table I, the equivalent 
r-parameter model of Figure 20(b) can be used. 



TABLE I - Parameter Conversions 

hfe 



hfb : 



rc = 



1+hfe 
h fe + 1 









... 


































































l c = 250 MA 






































































'c = 


100 mA 








































i- --■ 






























| 






























I 










.... 









- 





-■t- 






































































■ — 












































































































































































I 



















0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 100 

R L . LOAD RESISTANCE <kJ2) 

FIGURE 17 — 3 dB Frequency versus Load Resistance for MRD300 













































8.0 


















































































6.0 


















































































4.0 






























5 





3 


tA 






































2.0 








































































U 


1 


lA 
























































0.1 



1.0 



10 



R s . SOURCE RESISTANCE (kfl) 
FIGURE 18 — MRD300 Noise Figure versus Source Resistance 

Noise Figure 

Although the usual operation of the phototransistor is 
in the floating base mode, a good qualitative feel for the 
device's noise characteristic can be obtained by measuring 
noise figure under standard conditions. The l kHz noise 
figure for the MRD300 is shown in Figure 18. 

Small Signal h Parameters 

As with noise figure, the small-signal h-parameters, meas- 
ured under standard conditions, give a qualitative feel for 



rb = hie - 



h re (1+hfe) 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 
OF PHOTOTRANSISTORS 

In switching applications, two important requirements 
of a transistor are: 

(1) speed 

(2) ON voltage 

Since some optical drives for phototransistors can pro- 
vide fast light pulses, the same two considerations apply. 

Switching Speed 

If reference is made to the model of Figure 8, it can be 
seen that a fast rise in the current I\ will not result in an 
equivalent instantaneous increase in collector-emitter cur- 
rent. The initial flow of l\ must supply charging current 
to Ccb anQl CbE- Once these capacitances have been 
charged, I\ will flow through r De . Then the current gene- 
rator, g m • v De , will begin to supply current. During turn- 
off, a similar situation occurs. Although I\ may instan- 
taneously drop to zero, the discharge of Ccb an & CfiE 
through r De will maintain a current flow through the col- 
lector. When the capacitances have been discharged, Vbe 
will fall to zero and the current, g m • V oe , will likewise 
drop to zero. (This discussion assumes negligible leakage 
currents). These capacitances therefore result in turn-on 
and turn-off delays, and in rise and fall times for switching 
applications just as found in conventional bipolar switch- 
ing transistors. And, just as with conventional switching, 
the times are a function of drive. Figure 21 showsthe col- 
lector current (or drive) dependence of the turn-on delay 
and rise times. As indicated the delay time is dependent on 
the device only; whereas the rise-time is dependent on both 
the device and the load. 

If a high-intensity source, such as a xenon flash lamp, 
is used for the optical drive, the device becomes optically 
saturated unless large optical attenuation is placed between 
source and detector. This can result in a significant storage 
time during the turn off, especially in the floating-base 
mode since stored charge has no direct path out of the 



4-8 



1000 
700 



5 300 



» 200 





















































































I 






























• 






























' 
































































































































































































































v c 


c = 


- 10 V 

I I 





































20 


































































10 




































































































7.0 


































































5.0 


































































3 










- 














I 


10 V 

I I 



1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 







































































7.0 


































































5.0 


































































3.0 


































































2.0 


































































10 
























^CC 


' 


1C 


V 



























I II I 
































7.0 
































































5.0 





























































3.0 


































































2.0 






























































1 



































1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 19-1 kHz h-Parameters versus Collector Current for MRD300 



v be h re v ce vVy 



oe > v ce 



(a) Hybrid Model 



h fb 



r b 
-VW- 




(b) r-Parameter Model 



Low Frequency Analytical Models of Phototransistor 
Without Photo Current Generator 



base region. However, if a non-saturating source, such as 
a GaAs diode, is used for switching drive, the storage, or 
turn-off delay time is quite low as shown in Figure 22. 

Saturation Voltage 

An ideal switch has zero ON impedance, or an ON volt- 
age drop of zero. The ON saturation voltage of the MRD300 
is relatively low, approximately 0.2 volts. For a given col- 
lector current, the ON voltage is a function of drive, and is 
shown in Figure 23. 

APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOTRANSISTORS 

As mentioned previously, the phototransistor can be 
used in a wide variety of applications. Figure 24 shows 
two phototransistors in a series-shunt chopper circuit. As 
Ql is switched ON, Q2 is OFF, and when Qi is switched 
OFF, Q2 is driven ON. 

Logic circuitry featuring the high input/output electrical 
isolation of photo transistors is shown in Figure 25. 

Figure 26 shows a linear application of the phototran- 
sistor. As mentioned previously, the linearity is obtained 
for small-signal swings. 



4-9 









] 




] | 


-v C c 


= 20 V — 














7.0 










] 


I 






















5.0 








































3.0 
















t r 


@ R L = 


i kn 
























2.0 














































1.0 
















^~^tr 


@> R L = 100 


n 












































0.7 














































0.5 














































0.3 


















<§> R L = 100S2 






















0.2 


















i 


























0.1 

























0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 

FIGURE 21 - Switching Delay and Rise Times for MRD300 

5.0 

3.0 
2.0 



I 
















I 






































































































tf 




























































































































































































































u 























































































































0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.C 

l c , COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 

FIGURE 22 - Switching Storage and Fall Times for MRD300 

A double-pole, single-throw relay is shown in Figure 27. 

In general, the phototransistor can be used in counting 
circuitry, level indications, alarm circuits, tachometers, and 
various process controls. 

Conclusion 

The phototransistor is a light-sensitive active device of 
moderately high sensitivity and relatively high speed. Its 
response is both a function of light intensity and wave- 
length, and behaves basically like a standard bipolar tran- 
sistor with an externally controlled collector-base leakage 
current. 



10 






I 














































































































I 












































4.0 
3.0 






















c - 


5.0 m 


A 












I 1.0 m 


A 








I 












0.5 


mA| 


























































1.0 









»« 

























1.0 2.0 5.0 10 

H, IRRADIANCE (mW/cm 2 ) 



FIGURE 23 - Collector Emitter Saturation Voltage 
as a Function of Irradiance for MRD300 




-m O OUTPUT 



Q 2 5 R L 



FIGURE 24 - Series-Shunt Chopper Circuit Using MRD300 
Phototransistors and GaAs Light Emitting Diodes IlEDs] 



APPENDIX I 

Radiant energy covers a broad band of the electromag- 
netic spectrum. A relatively small segment of the band is 
the spectrum of visible light. A portion of the electromag- 
netic spectrum including the range of visible light is shown 
in Figure 1-1. 

The portion of radiant flux, or radiant energy emitted 
per unit time, which is visible is referred to as luminous 
flux. This distinction is due to the inability of the eye to 
respond equally to like power levels of different visible 
wavelengths. For example, if two light sources, one green 
and one blue are both emitting like wattage, the eye will 
perceive the green light as being much brighter than the 
blue. Consequently, when speaking of visible light of vary- 
ing color, the watt becomes a poor measure of brightness. 
A more meaningful unit is the lumen. In order to obtain 
a clear understanding of the lumen, two other definitions 
are required. 

The first of these is the standard source (Fig. 1-2). The 
standard source, adopted by international agreement, con- 



4-10 



/J 



r*h 




HIGH ISOLATION OR GATE 




HIGH ISOLATION AND GATE 



FIGURE 25 - Logic Circuits Using the MRD300 and LEDs 



D-.U 



i® 




°-3 



°^ P9 r 



FIGURE 26 - Small Signal Linear Amplifier 
Using MRD300 and LEDs 



sists of a segment of fused thoria immersed in a chamber 
of platinum. When the platinum is at its melting point, 
the light emitted from the chamber approximates the radia- 
tion of a black body. The luminous flux emitted by the 
source is dependent on the aperture and cone of radiation. 
The cone of radiation is measured in terms of the solid 
angle . 

The concept of a solid angle comes from spherical ge- 
ometry. If a point is enclosed by a spherical surface and a 
set of radial lines define an area on the surface, the radial 
lines also subtend a solid angle. This angle, oj, is shown in 
Figure 1-3, and is defined as 

w = 4' o-d 

r z 

where A is the described area and r is the spherical radius. 

If the area A is equal to r*% then the solid angle sub- 
tended is one unit solid angle or one steradian, which is 
nothing more than the three-dimensional equivalent of a 
radian. 

With the standard source and unit solid angle estab- 
lished, the lumen can be defined. 

A lumen is the luminous flux emitted from a standard 
source and included within one steradian. 

Using the concept of the lumen, it is now possible to 
define other terms of illumination. 

Illuminance 

If a differential amount of luminous flux, dF, is imping- 
ing on a differential area, dA, the illuminance, E, is given 
by 



E= dF 
h dA 



(1-2) 



r VISIBLE 

EO ^ ULTRAVIOLET 




10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 io° icr 1 io" 2 icr 3 10" 4 

WAVELENGTH IN NANOMETERS (MILLIMICRONS) 



FIGURE 1—1 — Portion of Electromagnetic Spectrum 





1 

INPUT 

1 


F-— £[ ) OUTPUT 




.^ri I OUTPUT 





Illuminance is most often expressed in lumens per square 
foot, or foot-candles. If the illuminance is constant over 
the area, (1-2) becomes 



E = F/A. 



(1-3) 



Luminous Intensity 

When the differential flux, dF, is emitted through a dif- 
ferential solid angle, dw, the luminous intensity, I, is given 
by 

dF 



FIGURE 27 - DPST Relay Using MRD300s and LEDs 



4-11 



MOLTEN 
PLATINUM 




-INSULATION 



FIGURE 1-2 - International Standard Source 




FIGURE 1-3 - Solid Angle 



Luminous intensity is most often expressed in lumens 
per steradian or candela. If the luminous intensity is con- 
stant with respect to the angle of emission, (1-4) becomes: 



1 = 



(1-5) 



If the wavelength of visible radiation is varied, but the 
illumination is held constant, the radiative power in watts 
will be found to vary. This again illustrates the poor quality 
of the watt as a measure of illumination. A relation between 
illumination and radiative power must then be specified at 
a particular frequency. The point of specification has been 
taken to be at a wavelength of 0.555 /urn, which is the peak 
of spectral response of the human eye. At this wavelength, 
1 watt of radiative power is equivalent to 680 lumens. 

APPENDIX II 
OPTOELECTRONIC DEFINITIONS 

F, Luminous Flux: Radiant flux of wavelength within 
the band of visible light. 

Lumen: The luminous flux emitted from a standard 
source and included within one steradian (solid angle 
equivalent of a radian). 
H, Radiation Flux Density (Irradiance): The total inci- 
dent radiation energy measured in power per unit 
area (e.g., mW/cm^). 

E, Luminous Flux Density (Illuminance): Radiation 
flux density of wavelength within the band of visible 
light. Measured in lumens/ft^ or foot candles. At 
the wavelength of peak response of the human eye. 
0.555 /jm(0.555X 10 _6 m),'l watt of radiative power 
is equivalent to 680 lumens. 

Sr, Radiation Sensitivity: The ratio of photo-induced 
current to incident radiant energy, the latter meas- 
ured at the plane of the lens of the photo device. 

Si, Illumination Sensitivity. The ratio of photo-induced 
current to incident luminous energy, the latter meas- 
ured at the plane of the lens of the photo device. 



Spectral Response: Sensitivity as a function of wave- 
length of incident energy. Usually normalized to 
peak sensitivity. 

Constants 

Planck's constant: h = 4.13 X 10 -15 eV-s. 
electron charge: q = 1.60 X 10~' 9 coulomb, 
velocity of light: c = 3X10 8 m/s. 

Illumination Conversion Factors 

Multiply By To Obtain 



lumens/ ft 2 
lumens/ft^ 
candlepower 

*At 0.555 jum. 



1 

1.58 X 10" 3 

4tt 



ft. candles 
mW/cm^ 
lumens 



BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES 

1. Fitchen, Franklin C, Transistor Circuit Analysis and 
Design, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton 
1962. 

2. Hunter, Lloyd P., ed., Handbook of Semiconductor 
Electronics, Sect 5., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New 
York 1962. 

3. Jordan, A.G. and A.G. Milnes, "Photoeffect on Diffused 
PN Junctions with Integral Field Gradients", IRE Trans- 
actions on Electron Devices, October 1960. 

4. Millman, Jacob, Vacuum-tube and Semiconductor Elec- 
tronics, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York 1958. 

5. Sah, C.T., "Effect of Surface Recombination and Chan- 
nel on PN Junction and Transistor Characteristics", 
IRE Transactions on Electron Devices, January 1962. 

6. Sears, F.W. and M.W. Zemansky, University Physics, 
Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., Reading, Massa- 
chusetts 1962. 

7. Shockley, William, Electrons and Holes in Semicon- 
ductors, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton 
1955. 



4-12 



AN-508 



APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOTRANSISTORS 
IN ELECTRO-OPTIC SYSTEMS 



INTRODUCTION 

A phototransistor is a device for controlling current 
flow with light. Basically, any transistor will function as a 
phototransistor if the chip is exposed to light, however, 
certain design techniques are used to optimize the effect 
in a phototransistor. 

Just as phototransistors call for special design tech- 
niques, so do the circuits that use them. The circuit 
designer must supplement his conventional circuit knowl- 
edge with the terminology and relationships of optics and 
radiant energy. This note presents the information neces- 
sary to supplement that knowledge. It contains a short 
review of phototransistor theory and characteristics, fol- 
lowed by a detailed discussion of the subjects of irradiance, 
illuminance, and optics and their significance to photo- 
transistors. A distinction is made between low-frequency/ 
steady -state design and high-frequency design. The use of 
the design information is then demonstrated with a series 
of typical electro-optic systems. 

PHOTOTRANSISTOR THEORY 1 

Phototransistor operation is a result of the photo-effect 
in solids, or more specifically, in semiconductors. Light of 
a proper wavelength will generate hole-electron pairs 
within the transistor, and an applied voltage will cause 
these carriers to move, thus causing a current to flow. The 
intensity of the applied light will determine the number of 
carrier pairs generated, and thus the magnitude of the 
resultant current flow. 



In a phototransistor the actual carrier generation takes 
place in the vicinity of the collector-base junction. As 
shown in Figure 1 for an NPN device, the photo-generated 
holes will gather in the base. In particular, a hole 
generated in the base will remain there, while a hole 
generated in the collector will be drawn into the base by 
the strong field at the junction. The same process will 
result in electrons tending to accumulate in the collector. 
Charge will not really accumulate however, and will try to 
evenly distribute throughout the bulk regions. Conse- 
quently, holes will diffuse across the base region in the 
direction of the emitter junction. When they reach the 
junction they will be injected into the emitter. This in 
turn will cause the emitter to inject electrons into the 
base. Since the emitter injection efficiency is much larger 
than the base injection effeciency, each injected hole will 
result in many injected electrons. 

It is at this point that normal transistor action will 
occur. The emitter injected electrons will travel across the 
base and be drawn into the collector. There, they will 
combine with the photo-induced electrons in the collector 
to appear as the terminal collector current. 

Since the actual photogeneration of carriers occurs in 
the collector base region, the larger the area of this region, 
the more carriers are generated, thus, as Figure 2 shows, 
the transistor is so designed to offer a large area to 
impinging light. 




FIGURE 1 - Photo-Generated Carrier Movement 
in a Phototransistor 

For a detailed discussion see Motorola Application Note 
AN440 , "The ory and Characteristics of Phototransistors ." 




FIGURE 2 — Typical Double-Diffused Phototransistor Structure 



4-13 




FIGURE 3 — Floating Base Approximate Model of Phototransistor 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR STATIC CHARACTERISTICS 

A phototransistor can be either a two-lead or a 
three-lead device. In the three-lead form, the base is made 
electrically available, and the device may be used as a 
standard bipolar transistor with or without the additional 
capability of sensitivity to light. In the two-lead form the 
base is not electrically available, and the transistor can 
only be used with light as an input. In most applications, 
the only drive to the transistor is light, and so the 
two-lead version is the most prominent. 

As a two-lead device, the phototransistor can be 
modeled as shown in Figure 3. In this circuit, current 
generator I\ represents the photo generated current and 
is approximately given by 



In reality there is a thermally generated leakage 
current, I , which shunts 1\. Therefore, the terminal 
current will be non-zero. This current, ICEO> is typically 
on the order of 10 nA at room temperature and may in 
most cases be neglected. 

As a three lead device, the model of Figure 3 need only 
have a resistance, r^', connected to the junction of Cbc 
and Cbe- The other end of this resistance is the base 
terminal. As mentioned earlier, the three lead phototran- 
sistor is less common than the two lead version. The only 
advantages of having the base lead available are to stabilize 
the device operation for significant temperature excur- 
sions, or to use the base for unique circuit purposes. 

Mention is often made of the ability to optimize a 
phototransistor's sensitivity by using the base. The idea is 
that the device can be electrically biased to a collector 
current at which hpE is maximum. However, the intro- 
duction of any impedance into the base results in a net 
decrease in photo sensitivity. This is similar to the effect 
noticed when ICEO is measured for a transistor and found 
to be greater than ICER- The base-emitter resistor shunts 
some current around the base-emitter junction, and the 
shunted current is never multiplied by hFE- 

Now when the phototransistor is biased to peak hpE. 
the magnitude of base impedance is low enough to shunt 
an appreciable amount of photo current around the 
base-emitter. The result is actually a lower device sensitiv- 
ity than found in the open base mode. 

Spectral Response — As mentioned previously, a 
transistor is sensitive to light of a proper wavelength. 
Actually, response is found for a range of wavelengths. 
Figure 4 shows the normalized response for a typical 
phototransistor series (Motorola MRD devices) and in- 
dicates that peak response occurs at a wavelength of 0.8 
/nm. The warping in the response curve in the vicinity of 
0.6 fim results from adjoining bands of constructive and 
destructive interference in the SiC»2 layer covering the 
transistor surface. 



TjFqA 



(1) 



where 

t? is the quantum efficiency or ratio of current carriers 
to incident photons, 

F is the fraction of incident photons transmitted by 
the crystal, 

q is the electronic charge, and 

A is the active area. 

The remaining elements should be recognized as the 
component distribution in the hybrid-pi transistor model. 
Note that the model of Figure 3 indicates that under dark 
conditions, I\ is zero and so vbe is zero. This means that 
the terminal current I « g m vbe is also zero. 





100 
















a? 
















i 




80 
60 
















10 

z 
o 

0. 


































IT 




















> 

< 


40 
20 


































IT 


















*> 






















0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 

\, WAVELENGTH (Mm) 



FIGURE 4 — Constant Energy Spectral Response for MRD 
Phototransistor Series 



4-14 



a: w» 
o z 5 

u W S 
uj z £ 

j9< 
O I- E 
U < - 

65 

uj < 

u oc 





V CC = 20 V 




















. 




0.8 
0.6 


SOURCE TEMP = 2870°K 


- 












' 






—4 










L 


- 


-tt 


.b 




TY 

-■ 


P 


: 






■■- 


-■- 






















T" 




" 


= 


- 


0.2 






















! 




















- 




, MIN 









—^ 












i 



























0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 

H, RADIATION FLUX DENSITY (mW/cm 2 ) 

FIGURE 5 - Radiation Sensitivity for MRD450 




FIGURE 6 - Low-Frequency and Steady-State Model 
for Floating-Base Phototransistor 







0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 

R L , LOAD RESISTANCE IkUl 

FIGURE 7 — 3 dB Frequency versus Load Resistance for MRD 
Phototransistor Series 




0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 

\, WAVELENGTH (/am) 

FIGURE 8 — Spectral Response for Standard Observer and 
MRD Series 



Radiation Sensitivity - The absolute response of the 
MRD450 phototransistor to impinging radiation is shown 
in Figure 5. This response is standardized to a tungsten 
source operating at a color temperature of 2870°K. As 
subsequent discussion will show, the transistor sensitivity 
is quite dependent on the source color temperature. 

Additional static characteristics are discussed in detail 
in AN-440, and will not be repeated here. 



LOW-FREQUENCY AND STEADY-STATE DESIGN 
APPROACHES 

For relatively simple circuit designs, the model of 
Figure 3 can be replaced with that of Figure 6. The 
justification for eliminating consideration of device 
capacitance is based on restricting the phototransistor's 
use to d.c. or low frequency applications. The actual 
frequency range of validity is also a function of load 
resistance. For example, Figure 7 shows a plot of the 3 dB 
response frequency as a function of load resistance. 

Assume a modulated light source is to drive the 
phototransistor at a maximum frequency of 10 kHz. If 
the resultant photo current is 100 fiA, Figure 7 shows a 
3-dB frequency of 10 kHz at a load resistance of 8 
kilohms. Therefore, in this case, the model of Figure 6 can 
be used with acceptable results for a load less than 8 



kilohms. For larger loads, the hybrid-pi model must be 
used. 

For the remainder of the discussion of low frequency 
and steady state design, it is assumed that the simplified 
model of Figure 6 is valid. 

RADIATION AND ILLUMINATION SOURCES 

The effect of a radiation source on a photo-transistor is 
dependent on the transistor spectral response and the 
spectral distribution of energy from the source. When 
discussing such energy, two related sets of terminology are 
available. The first is radiometric which is a physical 
system; the second is photometric which is a physiological 
system. 

The photometric system defines energy relative to its 
visual effect. As an example, light from a standard 60 
watt-bulb is certainly visible, and as such, has finite 
photometric quantity, whereas radiant energy from a 
60-watt resistor is not visible and has zero photometric 
quantity. Both items have finite radiometric quantity. 

The defining factor for the photometric system is the 
spectral response curve of a standard observer. This is 
shown in Figure 8 and is compared with the spectral 
response of the MRD series. The defining spectral re- 
sponse of the radiometric system can be imagined as unit 
response for all wavelengths. 



4-15 



A comparison of the terminology for the two systems 
is given in Table I. 

There exists a relationship between the radiometric and 
photometric quantities such that at a wavelength of 0.55 
/um, the wavelength of peak response for a standard 
observer, one watt of radiant flux is equal to 680 lumens 
of luminious flux. For a broadband of radiant flux, the 
visually effective, or photometric flux is given by: 



F = K/ P(X)5(X)dX 



(2a) 



where 



K is the proportionality constant (of 680 lumens/- 
watt), 

P (X) is the absolute spectral distribution of radiant 
flux, 

5(X) is the relative response of the standard observer, 



and 



dX is the differential wavelengtn, 

A similar integral can be used to convert incident 
radiant flux density, or irradiance, to illuminance: 



E = K / H (X) 6(X) dX 



(2b) 



In Equation(2b)if H (X) is given in watts/ cm 2 , E will 
be in lumens/ cm 2 . To obtain E in footcandles (lumens/- 
ft 2 ), the proportionality constant becomes 

K = 6.3 x 10 s footcandles/mW/cm 2 

Fortunately, it is usually not necessary to perform the 
above integrations. The photometric effect of a radiant 
source can often be measured directly with a photometer. 

Unfortunately, most phototransistors are specified for 
use with the radiometric system. Therefore, it is often 
necessary to convert photometric source data, such as the 
candle power rating of an incandescent lamp to radiometric 
data. This will be discussed shortly. 

GEOMETRIC CONSIDERATIONS 

In the design of electro-optic systems, the geometrical 
relationships are of prime concern. A source will effective- 
ly appear as either a point source, or an area source, 
depending upon the relationship between the size of the 
source and the distance between the source and the 
detector. 

Point Sources - A point source is defined as one for 
which the source diameter is less than ten percent of the 
distance between the source and the detector, or, 



«<0.1r, 

where 

<x is the diameter of the source, and 



(3) 



r is the distance between the source and the detector. 

Figure 9 depicts a point source radiating uniformly in 
every direction. If equation (3) is satisfied, the detector 
area, Aq, can be approximated as a section of the area of 
a sphere of radius r whose center is the point source. 

The solid angle, co, in steradians2 subtended by the 
detector area is 



ad 



(4) 



Since a sphere has a surface area of 4wr 2 , the total solid 
angle of a sphere is 



47rr 



"S : 



- = 4ir steradians. 



Table II lists the design relationships for a point source 
in terms of both radiometric and photometric quantities. 

The above discussion assumes that the photodetector is 
alligned such that its surface area is tangent to the sphere 
with the point source at its center. It is entirely possible 
that the plane of the detector can be inclined from the 



TABLE I — Radiometric and Photometric Terminology 



Description 


Radiometric 


Photometric 


Total Flux 


Radiant Flux. P, in Watts 


Luminous Flux, F, in 
Lumens 


Emitted Flux 
Density at a 
Source Surface 


Radiant Emittance, W, 
in Watts/cm 


Luminous Emittance, L 
in Lumens/ft 2 (foot 
lamberts), or lumens/ 
cm 2 (Lamberts) 


(Point Source) 


Radiant Intensity, l r , 
in Watts/Steradian 


Luminous Intensity, l L . 
in Lumens/Steradian 
(Candela) 


Source Intensity 
(Area Source) 


Radiance, Br, in 
(Watts/Steradian) /cm 3 


(Lumens/Steradian) /ft 2 
(footlambert) 


Flux Density 
Incident on a 
Receiver Surface 


Watts/cm 2 


Illuminance, E, in 
Lumens/ft 2 (footcandlel 





TABLE II -Point Sou 


rce Relationships 


Description 


Radiometric 


Photometric 


Point Source 
Intensity 


l r , Watts/Steradian 


l|_, Lumens/Steradian 


Incident Flux 
Density 


H(lrradiance) =Ji » 
distance 2 


vatts/ 


E (Illuminance)- It, 


Total Flux Output 
of Point Source 


P - 4nl r Watts 


F = 4nl L Lumens 





TABLE III - Design Rela 


tionshipsfor 


an Area Source 




Description 


Radiometric 


Photometric 


Source Inten 


sity 


B r , Watts/cm 2 / 


steradian 


B|_, Lumens/cm 2 / 


Emitted Flux 
Density 


W=-rrB r , Watts/cm 2 


L = rrB L , Lumens/cm 2 


Incident Flux 
Density 


B r A s 

H v + «j.-- w 


atts/cm 2 


E .J^S Lum 


ens/cm 2 



Steradian: The solid equivalent of a radian. 



4-16 




Point Source Radiating 
Uniformly in all Directions 




FIGURE 9 — Point Source Geometry 



FIGURE 10 — Detector Not Normal to Source Direction 



tangent plane. Under this condition, as depicted in Figure 
10, the incident flux density is proportional to the cosine 
of the inclination angle, </>. Therefore, 



I r 

H = -=■ cos <t>, and 



E = — cos i 



(5a) 
(5b) 



AREA SOURCES 

When the source has a diameter greater than 10 percent 
of the separation distance, 



"•>0.1r, 



(6) 



it is considered to be an area source. This situation is 
shown in Figure 11. Table III lists the design relationships 
for an area source. 

A special case that deserves some consideration occurs 
when 



°»r, 
2 



(7) 



that is, when the detector is quite close to the source. 
Under this condition, 



H = 



Br A s 



Br A s 



but, the area of the source, 






Therefore, 



H«B r rr = W, 



(8) 



(9) 



(10) 



That is, the emitted and incident flux densities are 
equal. Now, if the area of the detector is the same as the 
area of the source, and equation (7) is satisfied, the total 
incident energy is approximately the same as the total 



radiated energy, that is, unity coupling exists between 
source and detector. 

LENS SYSTEMS 

A lens can be used with a photodetector to effectively 
increase the irradiance on the detector. As shown in 
Figure 12a, the irradiance on a target surface for a point 
source of intensity, I, is 



H = I/d 2 , (11) 

where d is the separation distance. 

In Figure 12b a lens has been placed between the 
source and the detector. It is assumed that the distance d' 
from the source to the lens is approximately equal to d: 



d'^d, 



(12) 



and the solid angle subtended at the source is sufficiently 
small to consider the rays striking the lens to be parallel. 
If the photodetector is circular in area, and the 
distance from the lens to the detector is such that the 
image of the source exactly fills the detector surface area, 
the radiant flux on the detector (assuming no lens loss) is 

PD = PL = H'7rr L 2 , (13) 

where 

PO is the radiant flux incident on the detector, 

PL is the radiant flux incident on the lens, 

H' is the flux density on the lens, and 

rL is the lens radius. 

Using equation (12), 

H' = I/d 2 =H. (14) 

The flux density on the detector is 



4-17 





FIGURE 11 - Area Source Geometry 



Figure 12 — Use of a Lens to Increase Irradiance on a Detector 




External Lens 



FIGURE 13 — Possible Misalignment Due to Arbitrary Use of 
External Lens Dotted Rays Indicate Performance Without External Lens 



HD = PD/AD, (15) 

where Arj is the detector area, given by 

AD = wrd 2 . (16) 

Using (13), (14), and (16) in (15) gives 

Now dividing (17) by (11) gives the ratio of irradiance 
on the detector with a lens to the irradiance without a 
lens. 



HP _ d*" ( r d ) = / r L\ 2 

h i/d* y 



(18) 



As (18) shows, if the lens radius is greater than the 
detector radius, the lens provides an increase in incident 
irradiance on the detector. To account for losses in the 
lens, the ratio is reduced by about ten percent. 



R = 0.91 



M 



(19) 



where R is the gain of the lens system. 

It should be pointed out that arbitrary placement of a 
lens may be more harmful than helpful. That is, a lens 
system must be carefully planned to be effective. 

For example, the MRD300 phototransistor contains a 
lens which is effective when the input is in the form of 
parallel rays (as approximated by a uniformly radiating 
point source). Now, if a lens is introduced in front of the 
MRD300 as shown in Figure 13, it will provide a non- 



parallel ray input to the transistor lens. Thus the net 
optical circuit will be misaligned. The net irradiance on the 
phototransistor chip may in fact be less than without the 
external lens. The circuit of Figure 14 does show an 
effective system. Lens 1 converges the energy incident on 
its surface to lens 2 which reconverts this energy into 
parallel rays. The energy entering the phototransistor lens 
as parallel rays is the same (neglecting losses) as that 
entering lens 1. Another way of looking at this is to 
imagine that the phototransistor surface has been in- 
creased to a value equal to the surface area of lens 1 . 

FIBER OPTICS 

Another technique for maximizing the coupling be- 
tween source and detector is to use a fiber bundle to link 
the phototransistor to the light source. The operation of 
fiber optics is based on the principle of total internal 
reflection. 

Figure 15 shows an interface between two materials of 
different indices of refraction. Assume that the index of 
refraction, n, of the lower material is greater than that, n', 
of the upper material. Point P represents a point source of 
light radiating uniformly in all directions. Some rays from 
P will be directed at the material interface. 

At the interface, Snell's law requires: 



n sin U = n sin i 



where 



(20) 



8 is the angle between a ray in the lower material and 
the normal to the interface, 



and 



6 'is the angle between a refracted ray and the normal. 
Rearranging (20), 



4-18 



sin =— sin I 



(21) 



By assumption, n/n' is greater than one, so that 

sin d'> sin0. (22) 

However, since the maximum value of sin 0' is one and 
occurs when 9' is 90°, 0' will reach 90° before 9 does. 
That is, for some value of 9, defined as the critical angle, 
9q, rays from P do not cross the interface. When 9 >9q, 
the rays are reflected entirely back into the lower 
material, or total internal reflection occurs. 

Figure 16 shows the application of this principle to 
fiber optics. A glass fiber of refractive index n is clad with 
a layer of glass of lower refractive index, n'. A ray of light 
entering the end of the cable will be refracted as shown. 
If, after refraction, it approaches the glass interface at an 
angle greater than 0C, it will be reflected within the fiber. 
Since the angle of reflection must equal the angle of 
incidence, the ray will bounce down the fiber and emerge, 
refracted, at the exit end. 

The numerical aperature, NA, of a fiber is defined as 
the sin of the half angle of acceptance. Application of 
Snell's law at the interface for 6q, and again at the fiber 
end will give 



NA = sin = V n2 " n ' 2 - 



(23) 



For total internal reflection to occur, a light ray must 
enter the fiber within the half angle 0. 

Once a light ray is within the fiber, it will suffer some 
attenuation. For glass fibers, an absorption rate of from 
five to ten per cent per foot is typical. There is also an 
entrance and exit loss at the ends of the fiber which 
typically result in about a thirty per cent loss. 

As an example, an illuminance E at the source end of a 
three-foot fiber bundle would appear at the detector as 

ED = 0.7Ee-<*L = 0.7Ee-(0.lX3) = 0.51E, (24) 
where E is the illuminance at the source end, 
Ed is the illuminance at the detector end, 
a is the absorption rate, and 

L is the length. 
This assumes an absorption loss of ten percent per foot. 

TUNGSTEN LAMPS 

Tungsten lamps are often used as radiation sources for 
photodetectors. The radiant energy of these lamps is 
distributed over a broad band of wavelengths. Since the 
eye and the phototransistor exhibit different wavelength- 
dependent response characteristics, the effect of a tung- 
sten lamp will be different for both. The spectral output 
of a tungsten lamp is very much a function of color 
temperature. 





FIGURE 14 - Effective Use of External Optics with the MRD 300 




FIGURE 15 — Ray Refraction at an Interface 




FIGURE 16 — Refraction in an Optical Fiber 



Color temperature of a lamp is the temperature 
required by an ideal blackbody radiator to produce the 
same visual effect as the lamp. At low color temperatures, 
a tungsten lamp emits very little visible radiation. How- 
ever, as color temperature is increased, the response shifts 
toward the visible spectrum. Figure 17 shows the spectral 
distribution of tungsten lamps as a function of color 
temperature. The lamps are operated at constant wattage 
and the response is normalized to the response at 2800°K. 
For comparison, the spectral response for both the 
standard observer and the MRD phototransistor series are 
also plotted. Graphical integration of the product of the 
standard observer response and the pertinent source 
distribution from Figure 17 will provide a solution to 
equations (2a) and (2b). 

Effective Irradiance - Although the sensitivity of a 
photodetector to an illuminant source is frequently 
provided, the sensitivity to an irradiant source is more 
common. Thus, it is advisable to carry out design work in 



4-19 



1™ [\\w\f 


\2800°K 






V 


' 










2400 


2000° K 




MRD 














\\|^ 1600°K 
























[/ /l 










Ov 










/ 








^N 






'/ 














j hi y a 






' 






\M/ 





































0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 
Wavelength (nm) 

FIGURE 17 - Radiant Spectral Distribution of Tunsten Lamp 



1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 

CT, Color Temperature (°K) (Tungsten Lamp Only) 

FIGURE 18 — MRD Irradiance Ratio versus Color Temperature 






2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 

CT, Color Temperature (°K) (TUNGSTEN Lamps Only) 
FIGURE 19 — MRD Irradiance/llluminance Ratio versus Color 
Temperature 



terms of irradiance. However, since the spectral response 
of a source and a detector are, in general, not the same, a 
response integration must still be performed. The integral 
is similar to that for photometric evaluation. 



PE = / P(X) Y (X) dX 



(25) 



where 



PE is the effective radiant flux on the detector, P(X) is 
the spectral distribution of source flux 



and 



Y(X) is the spectral response of the detector. 



Again, such an integration is best evaluated graphically. 
In terms of flux density, the integral is 



H E = / H (X) Y (X) dX 



(26) 



where He is the effective flux density (irradiance) on 
the detector 

and H (X) is the absolute flux density distribution of 
the source on the detector. 

Graphical integration of equations (2b) and (26) has 
been performed for the MRD series of phototransistors 
for several values of lamp color temperature. The results 
are given in Figures 18 and 19 in terms of ratios. Figure 
18 provides the irradiance ratio, He/H versus color 
temperature. As the curve shows, a tungsten lamp 
operating at 2600°K is about 14% effective on the MRD 
series devices. That is, if the broadband irradiance of such 
a lamp is measured at the detector and found to be 20 
mw/cm 2 , the transistor will effectively see 



He = 0.14 (20)= 2.8mW/cm 2 



(27) 



The specifications for the MRD phototransistor series 
include the correction for effective irradiance. For 
example, the MRD450 is rated for a typical sensitivity of 
0.8 mA/mW/cm 2 . This specification is made with a 
tungsten source operating at 2870°K and providing an 
irradiance at the transistor of 5.0 mW/cm 2 . Note that this 
will result in a ci'Tent flow of 4.0 mA. 

However, from Figure 18, the effective irradiance is 

HE = (5.0X-185) = 0.925 mW/cm 2 (28) 

By using this value of He and the typical sensitivity 
rating it can be shown that the device sensitivity to a 
monochromatic irradiance at the MRD450 peak response 
of 0.8 /urn is 



S = 



IC 4.0 mA 



= 4.33 mA/mW/cm 2 (29) 



He 0.925 mW/cnV 

Now, as shown previously, an irradiance of 20 
mW/cm 2 at a color temperature of 2600°K looks like 
monochromatic irradiance at 0.8;um of 2.8 mW/cm 2 
(Equation 27). Therefore, the resultant current flow is 



I = S He (4.33X2.8) = 12.2 mA 



(30) 



An alternate approach is provided by Figure 20. In this 
figure, the relative response as a function of color 
temperature has been plotted. As the curve shows, the 
response is down to 83% at a color temperature of 
2600°K. The specified typical response for the MRD450 
at 20mW/cm 2 for a 2870°K tungsten source is 0.9 
mA/mW/cm 2 . The current flow at 2600°K and 20 
mW/cm 2 is therefore 



I = (0.83)(0.9X20) = 14.9 mA 



(31) 



4-20 



This value agrees reasonably well with the result 
obtained in Equation 30. Similarly, Figure 19 will show 
that a current flow of 6.67 mA will result from an 
illuminance of 125 foot candles at a color temperature of 
2600°K. 

Determination of Color Temperature — It is very likely 
that a circuit designer will not have the capability to 
measure color temperature. However, with a voltage 
measuring capability, a reasonable approximation of color 
temperature may be obtained. Figure 21 shows the 
classical variation of lamp current, candlepower and 
lifetime for a tungsten lamp as a function of applied 
voltage. Figure 22 shows the variation of color tempera- 
ture as a function of the ratio 

MSCP 

P = (32) 

H WATT v ' 



where 

MSCP is the mean spherical candlepower at the lamp 

operating point and WATT is the lamp IV product 

at the operating point. 

As an example, suppose a type 47 indicator lamp is 

used as a source for a phototransistor. To extend the 

lifetime, the lamp is operated at 80% of rated voltage. 

Lamp Rated Volts Rated Current MSCP 

47 6.3 V 150mA 0.52approx 



Geometric Considerations - The candlepower ratings 
on most lamps are obtained from measuring the total 
lamp output in an integrating sphere and dividing by the 
unit solid angle. Thus the rating is an average, or 
mean-spherical-candlepower. However, a tungsten lamp 
cannot radiate uniformly in all directions, therefore, the 
candlepower varies with the lamp orientation. Figure 23 
shows the radiation pattern for a typical frosted tungsten 
lamp. As shown, the maximum radiation occurs in the 
horizontal direction for a base-down or base-up lamp. The 
circular curve simulates the output of a uniform radiator, 
and contains the same area as the lamp polar plot. It 
indicates that the lamp horizontal output is about 1.33 



00 
80 


















40 
20 



















2500 2600 2700 2800 29C 

Source Color Temperature (°k) 

FIGURE 20 — Relative Response of MRO Series versus Color 
Temperature 



1 = 











1 1 






300 


1000 






















— c 


andle Power 7 






250 , 




































225 ' 




















200 














































^^^ 




























10 


















150 














■^ 






















125 




































1.0 






















100 


100 




























1.0 
























75 




---' 


























50 


Candle Power 


















0.1 


25 


^H^ 























































0.01 



) 80 90 100 110 120 13 

Percent of Rated Voltage 
FIGURE 21 — Tungsten Lamp Parameter Variations versus 
Variations about Rated Voltage 



From Figure 21 for 80% rated voltage, 
(Rated Current) (Percent current) = (.15X0.86) = 0.129 
ampere 

(Rated CP) (Percent CP) = (0.5X0.52) = 0.26 CP 
(Rated Voltage) (Percent Voltage) = (6.3X0.8) = 5.05 V 

WATTS = (5.05)(0.129) = 0.65 
0.26 



P=, 



= 0.4, 



0.65 

From Figure 22, for p = 0.4, 
CT = 2300°K, 



3000 
2800 
2600 
2400 
2200 
2000 
1800 



















































































































0.2 



1.1 



0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 
p. (MSCPM'ATT) 
FIGURE 22 - Color Temperature versus 
Candle Power/Power Ratio 



4-21 




FIGURE 23 - Typical Radiation Pattern for a Frosted 
Incandescent Lamp 

times the rated MSCP, while the vertical output, opposite 
the base, is 0.48 times the rated MSCP. 

The actual polar variation for a lamp will depend on a 
variety of physical features such as filament shape, size 
and orientation and the solid angle intercepted by the 
base with respect to the center of the filament. 

If the lamp output is given in horizontal candlepower 
(HCP), a fairly accurate calculation can be made with 
regard to illuminance on a receiver. 

A third-form of rating is beam candlepower, which is 
provided for lamps with reflectors. 

In all three cases the rating is given in lumens/steradian 
or candlepower. 

SOLID STATE SOURCES 

In contrast with the broadband source of radiation of 
the tungsten lamp, solid state sources provide relatively 
narrow band energy. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) light - 
emitting-diode (LED) has spectral characteristics which 
make it a favorable mate for use with silicon photo- 
detectors. LED's are available for several wavelengths, as 







SiC /" 




/mrd\| 


| GaA 












'SER 


IES X 




























































/ 1 














-GaA 












/ 1 


7 


\ 










/ 




I 


\\ 










/ 






\\ 









0.3 0.4 



0.9 



0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 
Wavelength (jim) 
FIGURE 24 - Spectral Characteristics for Several LED's 
Compared with MRO Series 



shown in Figure 24, but as the figure shows, the GaAs 
diode and the MRD phototransistor series are particularly 
compatible. Application of Equation (26) to the GaAs 
response and the MRD series response indicates that the 
efficiency ratio, Hg/H, is approximately 0.9 or 90%. That 
is, an irradiance of 4.0 mW/cm 2 from an LED will appear 
to the phototransistor as 3.6 mW/cm 2 . This means that a 
typical GaAs LED is about 3.5 times as effective as a 
tungsten lamp at 2870°K. Therefore, the typical sensitiv- 
ity for the MRD450 when used with a GaAs LED is 
approximately 



S = (0.8)(3.5) = 2.8 mA/mW/cm 2 



(33) 



An additional factor to be consid»red in using LED's is 
the polar response. The presence of a lens in the diode 
package will confine the solid angle of radiation. If the 
solid angle is 0, the resultant irradiance on a target located 
at a distance d is 



H = 



4P 



watts/cm 2 



(34) 



where 



P is the total output power of the LED in watts 
6 is the beam angle 

d is the distance between the LED and the detector in 
cm. 

LOW FREQUENCY AND STEADY STATE 
APPLICATIONS 

Light Operated Relay - Figure 25 shows a circuit in 
which presence of light causes a relay to operate. The 
relay used in this circuit draws about 5 mA when Q2 is in 
saturation Since hpE (min) for the MPS3394 is 55 at a 
collector current of 2mA, a base current of 0.5 mA is 
sufficient to ensure saturation. Phototransistor Ql pro- 
vides the necessary base drive. If the MRD300 is used, the 
minimum illumination sensitivity is 4 juA/footcandle, 
therefore, 

lr 0.5 mA 



SlCEO 4X10- 3 mA/footcandle ^ 



E = 1 25 footcandles 



"ENERGIZED 




11F-2300-GSIL 



FIGURE 25- Light-Operated Relay 



4-22 



This light level can be supplied by a flashlight or other 
equivalent light source. 

The equivalent irradiance is obviously that value of 
irradiance which will cause the same current flow. Assume 
the light source is a flashlight using a PR2 lamp. The 
ratings for this lamp are 

Lamp Rated Volts Rated Current MSCP 
PR2 2.38 0.50 A 0.80 

If the flashlight has new batteries the lamp voltage is 



Vl=2(1.55) = 3.1 volts 



(36) 



This means that the lamp is operated at 130 per cent of 
rated voltage. From Figure 21 for 130% rated voltage, 

(Rated Current) (Percent Current) = (0.5)(1.15) = 

0.575 ampere 

(Rated CP) fPercent CP) = (0.80)(2.5) = 2 CP 

(Rated Voltage) (Percent Voltage) = (2.38X1-3) = 3.1 

volts. 

Therefore, the MSCP/watt rating is 1.12. From Figure 
22, the color temperature is 2720°K. 

Now, from Figure 20, the response at a color tempera- 
ture of 2720°K is down to 90% of its reference value. At 
the reference temperature, the minimum SrceO f° r me 
MRD300 is 0.8 mA/mW/cm 2 , so at 2720°K it is 

SRCEO (MIN) = (0-9X0.8) = 0.72 mA/mW/cm 2 (37) 

and 

IC 0.5 

H E ="Sr^eO = 0/72 = 0.65 mW/cm 2 (38) 

However, sensitivity is a function of irradiance, and at 
0.695 mW/cm 2 it has a minimum value (at 2720°K) of 
about 0.45 mA/mW/cm 2 , therefore 
0.5 
H E = 045 =lllmW/cm (39) 

Again, we note that at an irradiance of 1.11 mW/cm 2 , 
the minimum SrceO is about 0.54 mA/mW/cm 2 . Several 
applications of the above process eventually result in a 
convergent answer of 



He* 1.0mW/cm, 2 



(40) 



Now, from the MRD450 data sheet, SrceO (min) at 
an irradiance of 1.0 mW/cm 2 and color temperature of 
2720°K is 

SRCEO = (0.15X0.9)= 0.135 mA/mW/cm 2 (41) 

At 1.0 mW/cm 2 , we can expect a minimum Ic of 
0.135 mA. This is below the design requirement of 0.5 
mA. By looking at the product of SrceO (min) and H on 
the data sheet curve, the minimum H for 0.5 mA for using 
the MRD450 can now be calculated. 



_H 
H E " 



19- 

1.0 ' 



I (MRD450) 
I (MRD300) 



I (MRD450) 
125 



I (MRD450) = 375 footcandles 



(42) 



(43) 



This value is pretty high for a two D-cell flashlight, but 
the circuit should perform properly since about 200 
footcandles can be expected from a flashlight, giving a 
resultant current flow of approximately 



I = p| (0.5 mA) = 0.293 mA 



(44) 



This will be the base current of Q2, and since the relay 
requires 5 mA, the minimum hFE required for Q2 is 



hFE(Q2)-o593-17. 



(45) 



This is well below the hFE (min) specification for the 
MPS3394 (55) so proper circuit performance can be 
expected. 

A variation of the above circuit is shown in Figure 26. 
In this circuit, the presence of light deenergizes the relay. 
The same light levels are applicable. The two relay circuits 
can be used for a variety of applications such as automatic 
door activators, object or process counters, and intrusion 
alarms. Figure 27, for example, shows the circuit of 
Figure 26 used to activate an SCR in an alarm system. The 
presence of light keeps the relay deenergized, thus 
denying trigger current to the SCR gate. When the light is 
interrupted, the relay energizes, providing the SCR with 
trigger current. The SCR latches ON, so only a momen- 
tary interruption of light is sufficient to cause the alarm 
to ring continuously. SI is a momentary contact switch 
for resetting the system. 



O+10V 

-*< 



0.1 Hf~ 

100 V 



V © 

O 

A o 

Sigma 
11F-2300-GSIL 




Q2 
MPS3394 




FIGURE 26 - Light De-energized Relay 



4-23 




FIGURE 27 - Light-Relay 
Operated SCR Alarm Circuit 



If the SCR has a sensitive gate, the relay can be 
eliminated as shown in Figure 28. The phototransistor 
holds the gate low as long as light is present, but pulls the 
gate up to triggering level when the light is interrupted. 
Again, a reset switch appears across the SCR. 

Voltage Regulator - The light output of an incandes- 
cent lamp is very dependent on the RMS voltage applied 
to it. Since the phototransistor is sensitive to light 
changes, it can be used to monitor the light output of a 
lamp, and in a closed-loop system to control the lamp 
voltage. Such a regulator is particularly useful in a 
projection system where it is desired to maintain a 
constant brightness level despite line voltage variations. 

Figure 29 shows a voltage regulator for a projection 
lamp. The RMS voltage on the lamp is set by the firing 
angle of the SCR. This firing angle in turn is set by the 
unijunction timing circuit. Transistors Ql and Q2 form a 
constant-current source for charging timing capacitor C. 

The magnitude of the charging current, the capaci- 
tance, C, and the position of R6 set the firing time of the 
UJT oscillator which in turn sets the firing angle of the 
SCR. Regulation is accomplished by phototransistor Q3. 
The brightness of the lamp sets the current level in Q3, 
which diverts current from the timing capacitor. Potentio- 
meter R6 is set for the desired brightness level. 



)'- 




FIGURE 28 - Light Operated SCR Alarm 
Using Sensitive-Gate SCR 



Input 
105 to 

180 Vac 11 5 V 
100 W 




FIGURE 29 - Circuit Diagram of 

Voltage Regulator for 

Projection Lamp. 



•2N4444 to be used with a heat sink. 



4-24 



If the line voltage rises, the lamp tends to become 
brighter, causing an increase in the current of Q3. This 
causes the unijunction to fire later in the cycle, thus 
reducing the conduction time of the SCR. Since the lamp 
RMS voltage depends on the conduction angle of the 
SCR, the increase in line voltage is compensated for by a 
decrease in conduction angle, maintaining a constant lamp 
voltage. 

Because the projection lamp is so bright, it will saturate 
the phototransistor if it is directly coupled to it. Either of 
two coupling techniques are satisfactory. The first is to 
attenuate the light to the phototransistor with a translu- 
cent material with a small iris. The degree of attenuation 
or translucency must be experimentally determined for 
the particular projection lamp used. 

The second coupling technique is to couple the lamp 
and phototransistor by a reflected path. The type of 
reflective surface and path length will again depend on the 
particular lamp being used. 




FIGURE 32 — Improved Speed Configuration for Phototransistor 



m 3 

- u 
m • 



500 






nil. i i Mini 










1 










































IT 












- 


- 


"Wi 










200 






u 
















Ih 














| 








I 




n 




mill 1 

250 mA 


'^ 


\ 






100 






J 








111 




j 






\ 







1.0k 10k 100k 

Rl, Load Resistance (Ohms) 



BO 
70 




















M 


RD30 


J 












SO 


















40 


















30 


















?n 
































































FIGURE 33 — 3dB Frequency Response for Speed-up Circuit 



-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 

V BE , Base-Emitter, Voltage (Volts) 

FIGURE 30 - MRD300 Base-Emitter Junction 
Capacitance versus Voltage 



100 






— 






















































50 




























































































A 


























A 


', 


1 


k- 1 - 


10 
















= ^ 


^ 


^ 


1 


* 
























^7* 
































-■">"^ 




















































tf 


























? 
































1 






*r 

























0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 

Rl. Load Resistance (kH) 



FIGURE 31 - MRD300 Switching Times versus Load Resistance 



0.5 



I I 




























lp= 1.5 


mA 














































































































»f 
































^r 















































































































































































0.1 



5.0 



0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 

R|_. Load Resistance (kfi) 

FIGURE 34 — Switching Times with Speed-up Circuit 

HIGH FREQUENCY DESIGN APPROACHES 

It was shown in Figure 7 that the frequency response 
of the MRD phototransistor series is quite dependent on 
the load. Depending on the load value and the frequency 
of operation, the device can be modled simply as in Figure 
6, or else in the modified hybrid-pi form of Figure 3. 

While the hybrid-pi model may be useful for detailed 
analytical work, it does not offer much for the case of 
simplified design. It is much easier to consider the 
transistor simply as a current source with a first-order 
transient response. With the addition of switching charac- 
teristics to the device information already available, most 
design problems can be solved with a minimum of effort. 



4-25 



Switching Characteristics - When the phototransistor 
changes state from OFF to ON, a significant time delay is 
associated with the rbe Cbe time constant. As shown in 
Figure 30, the capacitance of the emitter-base junction is 
appreciable. Since the device photocurrent is g m vfce 
(from Figure 3), the load current can change state only as 
fast as vbe can change. Also, vbe can change only as fast as 
Cbe can charge and discharge through the load resistance. 
Figure 31 shows the variations in rise and fall time 
with load resistance. This measurement was made using a 
GaAs light emitting diode for the light source. The LED 
output power and the separation distance between the LED 
and the phototransistor were adjusted for an ON photo- 
transistor current of 1 .5 mA. The rise time was also meas- 
ured for a short-circuited load and found to be about 700 ns. 

The major difficulty encountered in high-frequency 
applications is the load-dependent frequency response. 
Since the phototransistor is a current source, it is desirable 
to use a large load resistance to develop maximum output 
voltage. However, large load resistances limit the useful 
frequency range. This seems to present the designer with a 
tradeoff between voltage and speed. However, there is a 
technique available to eliminate the need for such a 
tradeoff. 

Figure 32 shows a circuit designed to optimize both 
speed and output voltage. The common-base stage Q2 
offers a low-impedance load to the phototransistor, thus 
maximizing response speed. Since Q2 has near-unity 
current gain, the load current in Rl is approximately 
equal to the phototransistor current. Thus the impedance 
transformation provided by Q2 results in a relatively load- 
independent frequency response. 

The effect of Q2 is shown in Figures 33 and 34. In 
Figure 33, the 3-dB frequency response as a function of 
load is shown. Comparing this with Figure 7, the effect of 
Q2 is quite evident. Comparison of Figures 31 and 34 also 
demonstrates the effect of Q2. 

Remote Strobeflash Slave Adapter - At times when 
using an electronic strobe flash, it is desirable to use a 
remote, or "slave" flash synchronized with the master. 
The circuit in Figure 35 provides the drive needed to 
trigger a slave unit, and eliminates the necessity for 



synchronizing wires between the two flash units. 

The MRD300 phototransistor used in this circuit is cut 
off in a VcER mode due to the relatively low dc 
resistance of rf choke LI even under high ambient light 
conditions. When a fast-rising pulse of light strikes the 
base region of this device, however, LI acts as a very high 
impedance to the ramp and the transistor is biased into 
conduction by the incoming pulse of light. 

When the MRD300 conducts, a signal is applied to the 
gate of SCR Q2. This triggers Q2, which acts as a 
solid-state relay and turns on the attached strobeflash 
unit. 

In tests this unit was unaffected by ambient light 
conditions. It fired up to approximately 20 feet from 
strobe-light flashes using only the lens of the MRD300 for 
light pickup. 

CONCLUSION 

The phototransistor provides the circuit or system 
designer with a unique component for use in dc and linear 
or digital time-varying applications. Use of a phototran- 
sistor yields extremely high electrical and mechanical 
isolation. The proper design of an electro-optical system 
requires" a knowledge of both the radiation source 
characteristics and the phototransistor characteristics. 
This knowledge, coupled with an adequately defined 
distance and geometric relationship, enables the designer 
to properly predict the performance of his designs. 

REFERENCES 

1. Motorola Application Note AN-440, Theory and 
Characteristics of Phototransistors. 

2. Francis W. Sears, Optics, Addison-Wesley Publishing 
Company, Inc., 1948. 

3. IES Lighting Handbook, 3rd Edition, Illuminating 
Engineering Society, 1959. 




INPUT TO STROBE 
FLASH UNIT 



Q2 
2N4216 



FIGURE 35 - Strobeflash Slave Adapter 



4-26 



AN-571A 



ISOLATION TECHNIQUES USING 
OPTICAL COUPLERS 



Prepared by 
Francis Christian 



INTRODUCTION 

The optical coupler is a new device that offers the 
design engineer new freedoms in designing circuits and 
systems. Problems such as ground loop isolation, common 
mode noise rejection, power supply transformations, and 
many more problems can be solved or simplified with the 
use of an optical coupler. 

Operation is based on the principle of detecting emit- 
ted light. The input to the coupler is connected to a light 
emitter and the output is a photodetector, the two ele- 
ments being separated by a transparent insulator and housed 
in a light-excluding package. There are many types of 
optical couplers; for example, the light source could be 
an incandescent lamp or a light emitting diode (LED). 
Also, the detector could be photovoltaic cell, photocon- 
ductive cell, photodiode, phototransistor, or a light-sensi- 
tive SCR. By various combinations of emitters and detec- 
tors, a number of different types of optical couplers could 
be assembled. 

Once an emitter and detector have been assembled as 
a coupler, the optical portion is permanently established 
so thai device use is only electronic in nature. This elimi- 
nates the need for the circuit designer to have knowledge 
of optics. However, for effective application, he must 
know something of the electrical characteristics, capabili- 
ties, and limitations, of the emitter and detector. 

COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS 

The 4N25 is an optical coupler consisting of a gallium 
arsenide (GaAs) LED and a silicon phototransistor. (For 
more information on LEDs and phototransistors, see 
References 1 and 2). 

The coupler's characteristics are given in the following 
sequence: LED characteristics, phototransistor character- 
istics, coupled characteristics, and switching characteristics. 
Table 1 shows ail four for the 4N25 series. 

INPUT 

For most applications the basic LED parameters Ip and 
Vp are all that .-ire needed to define the input. Figure 1 
shows these forward characteristics, providing the neces- 
sary information to design the LED drive circuit. Most 
circuit applications will require a current limiting resistor 
in series with the LED input. The circuit in Figure 2 is a 
typical drive circuit. 

The current limiting resistor can be calculated from 
the following equation: 



R = 



V,n-V F 

if" ' 



where 



Vp = diode forward voltage 
Ip = diode forward current 



— Tj 




25 


°C 




















































































































































































































1 
























































































._. 










































1 

















1.0 2.0 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 

ip, Instantaneous Forward Current (mA) 

FIGURE 1 — Input Diode Forward Characteristic 



R 




~^! 


1 







FIGURE 2 - Simple Drive Circuit For An LED 



4-27 



LED CHARACTERISTICS IT. • 25° C unless otherwis 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


•Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R = 3 V. R L = 1.0M ohms) 


'r 


~ 


005 


100 


UA 


•Forward Voltage 
ll F = 50mA> 


V F 


~ 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


(V R -0 V. f - 1 OMHil 


C 


~ 


150 


' 


pF 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C and i F =■ unless < 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


•Collector Em, iter Dark Current 4N2S. 4N26. 4N27 
IV CE - 10 V. BaseOpenl 4M28 


'ceo 


- 


35 


50 
100 


nA 


•Collector Base Dark Current 
IV CB = 10 V. Emitter Open! 


'CBO 


~ 




20 


nA 


'Collector Base Breakdown Voltage 
l' c = 100 jiA, If; = 01 


v (BR)CBO 


70 


" 


~ 


Volts 


•Collector Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 1 mA. I B -01 


v (BR)CEO 


30 




" 


Volts 


•Emitter Collectoi Breakdown Voltage 
ll E - 100 mA. I B = 01 


v (BR)ECO 


70 


" 


" 


Volts 


DC Current Gain 

IV CE = 50 V l c - 500uAI 


h FE 


~ 


250 


~ 


~ 



COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS IT.=?5C, 



Charactenstic 


Symbol 


Mm 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


•Collectoi Output Cui -em Ml 4N25.4N26 
IV CE - 10 V. I F ' 10 mA. I B = 01 4N27.4N28 


'c 


20 
1 


50 
30 


- 


mA 


•Isolation Voltage 121 4N25 

4N26.4N27 
4M28 


v ISO 


2500 
1500 
500 


1 


1 


Volts 


Isolation Resistance (21 
IV 500 VI 


- 


- 


10" 


- 


Ohms 


•Collector Emitter Saturation 
U c - 2 mA. Ip = 50mAI 


V CEIsatl 


~ 


02 


05 


Volts 


Isolation Capacitance 12) 
IV ' 0, M 1 MHz) 






13 




pF 


Bandwidth 13) 

ll c = 2 0mA. R L = 100 oh-ns. Figure 111 






300 




kHz 



SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 



Delay Time 


4N25.4N26 
ll c = 10 mA. V cc > 10 V) 4N27.4N28 
Figures 6 and 8 4N25.4N26 

4N27.4N28 


'd 


- 


007 
0.10 


- 


"' 


Rise Time 


'r 


" 


08 
20 


_ 


" S 


Storage Time 


4NI25.4N26 
ll c - 10mA. V cc - 10 VI 4N274N28 
Figures 7 and 8 4N25.4N26 

4N27.4N28 


'< 


- 


4.0 
20 


~ 


MS 


Fall Time 


'( 


- 


70 
30 


- 


MS 



OUTPUT 

The output of the coupler is the phototransistor. The 
basic parameters of interest are the collector current lc 
and collector emitter voltage, V^g. Figure 3 is a curve of 
VCE(sat) versus \q for two different drive levels. 

COUPLING 

To fully characterize the coupler, a new parameter, the 
dc current transfer ratio or coupling efficiency (r,) must 
be defined. This is the ratio of the transistor collector 
current to diode current Ic/'F- Figures 4A and 4B show 
the typical dc current transfer functions for the couplers 
at VCE = 10 volts. Note that t, varies with lp and Vrj£. 







I 










































F = 50 
Tj = 25 


'c 
'c 
































°c 
































































































I 




























































4N26 






17 J 








































:^^ 








H 


3 


f 






























I4I\ 


? 


7 






1 

1 






























4ts 


2 


8 

1 



0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 

If-. Collector Current (mA) 



FIGURE 3 - Collector Saturation Voltage 



4-28 



Once the required output collector current Ic is known, 
the input diode current can be calculated by 

IF = Ic/tj. 

where Ip is the forward diode current 
IC is the collector current 
r] is the coupling efficiency or transfer ratio. 



4N25. 4N26 



TURN-ON TIME 





































































- V CE 


= 10 


/ 









































































































































































































5°C 




























































"p-io 


i°r 



































































































































































































































1.0 20 5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500 

Ip, Forward Diode Current (mA) 

FIGURE 4A - DC Current Transfer Ratio 



4N27, 4N28 





:fe^= 


... 














































V CE = 10 v 






































































_ 




















I — ' 


























-i 


' 


























































































































[ 










•"5° 


r 






















* = ; 1 


I 1— 

30° C 






































































































































/ s 

























0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500 

Ip, Forward Diode Current (mA) 

FIGURE 4B - DC Current Transfer Ratio 



RESPONSE TIME 

The switching times for the couplers are shown in 
Figures 5 A and 5B. The speed is fairly slow compared to 
switching transistors, but is typical of phototransistors 
because of the large base-collector area. The switching time 
or bandwidth of the coupler is a function of the load 
resistor Rl because of the RlCo time constant where Co 
is the parallel combination of the device and load capaci- 
tances. Figure 6 is a curve of frequency response versus R£. 




) 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 

l c . Collector Current (mA) 

FIGURE 5A - Switching Times 



TURN-OFF TIME 




0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 

l c , Collector Current (mA) 

FIGURE 5B — Switching Times 



I I I 
















































































































































"" ^-». 










_ 












































































































































^5 


00 


n* 




































































, 


ooc 





















































































































30 50 70 100 200 300 500 700 1000 

f. Frequency (kHz) 



FIGURE 6 — Frequency Response 



4-29 




66 



FIGURE 7 - Pulse Mode Circuit 



Modulation 
Input 



'F(DC) constant 
1.0 M F 47 n V 



-)f— V\rV— <> Inpu 



i i 
L_ 



■V cc = 10 Volts 
O lc = 'Fl 



-z, 



HC~! 



l c (DC) = 2.0 mA 

i c (AC Sine Wave) = 2.0 mA P-P 



66 



¥ 



'F = 'F(DC) + 'F(m) 



FIGURE 8 - Linear Mode Circuit 



-O Output 



OPERATING MODE 

The two basic modes of operation are pulsed and linear. 
In the pulsed mode of operation, the LED will be switched 
on or off. The output will also be pulses either in phase 
or 180° out of phase with the input depending on where 
the output is taken. The output will be 180° out of 
phase if the collector is used and in phase if the emitter 
is used for the output. 



time for a diode-transistor coupler is in the order of 2 to 
5 /lis, where the diode-diode coupler is 50 to 100 ns. The 
one disadvantage with the diode-diode coupler is that the 
output current is much lower than the diode-transistor 
coupler. This is because the base current is being used as 
signal current and the )3 multiplication of the transistor is 
omitted. Figure 10 is a graph of Ig versus Ip using the 
coupler in the diode-diode mode. 




i y. ~r- 
_i_ r K 

i 



FIGURE 9 - Circuit Connections for Using the 4N26 
Asa Diode-Diode Coupler 



In the linear mode of operation, the input is biased at 
a dc operating point and then the input is changed about 
this dc point. The output signal will have an ac and dc 
component in the signal. 

Figures 7 and 8 show typical circuits for the two modes 
of operation. 

THE 4N26 AS A DIODE-DIODE COUPLER 

The 4N26 which is a diode-transistor coupler, can be 
used as a diode-diode coupler. To do this the output is 
taken between the collector and base instead of the collec- 
tor and emitter. The circuits in Figure 9 show the connec- 
tions to use the coupler in the diode-diode mode. 

The advantage of using the 4N26 as a diode-diode 
coupler is increased speed. For example, the pulse rise 



140 
130 
120 
110 
100 
90 
80 































































































'f 














-(a) 1 














I — 

I 

I ! 
I 
I 


' Hv= 






















— 
























„1® A 











































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 



FIGURE 10 - lg versus lp Curve for Using the 4N26 
As a Diode-Diode Coupler 



4-30 



1MCR1066 



! v.f 



i 



si 



J- 



Induct. 
Load 



a 



FIGURE 11 - Coupler-Driven SCR 



Gate 

Signal 



*J E 



2 l_ 




lp = 50 mA 



R ~ 0.05 A -L 



MTTL 
Flip-Flop 



FIGURE 12 - Opto Coupler In A Load To Logic Translation 



APPLICATIONS 

The following circuits are presented to give the designer 
ideas of how the 4N26 can be used. The circuits 
have been bread-boarded and tested, but the values of the 
circuit components have not been selected for optimum 
performance over all temperatures. 

Figure 1 1 shows a coupler driving a silicon controlled 
rectifier (SCR). The SCR is used to control an inductive 
load, and the SCR is driven by a coupler. The SCR used 
is a sensitive gate device that requires only 1 mA of gate 
current and the coupler has a minimum current transfer 
ratio of 0.2 so the input current to the coupler, lp, need 
only be 5 mA. The 1 k resistor connected to the gate 
of the SCR is used to hold off the SCR. The 1N4005 
diode is used to supress the self-induced voltage when the 
SCR turns off. 

Figure 12 is a circuit that couples a high voltage load 
to a low voltage logic circuit. To insure that the voltage 
to the MTTL flip-flop exceeds the logic-one level, the coup- 



ler output current must be at least 10 mA. To guarantee 

10 mA of output current, the input current to the LED 

must be 50 mA. The current limiting resistor R can be 

V-Vp 

calculated from the equation R = . If the power 

0.05 

supply voltage, V, is much greater than Vp, the equation 
V 

for R reduces to R = . 

0.05 

The circuit of Figure 13 shows a coupler driving an 
operational amplifier. In this application an ac signal is 
passed through the coupler and then amplified by the op 
amp. To pass an ac signal through the coupler with mini- 
mum distortion, it is necessary to bias the LED with a dc 
current. The ac signal is summed with the dc current so 
the output voltage of the coupler will have an ac and a 
dc component. Since the op amp is capacitively coupled 
to the coupler, only the ac signal will appear at the out- 
put. 



+5 v 



1 AC (peak) t[ 

«5 mA ' 




FIGURE 13 - Coupling An AC Signal to an Operational Amplifier 



4-31 



The circuit of Figure 14 shows the 4N26 being used as a diode-diode coupler, the output being taken from the collector- 
base diode. In this mode of operation, the emitter is left open, the load resistor is connected between the base and ground, 
and the collector is tied to the positive voltage supply. Using the coupler in this way reduces the switching time from 
2 to 3 /is to 100 ns. 



Input 
Pulse 



0- 
0.6 V- 




0.1 mF Output 
A v = 20(T> )|— • ► V out 



-6 V _I_ 

MC1733 ~ 



t r 10 90=W100 ns 



FIGURE 14 - Using the 4N26asa Diode-Diode Coupler 



The circuit of Figure 15 is a standard two-transistor one-shot, with one transistor being the output transistor of the 
coupler. The trigger to the one-shot is the LED input to the coupler. A pulse of 3 /is in duration and 15 mA will trigger 
the circuit. The output pulse width (PWo) is equal to 0.7 RC + PW) +6 /is where PW] is the input pulse width and 6 
/is is the turn-off delay of the coupler. The amplitude of the output pulse is a function of the power supply voltage of the 
output side and independent of the input. 




Output 

PW out = 0.7 RC + PWmin 

PW min = PW in + 6 /js 
V (Low) =°-2 V 
V (High) = 5.0 V (for R ^> 4 7 k) 



FIGURE 15 - Pulse Stretcher 



4-32 



The circuit of Figure 16 is basically a Schmitt trigger. 
Cne of the Schmitt trigger transistors is the output transis- 
tor of a coupler. The input to the Schmitt trigger is the 
LED of the coupler. When the base voltage of the coup- 
ler's transistor exceeds V e +Vb e the output transistor of 



the coupler will switch on. This will cause Q2 to conduct 
and the output will be in a high state. When the input to 
the LED is removed, the coupler's output transistor will 
shut off and the output voltage will be in a low state. Be- 
cause of the high impedance in the base of the coupler 



l F = 30 mA 

51 1 
O Wv — O- 

_n_ 

Input O O- 



V-^L~ 




Input V- 
2 5 V 



Output V 



Z7 V 



i i i i i i i i i i i 

*is 01 234567 8910 



FIGURE 16 - Optically Coupled Schmitt Trigger 



10 k 
♦ W — 



I si 10 



100 1 I" 

o — wv-o — (— 




"J 1 100 

-I — o — wv — o 



Reset 

Input 



Set 

Inpu 



V — ' >- 



4.5 V- 
Output 

0.5 V- 

Reset 
Input 



\ 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I 

t(Ms) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 1 7 18 19 20 



FIGURE 17 - Optically Coupled R-S Flip-Flop 



4-33 



transistor, the turn-off delay is about 6 /us. The high base 
impedance (100 k ohms) represents a compromise between 
sensitivity (input drive required) and frequency response. 
A low value base resistor would improve speed but would 
also increase the drive requirements. 

The circuit in Figure 1 7 can be used as an optically coup- 
led R-S flip-flop. The circuit uses two 4N26 couplers 
cross coupled to produce two stable states. To change 
the output from a low state to a high state requires a 
positive 2 V pulse at the set input. The minimum width 
of the set pulse is 3 fis. To switch the output back to the 
low state needs only a pulse on the reset input. The reset- 
operation is similar to the set operation. 

Motorola integrated voltage regulators provide an input 



for the express purpose of shutting the regulator off. For 
large systems, various subsystems may be placed in a stand- 
by mode to conserve power until actually needed. Or the 
power may be turned OFF in response to occurrences such 
as overheating, over-voltage, shorted output, etc. 

With the use of the 4N26 optically coupler, the reg- 
ulator can be shut down while the controlling signal is 
isolated from the regulator. The circuit of Figure 18 shows 
a positive regulator connected to an optical coupler. 

To insure that the drive to the regulator shut down 
control is 1 mA, (the required current), it is necessary to 
drive the LED in the coupler with 5 mA of current, an 
adequate level for logic circuits. 




R* = |V in -1.7 v| kn 



FIGURE 18 - Optical Coupler Controlling the Shut Down 
of MC1569 Voltage Regulator 



50 ! (— 

— vw-o — | — 

l F = 15 mA ' 



100 k 
-• WA, •- 



2 L 




47 pF 



6 1 °P F MPS6515 

H( ^v— 



(— 4/JS— j 



nPUt ^ \ 



2*is-H 
5 V- 



FIGURE 19 - Simple Pulse Amplifier 



The circuit in Figure 19 is a simple pulse amplifier using 
positive, ac feedback into the base of the 4N26. The 
advantage of the feedback is in faster switching time. With- 
out the feedback, the pulse rise time is about 20 jus, but 
with the positive feedback, the pulse rise time is about 
0.5 us. Figure 17A shows the input and output wave- 
froms of the pulse amplifier. 



REFERENCES 

1. "Theory and Characteristics of Phototransistors," Moto- 
rola Application Note AN-440. 

2. "Motorola Switching Transistor Handbook." 

3. Deboo, G.J. and C.N. Burrous, Integrated Circuits and 
Semiconductor Devices Theory and Application, Mc- 
Graw-Hill, 1971. 



4-34 



AN-780A 



APPLICATIONS OF THE MOC3011 TRIAC DRIVER 



Prepared by: 
Pat O'Neil 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MOC301 1 

Construction 

The MOC301 1 consists of a gallium arsenide infrared 
LED optically exciting a silicon detector chip, which is 
especially designed to drive triacs controlling loads on the 
1 15 Vac power line. The detector chip is a complex device 
which functions in much the same manner as a small 
triac, generating the signals necessary to drive the gate of 
a larger triac. The MOC301 1 allows a low power exciting 
signal to drive a high power load with a very small number 
of components, and at the same time provides practically 
complete isolation of the driving circuitry from the 
power line. 

The construction of the MOC3011 follows the same 
highly successful coupler technology used in Motorola's 
broad line of plastic couplers (Figure 1). The dual lead 




FIGURE 1 - Motorola Double-Molded Coupler Package 



frame with an epoxy undermold provides a stable dielectric 
capable of sustaining 7.5 kV between the input and 
output sides of the device. The detector chip is passivated 
with silicon nitride and uses Motorola's annular ring to 
maintain stable breakdown parameters. 



Basic Electrical Description 

The GaAs LED has nominal 1.3 V forward drop at 
10 mA and a reverse breakdown voltage greater than 3 V. 
The maximum current to be passed through the LED 
is 50 mA. 

The detector has a minimum blocking voltage of 
250 Vdc in either direction in the off state. In the on 
state, the detector will pass 100 mA in either direction 
with less than 3 V drop across the device. Once triggered 
into the on (conducting) state, the detector will remain 
there until the current drops below the holding current 
(typically 100 /M.) at which time the detector reverts to 
the off (non-conducting) state. The detector may be 
triggered into the on state by exceeding the forward 
blocking voltage, by voltage ramps across the detector 
at rates exceeding the static dv/dt rating, or by photons 
from the LED. The LED is guaranteed by the specifi- 
cations to trigger the detector into the on state when 
10 mA or more is passed through the LED. A similar 
device, the MOC3010, has exactly the same characteristics 
except it requires 15 mA to trigger. 



4-35 



Since the MOC301 1 looks essentially like a small optically 
triggered triac, we have chosen to represent it as shown 
on Figure 2. 



O 1 1 O 

O 1 I O 



FIGURE 2 - Schematic Representation 
of MOC3011 and MOC3010 




FIGURE 3 — Simple Triac Gating Circuit 



O^- 




NOTE: Circuit supplies 25 mA drive to gate of triac at 
V in = 25 V and T A < 70°C. 



TRIAC 


'GT 


R2 


c 


15 mA 


2400 


0.1 


30 mA 


1200 


0.2 


50 mA 


800 


0.3 



FIGURE 4 — Logic to Inductive Load Interface 



USING THE MOC301 1 AS A TRIAC DRIVER 
Triac Driving Requirements 

Figure 3 shows a simple triac driving circuit using 
the MOC301 1. The maximum surge current rating of the 
MOC3011 sets the minimum value of Rl through the 
equation: 

Rl(min) = V in (pk)/1.2 A 

If we are operating on the 115 Vac nominal line voltage, 
V in (pk)= 180 V, then 

Rl(min) = Vj n (pk)/1 .2 A = 1 50 ohms. 

In practice, this would be a 150 or 180 ohm resistor. 
If the triac has IqT = 100 m A and Vqj = 2 V, then the 
voltage V m necessary to trigger the triac will be given 
by V inT = Rl • IQT + VgT + VjM = 20 V. 

Resistive Loads 

When driving resistive loads, the circuit of Figure 3 
may be used. Incandescent lamps and resistive heating 
elements arc the two main classes of resistive loads for 
which 115 Vac is utilized. The main restriction is that 
the triac must be properly chosen to sustain the proper 
inrush loads. Incandescent lamps can sometimes draw 
a peak current known as "flashover" which can be 
extremely high, and the triac should be protected by a 
fuse or rated high enough to sustain this current. 



4-36 



Line Transients— Static dv/dt 

Occasionally transient voltage disturbance on the ac 
line will exceed the static dv/dt rating of the MOC3011. 
In this case, it is possible that the MOC3011 and the 
associated triac will be triggered on. This is usually not a 
problem, except in unusually noisy environments, because 
the MOC3011 and its triac will commute off at the next 
zero crossing of the line voltage, and most loads are 
not noticeably affected by an occasional single half-cycle 
of applied power. See Figure 5 for typical dv/dt versus 
temperature curves. 



the snubber used for the MOC3011 will also adequately 
protect the triac. 

In order to design a snubber properly, one should 
really know the power factor of the reactive load, which is 
defined as the cosine of the phase shift caused by the 
load. Unfortunately, this is not always known, and this 
makes snubbing network design somewhat empirical. 
However a method of designing a snubber network 
may be defined, based upon a typical power factor. This 
can be used as a "first cut" and later modified based 
upon experiment. 

Assuming an inductive load with a power factor of 
PF = 0.1 is to be driven. The triac might be trying to turn 
off when the applied voltage is given by 



Inductive Loads-Commutating dv/dt 

Inductive loads (motors, solenoids, magnets, etc.) 
present a problem both for triacs and for the MOC3011 
because the voltage and current are not in phase with each 
other. Since the triac turns off at zero current, it may be 
trying to turn off when the applied current is zero but the 
applied voltage is high. This appears to the triac like a 
sudden rise in applied voltage, which turns on the triac 
if the rate of rise exceeds the commutating dv/dt of the 
triac or the static dv/dt of the MOC301 1 . 



Vto = Vpksintf>~V pk ~180V 

First, one must choose Rl (Figure 4) to limit the peak 
capacitor discharge current through the MOC3011. This 
resistor is given by 

Rl = Vpk/W = 1 80/ 1 .2 A = 1 50 J2 

A standard value, 180 ohm resistor can be used in practice 
for Rl . 

It is necessary to set the time constant for t = R2C. 
Assuming that the triac turns off very quickly, we have a 
peak rate of rise at the MOC301 1 given by 



Snubber Networks 

The solution to this problem is provided by the use of 
"snubber" networks to reduce the rate of voltage rise 
seen by the device. In some cases, this may require two 
snubbers-one for the triac and one for the MOC3011. 
The triac snubber is dependent upon the triac and load 
used and will not be discussed here. In many applications 



dv/dt = V to /T = V t0 /R 2 C 

Setting this equal to the worst case dv/dt (static) for the 
MOC301 1 which we can obtain from Figure 5 and solving 
forR2C: 

dv/dt (Tj = 70°C) = 0.8 V/^s = 8 X 10$ 

R2C = V t0 /(dv/dt) = 180/(8 X 105) « 230 X 10~6 























Stati 


dv/d 


t 




1 




















Commutating dv/dt 






























































^ , 






























R l 


= 2k 


k. 


^ 


^ 


















































— 


-■\~. 




























fl L = 510!! 




"-~ 


— ■ 

















- .« 




























































** 

































0.20 
0.16 \ 



25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

T A . AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C) 



V CC "in 

O «/W>- 




ruuin 



Commutating 
dv/dt 



Sta 

*dv/dt 



V 10k \S 

— I < ^~s 

,-*H 2N39f 



dv/dt = 8.9 f V jn 

dv/dt Test Circuit 



FIGURE 6 — dv/dt versus Temperature 

4-37 



The largest value of R2 available is found, taking into 
consideration the triac gate requirements. If a sensitive 
gate triac is used, such as a 2N6071B, IgT = 15 mA @ 
-40°C. If the triac is to be triggered when Vj n < 40 V 



(Rl + R2) * Vi n /lGT % 40/0.015 * 2.3 k 

If we let R2 = 2400 ohms and C = 0.1 /iF, the snubbing 
requirements are met. Triacs having less sensitive gates 
will require that R2 be lower and C be correspondingly 
higher as shown in Figure 4. 



INPUT CIRCUITRY 

Resistor Input 

When the input conditions are well controlled, as for 
example when driving the MOC301 1 from a TTL, DTL, or 
HTL gate, only a single resistor is necessary to interface 
the gate to the input LED of the MOC301 1 . This resistor 
should be chosen to set the current into the LED to be 
a minimum of 10 mA but no more than 50 mA. 15 mA is 
a suitable value, which allows for considerable degradation 
of the LED over time, and assures a long operating life for 
the coupler. Currents higher than 15 mA do not improve 
performance and may hasten the aging process inherent 
in LED's. Assuming the forward drop to be 1.5 V at 



15 mA allows a simple formula to calculate the input 
resistor. 

Ri = (V C C-l-5)/0.015 

Examples of resistive input circuits are seen in Figures 
2 and 6. 

Increasing Input Sensitivity 

In some cases, the logic gate may not be able to source 
or sink 15 mA directly. CMOS, for example, is specified 
to have only 0.5 mA output, which must then be 
increased to drive the MOC3011. There are numerous 
ways to increase this current to a level compatible with 
the MOC3011 input requirements; an efficient way is 
to use the MC14049B shown in Figure 6. Since there are 
six such buffers in a single package, the user can have 
a small package count when using several MOC3011's 
in one system. 



150 








1 




' 


1 I 




1N4002 


s 




2 






L 2N3904 






MOC3011 


3-30 A 

Vdc 










51 3 


3 




-o < 


i — i 


I I 







FIGURE 7 - MOC3011 Input Protection Circuit 




1/6 Hex Buffer 



6 180 

-O W\r- 



2.4 k 



jT 



-I Load I— — O 



v C c 


R 


HEX BUFFER 


5.0 V 


220 n 


MC75492 


10 V 


600 n 


MC75492 


15 V 


9ion 


MC14049B 



FIGURE 6 - MOS to ac Load Interface 



4-38 



Input Protection Circuits 

In some applications, such as solid state relays, in 
which the input voltage varies widely the designer may 
want to limit the current applied to the LED of the 
MOC3011. The circuit shown in Figure 7 allows a non- 
critical range of input voltages to properly drive the 
MOC3011 and at the same time protects the input LED 
from inadvertent application of reverse polarity. 

LED Lifetime 

All light emitting diodes slowly decrease in brightness 
during their useful life, an effect accelerated by high 
temperatures and high LED currents. To allow a safety 
margin and insure long service life, the MOC3011 is 
actually tested to trigger at a value lower than the 
specified 10 mA input threshold current. The designer 
can therefore design the input circuitry to supply 10 mA 
to the LED and still be sure of satisfactory operation over 



a long operating lifetime. On the other hand, care should 
be taken to insure that the maximum LED input current 
(50 mA) is not exceeded or the lifetime of the MOC301 1 
may be shortened. 

APPLICATIONS EXAMPLES 

Using the MOC301 1 on 240 Vac Lines 

The rated voltage of a MOC3011 is not sufficiently 
high for it to be used directly on 240 Vac line; however, 
the designer may stack two of them in series. When used 
this way, two resistors are required to equalize the voltage 
dropped across them as shown in Figure 8. 

Remote Control of ac Voltage 

Local building codes frequently require all 115 Vac 
light switch wiring to be enclosed in conduit. By using 
a MOC3011, a triac, and a low voltage source, it is 



+ 5 V( 


150 






















O 

'240 Vac 




AAA 


Load 


MOC3011 
MOC3011 










• 1 M 

• 1 M 


J 
















X "^ 






t 




i 














X ~^p 




















J° 










1 k < 

















FIGURE 8-2 MOC3011 Triac Drivers in Series to Drive 240 V Triac 



NonConduit #22 Wire 



o 

1 



180 




nn 



ft 



FIGURE 9 - Remote Control of ac Loads Through Low Voltage Non-Conduit Cable 

4-39 



possible to control a large lighting load from a long 
distance through low voltage signal wiring which is com- 
pletely isolated from the ac line. Such wiring usually is 
not required to be put in conduit, so the cost savings in 
installing a lighting system in commercial or residential 
buildings can be considerable. An example is shown in 
Figure 9. Naturally, the load could also be a motor, 
fan, pool pump, etc. 

Solid State Relay 

Figure 10 shows a complete general purpose, solid state 
relay snubbed for inductive loads with input protection. 
When the designer has more control of the input and 
output conditions, he can eliminate those components 
which are not needed for his particular application to 
make the circuit more cost effective. 

Interfacing Microprocessors to 1 15 Vac Peripherals 

The output of a typical microcomputer input-output 



(I/O) port is a TTL-compatible terminal capable of driving 
one or two TTL loads. This is not quite enough to drive 
the MOC301 1 , nor can it be connected directly to an SCR 
or triac, because computer common is not normally 
referenced to one side of the ac supply. Standard 7400 
series gates can provide an input compatible with the 
output of an MC6820, MC6821, MC6846 or similar 
peripheral interface adaptor and can directly drive the 
MOC3011. If the second input of a 2 input gate is tied 
to a simple timing circuit, it will also provide energization 
of the triac only at the zero crossing of the ac line voltage 
as shown in Figure 1 1 . This technique extends the life 
of incandescent lamps, reduces the surge current strains 
on the triac, and reduces EMI generated by load switching. 
Of course, zero crossing can be generated within the 
microcomputer itself, but this requires considerable 
software overhead and usually just as much hardware 
to generate the zero-crossing timing signals. 



150 
O "VW- 



2 W 
1N4002 



180 
-MAr 



2.4 k 
-^W\r- 




FIGURE 10 - Solid-State Relay 




180 

-AW 



I 11! 

-/ I2N6071 Lo 



5 Vac 

esistive 
ad) 



180 2.4 k 



o- 



5 Vac 



Optional 
2N3904 Z ero-Crossing 

Circuitry 



Opto Triac 
Drivers 



/ (** (Indue 
/ 2N6071B Load ) 



4-40 



FIBER OPTICS 




General Information 



The Motorola Fiber Optic product portfolio is intended principally to address 
fiber optic communications systems in the computer, industrial controls, 
medical electronics, consumer and automotive applications. 

Analog and digital modulation schemes at band widths through 50 MHz and 
system lengths through several kilometers may be achieved using Motorola 
fiber optic semiconductor devices. 

The semiconductors are housed in packages suitable for high-volume 
production and low cost. Most important, however, the packages are standard- 
ized, permitting interchangeability, speedy field maintenance, and easy 
assembly into systems. 



5-1 



FIBER OPTICS . . 



a new method of cabled communication and data transmission using modulated light through an 

optical cable. 

Basic Fiber-Optic Link 



Signal I 
In I 



Driver 




Source 




Source- 

to-Fiber 

Connection 




Optical 
Fiber 




Fiber -to- 

Detector 

Connection 




Detector 




Output 
Circuit 
















T 








1 











Signal 
Out 



I 



Fiber optic systems offer many advantages in terms of performance and cost over traditional electrical, 
coaxial or hard-wired transmission systems. 

Fiber optic systems inherently provide: 

• Ability to transmit a great deal of data on a single fiber 

• Electrical isolation 

• EM1/RFI noise immunity, no electromagnetic coupling 

• No signal radiation or noise emission 

• No spark or fire hazard 

• Short circuit protection, no current flow 

• Transmission security 

• Lightweight, small diameter cable 

• Lightning surge current and transient immunity 

• Cost effectiveness 



The fiber optic emitters and detectors are in the new and unique ferrule package and in the standard 
lensed TO-1 8 type package. This ferrule package was developed to provide maximum coupling of light 
between the die and the fiber. The package is small, rugged and producable in volume. The ferrule 
mates with the AMP ferrule connector #227240- 1 for easy assembly into systems and precise fiber- 
to-fiber alignment. This assembly permits the efficient coupling of semiconductor-to-fiber cable and 
allows the use of any fiber type or diameter. 

Threaded Cable 
Connector Assembly 




Highly Polished 
Fiber Tip 



Index Matching 
Epoxy 

Semiconductor Emitter 
or Detector 



Press On 
Retention Plate 



5-2 



BASIC CONCEPTS OF FIBER OPTICS 
AND FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS 



Prepared By: 
John Bliss 



Introduction 

This note presents an introduction to the main principles of 
fiber optics. Its purpose is to review some basic concepts from 
physics that relate to fiber optics and the application of 
semiconductor devices to the generation and detection of light 
transmitted by optical fibers. The discussion begins with a 
description of a fiber optic link and the inherent advantages of 
fiber optics over wire. 



A fiber optic link 

Webster gives as one definition of a link "something which 
binds together or connects." In fiber optics, a link is the 
assembly of hardware which connects a source of a signal with 



its ultimate destination. The items which comprise the assembly 
are shown in Figure I . As the figure indicates, an input signal, 
for example, a serial digital bit stream, is used to modulate a 
light source, typically an I.ED (light emitting diode). A variety 
of modulation schemes can be used. These will be discussed 
later. Although input signal is assumed to be a digital bit 
stream, it could just as well be an analog signal, perhaps video. 

The modulated light must then be coupled into the optical 
fiber. This is a critical element of the system. Based on the 
coupling scheme used, the light coupled into the fiber could be 
two orders of magnitude down from the total power of source. 

Once the light has been coupled into the fiber, it is attenuated 
as it travels along the fiber. It is also subject to distortion. The 
degree of distortion limits the maximum data rate that can be 
transmitted. 



Input 
Signal 



Signal 
Processor 
(Modulator) 



Source To Fiber Connection 



Optical Fiber 





Fiber to Detector Connection 



Signal 

Processor 

(Demodulator) 



Output 
Signal 



FIGURE 1. A FIBER OPTIC LINK 



5-3 



At the receive end of the fiber, the light must now be coupled 
into a detector element (like a photo diode). The coupling 
problem at this stage, although still of concern, is considerably 
less severe than at the source end. The detector signal is then 
reprocessed or decoded to reconstruct the original input signal. 

A link like that described in Figure I could be fully 
transparent to the user. That is. everything from the input signal 
connector to the output signal connector could be prepackaged. 
Thus, the user need only be concerned with supplying a signal of 
some standard format ( like T : I.) and extracting a similar signal. 
Such a T : l. in T-T oul system obviates the need for a designer 
to understand fiber optics. However, byanalyzingthe problems 
and concepts internal to the link, the user is better prepared to 
apply fiber optics technology to his system. 

Advantages of Fiber Optics 

There are both performance and cost advantages to be realized 
by using fiber optics over wire. 

Greater Bandwidth. The higher the carrier frequency in a 
communications system, the greater its potential signal band- 
width. Since fiber optics work with carrier frequencies on the 
order of I0"-I0 14 Hz as compared'to radio frequencies of 10M0* 
Hz. signal bandwidths arc potentially I0 6 times greater. 

Smaller size and weight. A single fiber is capable of replacing 
a very large bundle of individual copper wires. For example, a 
typical telephone cable may contain close to 1 .000 pairs of copper 
wire and have a cross-sectional diameter of seven to ten 
centimeters. A single glass fiber cable capable of handling the 
same amount of signal might be only one-half centimeter in 
diameter. The actual fiber may be as small as 50 u-meters. The 
additional size would be the jacket and strength elements. The 
weight reduction in this example should be obvious. 

Lower attenuation, length for length, optical fiber exhibits 



less attenuation than does twisted wire or coaxial cable. Also, the 
attenuation of optical fibers, unlike that of wire, is not frequency 
dependent. 

Freedom from EMI. Unlike wire, glass docs not pick up nor 
generate electro-magnetic interference (EMI). Optical fibers do 
not require expensive shielding techniques to desensitize them to 
stray fields. 

Ruggedness. Since glass is relatively inert in the kind of 
environments normally seen by wired systems, the corrosive 
nature of such environments is of less concern. 

Safety. In many wired systems, the potential hazard of short 
circuits between wires or from wires to ground, requires special 
precautionary designs. The dielectric nature of optic fibers 
eliminates this requirement and the concern for hazardous sparks 
occurring during interconnects. 

Lower Cost. Optical fiber costs are continuing to decline while 
the cost of wire is increasing. In manv applications today, the total 
system cost for a fiber optic design is lower than for a comparable 
wired design. As time passes, more and more systems will be 
decidedly less expensive with optical fibers. 

Physics of light 

The performance of optical fibers can be fully analyzed by 
application of Maxwell's Equation for electromagnetic field 
theory. However, these are necessarily complex and. for- 
tunately, can be bypassed for most users by the application of 
ray tracing and analysis. When considering l.ED's and photo 
detectors, the particle theory of light is used. The change from 
ray to particle theory is fortunately a simple step. 

Over the years, it has been demonstrated that light (in fact, all 
electromagnetic energy) travels at approximatley 300.000 Km/ 
second in free space. It has also been demonstrated that in 
materials denser than free space, the speed of light is reduced. 
This reduction in the speed of light as it passes from free space 



Projected Path 

Of Incident Ray / / 

s 
s 



1y 




(b) 

FIGURE 2. REFRACTION OF LIGHT: 

a. Light refraction at an interface; b White light spectral seperation by prismatic refraction 



5-4 



into a denser material results in refraction of the light. Simply 
stated, the light ray is bent at the interface. This is shown in 
Figure 2a. In fact, the reduction of the speed of light is different 
for different wavelengths: and. therefore, the degree of bending 
is different for each wavelength. It is this variation in effect for 
different wavelengths that results in rainbows. Water droplets 
in the air act like small prisms (Figure 2b) to split white sunlight 
into the visible spectrum of colors. 

The actual bend angle at an interface is predictable and depends 
on the refractive index of the dense material. The refractive 
index, usually given the symbol n. is the ratio of the speed of 
light in free space to its speed in the denser material: 

„ _ speed of light in free space (I) 

speed of light in given material 

Although n is also a function of wavelength, the variation in 
many applications is small enough to be ignored and a single 
value is given. Some typical values of n are given in Table I: 

Table I 
Representative Indices of Refraction 

Vacuum 10 

Air 1.0003 ( 1.0) 

Water I 33 

Fused Quart? I 46 

Glass 15 

Diamond 2.0 

Silicon 3.4 

Gallium-Arsenide 3.6 

It is interesting to consider what happens to a light ray as it 
meets the interface between two transmissive materials. Figure 
3 shows two such materials of refractive indices n, and n 2 . A 
light ray is shown in material I and incident on the interface at 
point P. Snell's law states that: 

n, Sin6, = n 2 Sin.6, (2) 



The angle of refraction. 8, . can be determined: 
Sin9 2 = n. Sine, 



(3) 





Interlace 




Refracted 




"* Light Ray 




_>— " 


Normal P 




\y 


/ 


/ Incident 




' Light 




Ray 




n, 


n 2 


FIGURE 3. REFRACTIVE MODEL 


FOR SNELL'S LAW 





If material I is air, n, has the value of hand since n, is greater 
than 1 . 6, is seen to be less than e, : that is. in passing through 
the interface, the light ray is refracted (bent) toward the normal. 

If material I is not air but still an index of refraction less than 
material 2. the ray will still be bent toward the normal. Note that 
if n 2 is less than n, . e, is greater than 8, , or the ray is refracted 
away from the normal. 

Consider Figure 4 in which an incident ray is shown at an 
angle such that the refracted ray is along the interface, or the 
angle of refraction is 90°. Note that n, >n,. Using Snell's law: 



Sine, = n. Sine, 

or, with 6 , equal to 90°: 

Sine, = nj Sine c 
n, 



(4) 



(5) 



n,>n 2 


Normal 

/ 


n 2 


^ Interlace 


"A 


Reflected 


/' 


Light Ray 


Incident 




Light Ray 




FIGURE 4. CRITICAL 


ANGLE REFLECTION 



The angle, 6 , , is known as the critical angle and defines the 
angle at which incident rays will not pass through the interface. 
For angles greater than fl c , 100 percent of the light rays are 
reflected (as shown in Figure 5), and the angle of incidence 
equals the angle of reflection. 

This characteristic of reflection for light incident at greater 
than the critical angle is a fundamental concept in fiber optics. 
Optical Fibers 

Figure 6 shows the typical construction of an optical fiber. 
The central portion, or core, is the actual propagating path for 
light. Although the core is occasionally constructed of plastic, it 
it more typically made of glass. The choice of material will be 
discussed later. Bonded to the core is a cladding layer -- again, 
usually glass, although plastic cladding of glass core is not 
uncommon. The composition of glass can be tailored during 



5-5 




n 2 Interlace 



FIGURE 5. LIGHT INCIDENT AT GREATER 
THAN CRITICAL ANGLE 



processing to vary the index of refraction. For example, an 
all-glass, or silica-clad fiber, may have the compositions set so 
that the core material has an index of refraction of 1 .5: and the 
clad has an index of refraction of 1.485. To protect the clad 
fiber, it is typically enclosed in some form of protective rubber 
or plastic jacket. This type of optical fiber is called a "step index 
multimode"fiber. Step index refers to the profile of the index of 
refraction across the fiber (as shown in Figure 7). The core has 
an essentially constant index n . The classification "multimode" 
should be evident shortly. 




Protective 
Cladding Jacket 



FIGURE 6. SINGLE FIBER CONSTRUCTION 





n 1 


r 

a 


n air 
a 




FIGURE 7. INDEX PROFILE FOR A 
STEP INDEX FIBER 



point P. the critical angle value for e, is found by Snell's law: 
6 C = e, (min) = Sin-' i^ < 6 > 



Now. since e, is a complementary angle to 6 3 . 

6, (max) = Sin-' (n, ; - n i 2 ) v ' 
n, 



(7) 



Again applying Snell's law at the entrance surface (recall n a ir 
= 1). 

Sinfl in (max) = n, Sine, (max) (8) 

Combining (7) and (8). 

Sinfl in (max) = (n, 2 - n 1 ') v ' (9) 

8 in (max) represents the largest angle with the normal to the 
fiber end for which total internal reflection will occur at the 
core clad interface. light rays entering the fiber end at angles 
greater than 8 in (max) will pass through the interface at Pand be 
lost. The value Sin9 in (max) is one ofthefundamental parameters 
for an optical fiber. It defines the half-angle of the cone of 
acceptance for light to be propagated along the fiber and is called 
the "numerical aperture." usually abbreviated N.A. 

N.A. = Sin0 in (max) = (n, J - n,») w ( 10) 

There are several points to consider about N.A. and equation 
( 10). Recall that in writing(8). we assumed that the material at the 
end of the fiber was air with an index of 1 . If it were some other 
material. (8) would be written (with ni representing the material): 

n, Sin0 in (max) = n, Sin6, (max) / 1 | » 



Numerical Aperture 

Applying the concept of total internal reflection at the n , n, 
interface, we can now demonstrate the propagation of light 
along the fiber core and the constraint on light incident on the 
fiber end to ensure propagation. Figure 8 illustrates the 
analysis. As the figure shows, ray propagation results from the 
continuous reflection at the core/clad interface such that the 
ray bounces down the fiber length and ultimately exits at the far 
end. If the principle of total internal reflection is applied at 



Sin in (max) = (n, ; ■ r\, 3 ) v ' = N.A. 



(12) 



That is. the N.A. would be reduced by the index of refraction of 
the end material. When fiber manufacturers specify N.A.. it is 
usually given for an air interface unless otherwise stated. 

The second point concerns the absoluteness of N.A. The 
analysis assumed that the light rays entered the fiber; and in 
propagating along it. they continually passed through the central 
axis of the fiber. Such ravs are called "meridonal" ravs. It is 



5-6 




FIGURE 8. RAY PROPAGATION IN A FIBER 



entirely possible that some rays may enter the fiber at such an 
angle that in passing down the fiber, they never intercept the axis. 
Such rays are called "skew" rays. An example is shown in both 
side and end views in Figure 9. 




•«.^ 




FIGURE 9. SKEW RAY PATH 



Also, some rays may enter at angles very close to the critical 
angle. In bouncing along the fiber, their path length may be 
considerably longer than rays at shallower angles. Consequently, 
they are subject to a larger probability of absorption and may. 
therefore, never be recovered at the output end. However, for 
very short lengths of fiber, they may not be lost. These two 
effects, plus the presence of light in the cladding for short lengths, 
results in the N. A. not cutting off sharply according to equations 
(10) and (12) and of appearing larger for short lengths. It is 
advisable to define some criteria for specifying N . A. At M otorola. 
N. A. is taken as the acceptance angle for which the response is no 
greater than lOdB down from the peak value. This is shown in 
Figure 10. Figure II shows a typical method of measuring a 
fiber's N.A. In the measurement, a sample to be measured (at least 



I meter to allow the attenuation of clad and high order modes 1 ) is 
connected to a high N. A. radiometric sensor, such as a large-area 
photodiode. The power detected by the sensor is read on a 
radiometer power meter. The other end of the fiber is mounted on 



§1« 









,/ 


S^ 






<) 


- sin - "• 


NA 








/ 








2 












/ 


















/ 








































f 


















/ 














V 






/ 














\ 




/ 


T 














V 


V 


-7f~ 










ft .401 








■l^> 


' K- 








."""' 











u. Anjli From P«»k Alii 

FIGURE 10. GRAPHICAL DEFINITION 
OF NUMERICAL APERTURE. 



a rotatable fixture such that the axis of rotation is the end of the 
fiber. A collimated light source is directed at the end of the fiber. 
This can be a laser or other source, such as an L.ED, at a sufficient 
distance to allow the rays entering the fiber to be paraxial. The 
fiber end is adjusted to find the peak response position. Ideally, 
this will be at 7ero degrees: but manufacturing 
variations could result in a peak slightly offset from 7ero. The 
received power level is noted at the peak. The fiber end is then 
rotated until the two points are found at which the received power 
is one-tenth the peak value. The sin of half the angle between these 
two points is the N.A. 
The apparent N.A. of a fiber is a function of the N.A. of the 



i High order modes refers to steep angle rays. 



5-7 



Collimated 

Light 

Source 




Power 
Meter 



FIGURE 11. MEASUREMENT OF FIBER NUMERICAL APERTURE 



source that is driving it. For example. Figures 1 2a and I2b are 
plots of N. A. versus length for the same fiber. In(l2a) the source 
has a broad N. A. (0.7). while in (1 2b) the source N. A. is 0.32. Note 
that in both cases, the N. A. at 100m is about 0.1 1: but at I meter, 
the apparent N.A. is 0.42 in (12a) but 0.315 in (12b). The high 
order modes entering the fiber from the 0.7 N.A. source take 
nearly the full 100 meters to be stripped out by attenuation. Thus, 
a valid measurement of a fiber's true N.A. requires a collimated. 
or very low. N.A. source or a very long-length sample. 

Fiber Attenuation 

Mention was made above of the "stripping" or attenuation of 
high order modes due to their longer path length. This suggests 
that the attenuation of power in a fiber is a function of length. 
1 his is indeed the case. A number of factors contribute to the 
attenuation: imperfections at the core clad interface; flaws in the 
consistency of the core material: impurities in the 
composition. The surface imperfections and material flaws tend 
to affect all wavelengths. The impurities tend to be selective in the 



wavelength they affect. For example, hydroxl molecules (OH") 
are strong absorbers of light at 900nm. Therefore, if a fiber 
manufacturer wants to minimise losses at 900nm. he will have 
to take exceptional care in his process to eliminate moisture (the 
source of OH"). Other impurities are also present in any 
manufacturing process. The degree to which they are controlled 
will determine the attenuation characteristic of a fiber. The 
cumulative effect of the various impurities results in plots of 
attenuation versus wavelength exhibiting peaks and valleys. 
Four examples of attenuation (given in dB/ Km) are shown in 
Figure 13. 
Fiber Types 

It was stated at the beginning of this section that fibers can be 
made of glass or plastic. I here are three varieties available lodav: 

1 . Plastic core and cladding: 

2. Glass core with plastic cladding - often called PCS' 
(plastic-clad silica); 

3. Cilass core and cladding - silica-clad silica. 















'I 






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urc 


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i 




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i ! 


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iill 




ii 


ii 


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FIGURE 12 FIBER NUMERICAL APERTURE VERSUS 
LENGTH FOR TWO DRIVE N.A.C. 



\ 


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5-8 



; 100 
s 

5 

£ 



— 1 I I > ^7 s ~~ ^- I : 



400 500 600 700 800 900 1.000 1.100 

Wavelength !nW' 

FIGURE 13. FIBER ATTENUATION 
VERSUS WAVELENGTH 



All plastic fibers are extremely rugged and useful for systems 
where the cable may be subject to rough day-after-day 
treatment. They are particularly attractive for benchtop inter- 
connects. Thedisadvantage is their high attenuation characteristic. 

PCS cables offer the better attenuation characteristics of glass 
and are less affected by radiation than all-glass fibers. 2 They see 
considerable use in military-grade applications. 

All glass fibers offer low attenuation performance and good 
concentricity, even for small-diameter cores. They are generally 
easy to terminate, relative to PCS. On the down side, they are 
usually the least rugged, mechanically, and more susceptible to 
increases in attenuation when exposed to radiation. 

The choice of fiber for any given application will be a function 
of the specific system's requirements and trade-off options. 

So far. the discussion has addressed single fibers. Fibers, 
particularly all-plastic, are frequently grouped in bundles. This is 
usually restricted to very low-frequency, short-distance applications. 
The entire bundle would interconnect a single light source and 
sensor or could be used in a fan-out at either end. Bundles are also 
available for interconnecting an array of sources with a matched 



-It should be noted that the soft clad material should be 
removed and replaced by a hard clad material for best fiber core-to 
connector termination. 



array of detectors. This enables the interconnection of multiple 
discrete signal channels without the use of multiplex techniques. 
In this type of cable, the individual fibers are usually separated in 
individual jackets and. perhaps, each embedded in clusters of 
strength elements, like Kevlar. In one special case bundle, the 
libers are arrayed in a ribbon configuration. This type cable is 
frequently seen in telephone systems using liber optics. 

In Figure 7. the refractive index profile was shown as constant 
over the core cross-section with a step reduction at the core clad 
interface. The core diameter was also large enough that many 
modes (low and high order) are propagated along its path. In 
Figure 14. a section of this fiber is shown with three discrete 
modes shown propagating down the fiber. The lowest order mode 
is seen traveling along the axis of the fiber (or at least parallel to 
it). The middle order mode is seen to bounce several times at the 
interface. The total path length of this mode is certainly greater 
than that of the mode along the axis. The high order mode is seen 
to make many trips across the fiber, resulting in an extremely long 
path length. 

The signal input to this fiber is seen as a step pulse of light. 
However, since all the light that enters the fiber at a fixed time 
does not arrive at the end at one time (the higher modes take 
longer to traverse their longer path), the net effect is to stretch or 
distort the pulse. This is characteristic of a multimode. step-index 
fiber and tends to limit the range of frequency for the data being 
propagated. 

Figure 15 shows what this pulse stretching can do. An input 
pulse train is seen in ( 1 5a). At some distance (say 100 meters), the 
pulses (due to dispersion) arc getting close to running together but 
are still distinquishable and recoverable. However, at some 
greater distance (say 200 meters), the dispersion has resulted in 
the pulses running together to the degree that they are indistinquish- 
able. Obviously, this fiber would be unusable at 200 meters for 
this data rate. Consequently, fiber specifications usually give 
bandwith in units of M Hz-Km - that is. a 200 M H7-Km cable can 
send 200-MHz data up to I Km or 100-MH7dataupto2Kmetc. 

To overcome the distortion due to path length differences, fiber 
manufacturers have developed graded index fiber. An example of 
multimode. graded-index fiber is shown in Figure 16. 

In the fiber growth process, the profile of the index of 
refraction is tailored to follow the parabolic profile shown in the 
figure. This results in low order modes traveling through a 
constant density material. High order modes see lower density 



High Order Mode 




Low Order Mode 

FIGURE 14. PROPAGATION ALONG A MULTIMODE STEP INDEX FIBER 



5-9 



_7^A__AA r\ 



* \ 



FIGURE 15. LOSS OF PULSE IDENTITY DUE TO PULSE WIDTH DISPERSION 

A Input B Signal at! 00 Meters C Signal at 200 Meters 



material as they get further away from the axis of the core. Thus, 
the velocity of propagation increases away from the center. The 
result is that all modes, although they may travel different 
distances, tend to cover the length of the fiber in the same amount 
of time. This yields a fiber with higher bandwidth capability than 
multimode stepped index. 

One more fiber type is also available. This is the single mode, 
step-index fiber shown in Figure 17. In this fiber, the core is 
extremely small (on the order of just a few micrometers). This 
type accepts only the lowest order mode and suffers no modal 
dispersion. It is an expensive fiber and requires a very high-power, 
highly-directional source like a laser diode. Consequently, applica- 
tions for this type of fiber arc the very high data rate, long- 
distance systems. 

As a final statement on fiber properties, it is interesting to 
compare optical fiber with coax cable. Figure 1 8 show the loss 
versus frequency characteristics for a low-loss fiber compared 
with the characteristics of several common coax cables. Note that 
the attenuation of optical fiber is independent of frequency ( up to 
the point where modal dispersion comes into play). 

Active Components For Fiber Optics 

Propagation through fiber optics is in the form of light or. 
more specifically, electromagnetic radiation in the spectral 
range of near-infrared or visible light. Since the signal levels to 



be dealt with are generally electrical in nature (like serial digital 
logic at standart T 2 L levels), it is necessary to convert the source 
signal into light at the transmitter end and from light back to 
T 2 L at the receive end . There are several components which can 
accomplish these conversions. This discussion will concentrate 
on light emitting diodes (LED's) as sources of PIN photo diodes 
and Integrated Detector Preamplifiers (IDP's) as sensors. 

Light Emitting Diodes 

Most people are familiar with LED's in calculator displays. 
Just as they arc optimised geometrically and visually for the 
function of displaying characters, some l.ED's are specifically 
designed and processed to satisfy the requirements of generating 
light, or near-light (that is. infrared), for coupling into fibers. 
There are several criteria of importance for l.ED's used with 
fibers: 

1. Output power: 

2. Wavelength: 

3. Speed: 

4. Emission pattern. 

Output power. Manufacturers are continually striving to 
increase the output power or efficiency of LED's. The more 
efficient an LED. the lower its drive requirements, or the greater 
the losses that can be accomodated elsewhere in the system. 




FIGURE 16. PROPAGATION ALONG A MULTIMODE GRADED INDEX FIBER 



n Profile 
(Parabolic in 
Core) 



5-10 




Input 
Pulse 




Single Propagated Mode 

FIGURE 17. PROPAGATION ALONG A SINGLE MODE STEP INDEX FIBER 



However, total power emitted by an L.ED is not the whole 
picture (see Emission Pattern) 

Wavelength. As shown earlier, optical fibers exhibit an 
attenuation characteristic that varies with wavelength. Figure 
19 is a repeat of one of the sample curves from Figure 1 3. If this 
fiber were to be used in a system, the desired wavelength of 
operation would beabout 875nm where theattenuation isdown 
to about 7dB Km. The most undesirable wavelength for use in 
this fiber's range is 630nm where the loss is about 600dB Km. 
Therefore, all other considerations being satisfied, an I.ED with 
a characteristic emission wavelength of 875nm would be used. 



140 






120 
100 

e so 
m 

S. 60 

c 

o 

i 40 

C 
0> 

Z 20 


-I/* /</ /^ - 
1/ / y\^ 

4 m / s^ * - 

%^r Low-Loss Optical Fiber — 






i i i i i i i i i r 


FIGUR 
VERSL 


200 400 600 800 1001 
Frequency (MHz) 

E 18. COMPARATIVE ATTENUATE 
JS FREQUENCY FOR OPTICAL FIBE 
AND COAX CABLE 





Speed. LED's exhibit finite turn-on and turn-off times. A 
device with a response of lOOnsec would never work in a 20- 
MHz system. (In general, the 3dB bandwidth is equal to 0.35 
divided bytherisetime.) In a symmetrical RTZ system (see data 
encoding later in this paper), the pulse width for a single bit 
would be 25nsec. A lOOnsec LED would hardly have begun to 
turn on when it would be required to turn off. There is often a 
trade-off bet ween speed and power, so it would not be advisable 



to select the fastest diode available but rather the fastest 
required to do the job. with some margin designed in. 

Emission Pattern. In typical data communications systems 
the light from the L.ED is coupled into a fiber with a core 
diameter of I00 to 200um. If the emission pattern of a particular 
L.EDisacollimated beam of lOOum or less diameter, it might be 
possible to couple nearly all the power into the fiber. Thus, a 
iOOuW L.ED with such an emission pattern might be a better 
choice than a 5m W LED with a lambertian 1 pattern. 

Light Generation 

Light is emitted from an LED as a result of the recombining 
of electrons and holes. Electrically, an LED is just a P-N 
junction. Under forward bias, minority carriers are injected 
across the junction. Once across, they recombine with majority 
carriers and give up their energy in the process. The energy 
given up is approximately equal to the energy gap for the 
material. The same injection; recombination process occurs in 
any P-N junction: but in certain materials, the nature of the 
process is typically radiative — that is. a light photon is 
produced. In other materials (silicon and germanium, for 




400 500 600 700 8(K 

Wavelength inM 



900 1.000 1.100 



FIGURE 19. ATTENUATION VERSUS 
WAVELENGTH FOR A SAMPLE FIBER 



5-11 



example), the process is primarily non-radiative and no 
photons are generated. 

light emitting materials do have a distribution of non- 
radiative sites — usually crystal lattice defects, impurities, etc. 
Minimizing these is the challenge to the manufacturer in his 
attempt to produce more efficient devices. It is also possible for 
non-radiative sites to develop over time and. thus, reduce 
efficiency. This is what gives L.ED's finite lifetimes, although I0 ? 
to lO^-hour lifetimes are essentially infinite compared with 
some other components of many systems. 

The simplest L.ED structures are homojunction. epitaxially- 
grown devices and single-diffused divices. These structures are 
shown in Figure 20. 

The epitaxially-grown LED is generally constructed of 
silicon-doped gallium-arsenide. A melt of elemental gallium 
containing arsenic and silicon dopant is brought in contact at 
high temperature with the surface of an n-type gallium-arsenide 
wafer. At the initial growth temperature, the silicon atoms in 
the dopant replace some of the gallium atoms in the crystal 
lattice. In so doing, they contribute an excess electron to the 
bond. This results in the grown layer being n-type. During the 
growth, the temperature is systematically reduced. At a certain 
critical temperature, the silicon atoms begin to replace some of 
the arsenic atoms in the crystal. This removes an electron from 
the bond, resulting in the formation of a p-type layer. As a 
finished diode, the entire surface, as well as the four sides, 
radiate light. The characteristic wavelength of this type of 
device is 940nm. and it typically radiates a total power of 3m W 
at 1 00m A forward current. It is relatively slow with turn-on and 
turn-off times on the order of I50nsec. The non-directionality 
of its emission makes it a poor choice as a light source for use 
with optical fibers. 

The planar diffused I.ED is formed by controlled diffusion of 
zinc into a tellurium-doped n-gallium-arsenidc wafer. A finished 
diode has a typical power output of 500uW at a wavelength of 
900nm. Turn-on and turn-off times are usually aroun 15- 
20nsec. The emission pattern is lambertian. similar to the grown 





\\\i'^ 




A 


/3 

yS Metal y 


% 




*— n GaAs 
*— n AIGaAs 
^"» p AIGaAs 
^^ p AIGaAs 
^^ n GaAs 


s 


VyX/^ p GaAs 

/ 


y 




f 


s 


FIGURE 21. PLANAR HETEROJUNCTION LED 



'lambertian: The spatial pattern of reflected light from a 
sheet of paper, e.g. The intensity of light in any direction from a 
plane lambertian surface is equal to the intensity in the direction 
of the normal to the surface times the cos of the angle between 
the direction and the normal. 



junction L.ED above. 

Both of the above structures, although they can be used in 
fiber optics, are not optimized for the purpose of coupling into 
small fibers. Several variations of I.ED structures are currently 
used to improve the efficiency of light coupling into fibers. The 
two basic structures for fiber optic I.ED's are surface emitting 
and edge emitting. Surface-emitting devices are further broken 
down to planar and etchcd-well devices. The material used for 
these devices could be gallium-arsenide or any material which 
exhibits efficient photon-generating ability. The most common 
material in use today is the ternary crystal aluminum-gallium- 
arsenide. It is used extensively because it results in very efficient 
devices and has a characteristic wavelength around 820nm 4 at 
which many fibers give lowest attenuation. (Many fibers are 
even better around I300nm. but the materials technology lor 
I.ED's at this wavelength — InGaAsP — is still on the front end 
of the learning curve: and devices are very expensive.) 

Planar Fiber Optic LED 

The planar heterojunction I.ED is somewhat similar to the 
grown junction I.ED of Figure 20a. Both utilize the liquid- 
phase epitaxial process to fabricate the device. The I.ED shown 
in Figure 2 1 is a heterojunction aluminum-gallium-arsenide 




p Epitaxial Layer 
n Epitaxial Layer 



n Type Substrate 




Diffused p Region 



a. Epitaxially Grown Surface LED 



b. Planar Diffused Surface LED 



FIGURE 20. SIMPLE LED STRUCTURES 

a. Epitaxially Grown 

b. Planar Diffused 



5-12 



structure. The geometry is designed so that the device current is 
concentrated in a very small area of the active layer. This 
accomplishes several things: (1) the increase in current density 
makes for a brilliant light spot; (2) the small emitting area is well 
suited to coupling into small core fibers; and (3) the small 
effective area has a low capacitance and, thus, higher speed. 

In Figure 21, the device appears to be nothing more than a 
multilayer version of the device in Figure 20a with a top metal 
layer containing a small opening. However, as the section view 
of AA shows in Figure 22, the internal construction provides 
some interesting features. To achieve concentration of the light 
emission in a small area, a method must be incorporated to 
confine the current to the desired area. Since the individual 
layers are grown across the entire surface of the wafer, a 
separate process must be used to confine the current. First an 
n-type tellurium-doped layer is grown on a zinc-doped p-type 
substrate. Before any additional layers are grown, a hole is 
etched through the n-layer and just into the substrate. The 
diameter of the hole defines the ultimate light-emitting area. 
Next, a p-type layer of ALGan *iAs is grown. This layer is doped 
such that its resistivity is quite high; this impedes carrier flow in 
a horizontal direction, but vertical flow is not impeded since the 
layer is so thin. This ensures that current flow from the substrate 
will be confined to the area of the etched hole. The next layer to 
be grown is the p-type active layer. The aluminum-gallium mix 
of this layer gives it an energy gap corresponding to 820nm 
wavelength photons. The actual P-N junction is then formed by 
growth of an n-type tellurium-doped aluminum-gallium- 
arsenide. The doping and aluminum-gallium mix of this layer is 
set to give it a larger energy gap than the p-layer just below it. 
This makes it essentially transparent to the 820nm photons 
generated below. A final cap layer of gallium-arsenide is grown 
to enable ohmic contact by the top metal. The end result is an 
820nm planar LED of small emission area. The radiation 
pattern is still lambertian, however. 



effect will convert high order modes to low order modes (see 
Figure 23). 




FIGURE 22. SECTION AA OF PLANAR 
HETEROJUNCTION LED 



If a fiber with a core equal in area to the emission area is 
placed right down on the surface, it might seem that all the 
emitted light would be collected by the fiber; but since the 
emission pattern is lambertian. high order mode rays will not be 
launched into the fiber. 

There is a way to increase the amount of light coupled. If a 
spherical lens is placed over the emitting area, the collimating 




Clear Diecoat 



Emitting Area 

FIGURE 23. INCREASING LIGHT COUPLING 
WITH A MICROSPHERE 



"This is adjustable by varying the mix of aluminum in the 
aluminum-gallium-arsenide crystal. 



Etched-Well Surface LED 

For data rates used in telecommunications ( 100 MHz), the 
planar LED becomes impractical. These higher data rates 
usually call for fibers with cores on the order of 50-62um. If a 
planar LED is used, the broad emission pattern of several 
hundred micro-meters will only allow a few percent of the 
power to be launched into the small fiber. Of course, the 
emission area of the planar device could be reduced; but this can 
lead to reliablility problems. The increase in current density will 
cause a large temperature rise in the vicinity of the junction, and 
the thermal path from the junction to the die-attach header 
(through the confining layer and substrate) is not good enough 
to help draw the heat away from the junction. Continuous 
operation at higher temperature would soon increase the non- 
radiative sites in the LED and the efficiency would drop rapidly. 
If the chip is mounted upside down, the hot spot would be closer 
to the die-attach surface; but the light would have to pass 
through the thick substrate. The photon absorption in the 
substrate would reduce the output power significantly. The 
solution to this problem was developed by Burris and Dawson, 
of Bell Labs. The etched-well, or "Burrus" diode, is shown in 
Figure 24. 

The thick n-type substrate is the starting wafer. Successive 
layers of aluminum-gallium-arsenide are grown epitaxilly on 
the substrate. The layer functions (confinement, active, 
window) are essentially the same as in the planar structure. 
After the final p-type layer (contact) is grown, it is covered with 
a layer of SiOj- Small openings are then cut in the S^ to define 
the active emitting area. Metal is then evaporated over the wafer 
and contacts the p-layer through the small openings. The final 



5-13 




(Active) p AIGaAs nil } J } r t 
(Contact) p AIGaAs 



A, 




, ^p AIGaAs (Confinement) 

uin) ;/V//A) i 1 1 / ;ri -sio 2 



. n GaAs (Substrate) 
' n AIGaAs (Window) 



FIGURE 24. BURRUS, OR ETCHED WELL, 

LED: (a) Device (b) Crossection at AA 



processing consists of etching through the substrate. The etched 
wells are aligned over the active areas defined by the Si0 2 
openings on the underside of the wafer and remove the heavily- 
photon-absorptive substrate down to the window layer. As an 
indication of the delicacy of this operation, it requires double- 
sided alignment on a wafer about 0. Im thick with a final 
thickness in the opening of about 0.025mm. 

The radiation pattern from the Burrus diode is still 
lambertian. However, it is a remarkably-small emitting area 
and enables coupling into very small fibers (down to 50um). The 
close proximity of the hot spot (0.025mm) to the heat sink at the 
die attach makes it a reliable structure. 

Several methods can be used for launching the emitted power 
into a fiber. These are shown in Figure 25. 

The Burrus structure is superior to the planar for coupling to 
small fibers «100um) but considerably more expensive due to 
its delicate structure. 

Edge-Emitting LED 

The surface structures discussed above are lambertian 



sources. A variation of the heterojunction family that emits a 
highly-directional pattern is the edge-emitting diode. This is 
shown in Figure 26. The layer structure is similar to the planar 
and Burrus diodes, but the emitting area is a stripe rather than a 
confined circular area. The emitted light is taken from the edge 
of the active stripe and forms an eliptical beam. The edge- 
emitting diode is quite similar to the diode lasers used for fiber 
optics. Although the edge emitter provides a very efficient 
source for coupling into small fibers, its structure calls for 
significant differences in packaging from the planar or Burrus. 

Photo Detectors 

PIN Photodiodes. Just as a P-N junction can be used to 
generate light, it can also be used to detect light. If a P-N 
junction is reverse-biased and under dark conditions, very little 
current flows through it. However, when a light shines on the 
device, photon energy is absorbed and hole-electron pairs are 
created. If the carriers are created in or near the depletion region 
at the junction, they are swept across the junction by the electric 
field. This movement of charge carriers across the junction 



^ 



> 



9J 



\Q7 



FIGURE 25. FIBER COUPLING TO A BURRUS DIODE. 

(a) Standard Fiber Epoxied In Well. 

(b) Fiber With Balled End Epoxied In Well. 

(c) Microlens Epoxied In Well. 



5-14 




Metal 

SiO* 

p GaAs (Contact 
p AIGaAs (Confinement] 
n AIGaAs (Active) 
n AIGaAs 

n GaAs (Substrate! 

Metal 




FIGURE 26. EDGE EMITTING LED 

(a) Stucture 

(b) Beam Pattern 



causes a current flow in the circuitry external to the diode. The 
magnitude of this current is proportional to the light power 
absorbed by the diode and the wavelength. A typical 
photodiode structure is shown in Figure 27, and the IV 
characteristic and spectral sensitivity are given in Figure 28. 

In Figure 28a, it is seen that under reverse-bias conditions, 
the current flow is noticeable a function of light power density 
on the device. Note that in the forward-bias mode, the device 
eventually acts like an ordinary forward-biased diode with an 
exponential IV characteristic. 

Although this type of P-N photodiode could be used as a fiber 
optic detector, it exhibits three undesirable features. The noise 
performance is generally not good enough to allow its use in 
sensitive systems; it is usually not fast enough for high-speed 
data applications; and due to the depletion width, it is not 
sensitive enough. For example, consider Figure 29. The 
depletion is indicated by the plot of electric field. In a typical 
device, the p-anode is very heavily doped; and the bulk of the 
depletion region is on the n-cathode side of the junction. As 
light shines on the device, it will penetrate through the p-region 



toward the junction. If all the photon absorption takes place in 
the depletion region, the generated holes and electrons will be 
accelerated by the field and will be quickly converted to circuit 
current. However, hole-electron pair generation occurs from 
the surface to the back side of the device. Although most of it 
occurs within the depletion region, enough does occur outside 
this region to cause a problem in high-speed applications. This 
problem is illustrated in Figure 30. A step pulse of light is 
applied to a photodiode. Because of distributed capacitance 
and bulk resistance, and exponential response by the diode is 
expected. The photocurrent wave form show this as a ramp at 
turn-on. However, there is a distinct tail that occurs starting at 
point "a." The initial ramp up to "a" is essentially the response 
within the depletion region. Carriers that are generated outside 
the depletion region are not subject to acceleration by the high 
electric field. They tend to move through the bulk by the process 
of diffusion, a much slower travel. Eventually, these carriers 
reach the depletion region and are sped up. The effect can be 
eliminated, or at least substantially reduced by using a PIN 
structure. This is shown in Figure 31. and the electric field 



Diffused p Region 




n-Si Substrate 




(a) 



FIGURE 27. PN PHOTODIODE 

(a) Device 

(b) Section View At AA 



5-15 



, 


I 1 

i / m ^* 


\ 




\ 




\ 




\ 




Increasing Incident" Light Level 


(a) 



Sensitivity 
il 




(b) 
FIGURE 28. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PN PHOTODIODE 

(a) l-V Family 

(b) Spectral Sensitivity 



distribution is shown in Figure 32. Almost the entire electronic 
field is across the intrinsic (I) region so that very few photons are 
absorbed in the p- and n- region. The photocurrent response in 
such a structure is essentially free of the tailing effect seen in 
Figure 30. 

In addition to the response time improvements, the high 
resistivity I-region gives the PIN diode lower noise per- 
formance. 



The critical parameters for a PIN diode in a fiber optic 
application are: 

1. Responsivity; 

2. Dark current; 

3. Response speed; 

4. Spectral response. 



H'l 



Direction 
Of 
. Light Signal 




Depletion Region 



FIGURE 29. ELECTRIC FIELD IN A REVERSE- 
BIASED PN PHOTODIODE 



Input 
Light 
Level 




FIGURE 30. PULSE RESPONSE OF A 
PHOTODIODE 



5-16 





Shallow Diffused 
yS p Region 






I r ) 






n 




FIGURE 31. PIN DIODE STRUCTURE 





Responsivity is usually given in amps/ watt at a particular 
wavelength. It is a measure of the diode output current for a 
given power launched into the diode. In a system, the designer 
must then be able to calculate the power level coupled from the 
system to the diode (see AN-804, listed in Bilbliography). 

Dark current is the thermally-generated reverse leakage 
current in the diode. In conjunction with the signal current 
calculated from the responsivity and incident power, it gives the 
designer the on-off ratio to be expected in a system. 




Diode Thickness- 



FIGURE 32. ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION 
IN A PIN PHOTODIODE 



Response Speed determines the maximum data rate 
capability of the diode; and in conjunction with the response of 
other elements of the system, it sets the maximum system data 
rate. 5 

Spectral Response determines the range, or system length, 
that can be achieved relative to the wavelength at which 
responsivity is characterized. For example, consider Figure 33. 
The responsivity of the MFODI02F is given as 0. 15A/W at 
900nm. As the curve indicates, the response at 900nm is 78 
percent of the peak response. If the diode is to be used in a 



'Device capacitance also impacts this. See "Designer's Guide 
to Fiber-Optic Data Links" listed in Bibliography. 



system with an LED operating at 820nm. the response (or 
system length) would be: 

Riaom = .98 RfQAAv = 1.26R« 

.78 



v (820) 



v (900) 



*<900) 



(13) 





90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

























































































z 

§ 










































> 






















m 



































































0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 
X. WAVELENGTH (jim) 

FIGURE 33. RELATIVE SPECTRAL RESPONSE 
MFOD 102F PIN PHOTODIODE 



Integrated Detector Preamplifiers. The PIN photodiode 
mentioned above is a high output impedance current source. 
The signal levels are usually on the order of tens of nanoamps to 
tens of microamps. The signal requires amplification to provide 
data at a usable level like T 2 L. In noisy environments, the 
noise-insensitive benefits of fiber optics can all be lost at the 
receiver connection between diode and amplifier. Proper 
shielding can prevent this. An alternative solution is to integrate 
the follow-up amplifier into the same package as the photo 
diode. This device is called an integrated detector preamplifier 
(I DP). An example of this is given in Figure 34. 

lncorporatingan intrinsic layer into the monolithic structure 
is not practical with present technology, so a P-N junction 
photodiode is used. The first two transistors form a tran- 
simpedance amplifier. A third stage emitter follower is used to 
provide resistive negative feedback. The amplifier gives a low 
impedance voltage output which is then fed to a phase splitter. 
The two outputs are coupled through emitter followers. 

The MFOD404F IDP has a responsivity greater than 
20m V/ uW at 900nm. The response rise and fall times are 50nS 
maximum, and the input light power can go as high as 30uW 
before noticeable pulse distortion occurs. Both outputs offer a 
typical impedance of 200ft. 

The I DP can be used directly with a voltage comparator or. 
for more sophisticated systems, could be used to drive any 
normal voltage amplifier. Direct drive of a comparator is shown 
in Figure 35. 

A Fiber Optics Communications System 

Now that the basic concepts and advantages of fiber optics 
and the active components used with them have been discussed, 
it is of interest to go through the design of a system. The system 
will be a simple point-to-point application operating in the 
simplex'' mode. The system will be analyzed for three aspects: 



6 ln a simplex system, a single transmitter is connected to a 
single receiver by a single fiber. In a half duplex system, a single 



5-17 




Output 



Output 



Gnd 
Shield Case 



FIGURE 34. INTEGRATED DETECTOR 
PREAMPLIFIER 



1. Loss budget: 

2. Rise time budget; 

3. Data encoding format. 

LOM Bu4f«t. If no in-line repeaters are used, every element of 
the system between the L.ED and the detector introduces some 
loss into the system. By identifying and quantifying each loss, 
the designer can calculate the required transmitter power to 
ensure a given signal power at the receiver, or conversely, what 
signal power will be received for a given transmitter power. The 
process is referred to as calculating the system loss budget. 

This sample system will be based on the following individual 
characteristics: 

Transmitter: MFOEI02F, characteristics in data sheet. 

Fiber: Silica-clad silica fiber with a core diameter of 

200 um; step index multimode; 20dB / Km 
attenuation at 900 nm; N.A. of 0.35; and a 3dB 
bandwidth of SMHz-Km. 

Receiver: M FOD404F, characteristics in data sheet. 

The system will link a transmitter and receiver over a distance 
of 250 meters and will use a single section of fiber (no splices). 



•com. Irom pg 5-17 

fiber provides a bidirectional alternate signal flow between a 
transmitter/ receiver pair at each end. A full duplex system 
would consist of a transmitter and receiver at each end and a 
pair of fibers connecting them. 



Some additional interconnect loss information is required. 7 

1 . Whenever a signal is passed from an element with an 
N.A. greater than the N.A. of the receiving element, the 
loss incurred is given by: 

N.A. Loss = 20 log (N A I / NA2) (14) 

where; NA I is the exit numerical aperture of the signal 
source; 

where: NA2 is the acceptance N.A. of the element (rec- 
eiving the signal. 

2. Whenever a signal is passed from an element with a 
cross-sectional area greater than the area of the receiving 
element, the loss incurred is given by: 

Area Loss = 20 log (Diameter I / Diameter 2) (15) 
where: Diameter I is the diameter of the signal source 
(assumes a circular fiber port); 

where: Diameter 2 is the diameter of the element 
receiving the signal. 

3. If there is any space between the sending and receiving 
elements, a loss is incurred. For example: an LED with 
an exit N.A. of 0.7 will result in a gap loss of 2dB if it 
couples into a fiber over a gap of 0.1 5mm. 

4. If the source and receiving elements have their axes 
offset, there is an additional loss. This loss is also 
dependent on the seperation gap. For an LED with an 
exit N.A. of 0.7 and a gap with its receiving fiber of 
O.I5mm, there will be a loss of 2.5dB for an -axial 
misalignment of 0.035mm. 



'For a detailed discussion of all these loss mechanisms, see 
AN-804. 



5-18 




Data 
Output 



m 

FIGURE 35. SIMPLE F/0 DATA RECEIVER 
USING IDP AND A VOLTAGE COMPARATOR 



5. If the end surfaces of the two elements are not parallel, an 
additional loss can be incurred. If the non-parallelity is 
held below 2-3 degrees, this loss is minimal and can 
generally be ignored. 

6. As light passes through any interface, some of it is 
reflected. This loss, called Fresnel loss, is a function of the 
indices of refraction of the materials involved. For the 
devices in this example, this loss is typically 0.2dB/ 
interface. 

The system loss budget is now ready to be calculated. Figure 
38 shows the system configuration. Table II presents the 
individual loss contribution of each element in the link. 

TABLE II 
Fiber Optic Link Loss Budget 

Loss 
Contribution 

MFOEI02Fto Fiber N. A. Loss 6.02dB 

MFOEI02F to Fiber Area Loss 

Transmitter Gap Loss (see text) 2.00dB 
Transmitter Misalignment Loss (see text) 2.50dB 

Fiber Entry Fresnel Loss 0.20dB 

Fiber Attenuation (250 meters) S.OOdB 

Fiber Exit Fresnel Loss 0.20dB 

Receiver Gap Loss 2.00dB 

Receiver Misalignment Loss 2.50dB 

Detector Fresnel Loss 0.20dB 

Fiber to Detector N.A. Loss 

Fiber to Detector Area Loss 

Total Path Loss 20.62dB 
Note that in Table II no Fresnel loss was considered for the 
LED. This loss, although present, is included in specifying the 



output power in the data sheet. 

In this system, the LED is operated at 100 mA. MFOE102F 
shows that at this current the instantaneous output power is 
typically 1 30uW. This assumes that the junction temperature is 
maintained at 25 C C. The output power from the LED is then 
converted to a reference level relative to ImW: 



P Q = 10 log 0.13mW 
I.OmW 



(16) 
(17) 



P» = -8.86dBm 

The power received by the MFOD404F is then calculated: 
Pr = P. -loss (18) 



P„ = l0(- 2 - 948 >mW = 0.,00lmW 



(19) 



This reference level is now converted back to absolute power: 

p R = l0(- JM «)mW - O.OOlmW (20) 

Based on the typical responsivity of the MFOD404F, the 
expected output signal will be: 

V„ =(30mV/uW)(luW) = 30mV (21) 

As shown in MFOD404F, the output signal will be typically 
seventy-five times above the noise level. 

In many cases, a typical calculation is insufficient. To 
perform a worst-case analysis, assume that the signal-to-noise 
ratio at the MFOD404F output must be 20dB. The maximum 
noise output voltage is 1.0m V. Therefore, the output signal 
must be lOmV. With a worst-case responsivity of 20mV/jiW, 
the received power must be: 



P R = Vb_= lOmV » 0.5mW 
R 20mV/ M W 



(22) 



5-19 






FIGURE 38. SIMPLEX FIBER OPTIC POINT TO POINT LINK 



P„ = 10 log 0.0005mW = -33dBm 
R lmW 



(23) 



The link loss was already performed as worst case, so: 

P„(L.ED) = -33dBm + 20.62dB = -l2.39dBm (24) 

Po = KM- 1J ")mW = 0.0577mW = 57.7^W (25) 

MFOEI02F includes a derating curve for LED output versus 
junction temperature. At 1 00mA drive, the forward voltage 
will be greater than 1.5V worst case. Although it will probably 
be less than 2.0V, using 2.0V will give a conservative analysis: 

Pi.iss = (0.IA)(2V) = 200mW (26) 

This is within the maximum rating for operation at 25°C 
ambient. If we assume the ambient will be 25°C or less, the 
junction temperature can be conservatively calculated: 

AT = (400°C/ W) (0.2W) = 80°C (27) 

If we are transmitting digital data, we can assume an average 
duty cycle of 50 percent so that theATi will likely be40°C. This 
gives: 

Ti = Ta +ATi = 65° C (28) 

The power output derating curve shows a value of 0.65 at 65°C. 
Thus, the DC power level will be: 

Po(DC) = 57.7«W = 88.77>*W (29) 

0.65 

As MFOEI02F indicates, at 50mA DC the minimum power 
is 40/uW. Doubling the current should approximately double 
the output power, giving 80/uW. 

Since the required DC equivalent power is 87.77uW, the link 
may be marginal under worst case conditions. The designer may 
be required to compromise somewhat on S/N ratio for the 
output signal or set higher minimum output power* or 
responsivity specifications on the LED and detector devices. 
Use of a lower attenuation cable, or higher N/A cable, would 
also help by reducing the length loss or N/A loss at the 



"It might also be advisable to allow for LED degradation over 
time. A good design may include 3.0dB in the loss budget for 
long-term degradation. 



transmitter end. 

Rise Time Budget. The cable for this system was specified to 
have a bandwidth of 5MHz-Km. Since the length of the system 
is 250 meters, the system bandwidth, if limited by the cable, is 
20MHz. Data links are usually rated in terms of a rise time 
budget. The system rise time is found by taking the square root 
of the sum of the squares of the individual elements. In this 
system the only two elements to consider are the LED and the 
detector. Thus: 



tRv =Y(tR.|Fl>) 2 + (ttUk-u-am) 2 

Using the typical values of MFOD404F and MFOEI02F: 



(30) 



t«, =V(25) 2 + (50) 2 = 60nS (31) 

Total system performance may be impacted by including the 
rise time of additional circuit elements. Additional consi- 
derations are covered in detail in AN-794 and the Designer's 
Guide mentioned earlier (see Bibliography). 

Data Encoding Format. In a typical digital system, the 
coding format is usually NRZ, or non-return to zero. In this 
format, a string of ones would be encoded as a continuous high 
level. Only when there is a change of state to a "0" would the 
signal level drop to zero. In RTZ (return to zero) encoding, the 
first half of a clock cycle would be high for a " I" and low for a 
"0." The second half would be low in either case. Figure 39 
shows an NRZ and RTZ waveform for a binary data stream. 
Note between a-b the RTZ pulse rate repetition rate is at its 
highest. The highest bit rate requirement for an RTZ system is a 
string of "I's". The highest bit rate for an NRZ system is for 
alternating "I's" and "0's," as shown from b-c. Note that the 
highest N RZ bit rate is half the highest RTZ bit rate, or an RTZ 
system would require twice the bandwidth of an NRZ system 
for the same data rate. 

However, to minimize drift in a receiver, it will probably be 
AC coupled; but if NRZ encoding is used and a long string of 
"I's" is transmitted, the AC coupling will result in lost data in 
the receiver. With RTZ data, data is not lost with AC coupling 
since only a string of "0's" results in a constant signal level; but 
that level is itself zero: However, in the case of both NRZ and 
RTZ, for any continuous string of either "I's" or "0's" for NRZ 
or "0's RTZ will prevent the receiver from recovering any 



5-20 



Binary Data 1001 110101 0101000110 



~L 



1_ 



rL__nnji_rL_n_n_n 



JUL_ 



FIGURE 39. NRZ AND RTZ ENCODED DATA 



clock signal. 

Another format, called Manchester encoding, solves this 
problem, by definition, in Manchester, the polarity reverses 
once each bit period regardless of the data. This is shown in 
Figure 40. The large number of level transitions enables the 
receiver to derive a clock signal even if all "I's" or all "O's" are 
being received. 



the receiver may saturate. A good encoding scheme for these 
applications is pulse bipolar encoding. This is shown in Figure 
41. The transmitter runs at a quiescent level and is turned on 
harder for a short duration during a data "0" and is turned off 
for a short duration during a data "I ". 

Additional details on encoding schemes can be obtained from 
recent texts on data communications or pulse code modulation. 



Binary Data 



100111 



~LT 



Manchester Vcc 



i_jirLiirLrLn_ruui_rLr 



FIGURE 40. MANCHESTER DATA ENCODING 



In many cases, clock recovery is not required. It might appear 
that RTZ would be a good encoding scheme for these 
applications. However, many receivers include automatic gain 
control (AGC). During a long stream of "O's," the AGC could 
crank the receiver gain up; and when "I's" data begin to appear. 



Summary 

This note has presented the basic principles that govern the 
coupling and transmission of light over optical fibers and the 
design considerations and advantages of using optical fibers for 
communication information in the form of modulated light. 



5-21 



Binary Data 1 101011 1 1 1 1 



1_TL 



Pulse Vcc 

Bipolar Vcc/2 



-u-^W^ ^Hj-^j 11 - 



FIGURE 41. PULSE BIPOLAR ENCODING 



Bibliography 

Gempe. Horst: "Applications of Ferruled Components to 

Fiber Optic Systems." Motorola Application Note AN- 

804: Phoenix. Arizona; 1 980. 

Mirtich, Vincent L.;"A 20-MBaud Full Duplex Fiber Optic 

Data Link Using Fiber Optic Active Components." 

Motorola Application Note AN-794: Phoenix. Arizona. 

1 980. 

Mirtich. Vincent L.: "Designer's Guide to: Fiber-Optic 

Data Links." Parts I. 2.& 3; EDN June 20. 1 980; August 5. 

1 980; and August 20. 1 980. 



5-22 



BASIC FIBER OPTIC TERMINOLOGY 

The glass, plastic-clad silica or plastic medium by which light 
is conducted or transmitted. Can be multi-mode (capable of 
propagating more than one mode of a given wavelength) or 
single-mode (one that supports propagation of only one mode 
of a given wavelength). 

The jacketed combination of fiber or fiber bundles with cladding 
and strength reinforcing components. 

A covering for the core of an optical fiber that provides optical 
insulation and protection. Generally fused to the fiber, it has a 
low index of refraction. 

The light transmitting portion of the fiber optic cable, It has a 
higher index of refraction than the cladding. 

A measure of the maximum angle within which light may be 
coupled from a source or emitter. It is measured relative to the 
fiber's axis. 

A number that indicates a fiber's ability to accept light and 
shows how much light can be off-axis and still be accepted 
by the fiber. 

Reflection losses which occur at the input and output interfaces 
of an optical fiber and are caused by differences in the index 
of refraction between the core material and immersion media. 

INDEX OF REFRACTION: Compares the velocity of light in a vacuum to its velocity in a 
material. The index or ratio varies with wavelength. 



FIBER: 

CABLE: 
CLADDING: 

CORE: 

ACCEPTANCE ANGLE: 



NUMERICAL 
APERTURE (NA): 

FRESNEL LOSS: 



EMITTER: 



DETECTOR: 



Converts the electrical signal into an optical signal. Lasers 
or LED's are commonly used. 

Converts light signals from optical fibers to electrical signals 
that can be further amplified to allow reproduction of the 
original signal. 



5-23 



5-24 



FIBER OPTICS 




Selector Guide 



6-1 



*N*RARED EMITTERS 



Designed as infrared sources for fiber optic communication systems. These devices are designed to 
conveniently fit within compatible AMP connectors. (TO- 1 8 type packages fit AMP connector 22701 5; 
ferruled semiconductors fit AMP connector 227240-1 .) 

Both 820 nm and 900 nm wavelengths are available. Unless otherwise noted, the optical port of 
the ferruled devices is 200 /im fiber optic core diameter. 







Device 
Type 


Total Power Output 


A 
nm 


Fiber 

Core 

Diameter 


NA 


Response 
Time 

tr/t f 

Typ ns 


Package 


Typ @ \f (mA) 


00 

6 

»- 


*^^ 209-02 


MFOE100 
MFOE200 


550 mW 

1.6 mW 


50 
50 


900 
940 


- 


- 


50 
250 


O 

UJ 

_i 

D 

ec 
ec 

UJ 

u. 


— ^ 338 02 


MFOE102F 
MFOE103F 


140,/W 
140/iW 


100 
100 


900 
900 


200 
200 


0.7 
0.7 


25 
15 


-^*^^T 338D-01 


MF0E106F 


700 M W 


100 


820 


200 


0.58 


12 



PHOTO-DETECTORS 

Designed for the detection of infrared radiation in fiber optic communication systems. A family of 
detectors including PIN diodes, photo transistors (XSTR), photo Darlingtons (DARL), and monolithic 
Integrated Detector Preamplifiers (IDP) are provided. The Integrated Detector Preamplifiers contain light 
detectors, transimpeda nee preamplifiers, and quasi-complementary outputs. These devices are 
designed to conveniently fit within compatible AMP connectors. (TO- 1 8 type packages fit AMP connector 
22701 5; ferruled semiconductors fit AMP connector 227240-1 .) 

The optical port of the ferruled devices is 200 /*m fiber optic core diameter. 







Device 


Responsivity 
Typ 


Operating 
Voltage 

Volts 


Response 
Time 
Typ 
t r /t f 


Package 


Type 


Number 


820 nm 


900 nm 


03 

6 

r- 


— -1^-^209-02 


PIN 


MFOD100 


20 juA/mW/cm 2 


18/iA/mW/cm 2 


20 


10ns/10ns 


— -^ 82-04 


XSTR 
DARL 


NIFOD200 
MFOD300 


8.4 mA/mW/cm 2 
85 mA/mW/cm2 


5.6 mA/mW/cm 2 
75 mA/mW/cm 2 


20 
5.0 


2.5^5/4.0^5 
40 /us/60 n% 


Q 

UJ 

_) 

3 

ec 
ec 

Ul 

u. 


338-02 


PIN 
PIN 


MFOD102F 
MFOD104F 


0.5 /uA/jiW 
0.5 /iA/^W 


0.4 ^.A/^iW 
0.4 jiA^W 


20 
50 


25 ns/25 ns 
6 ns/6.0 ns 


"^ 338A-02 


XSTR 
DARL 
IDP 


MFOD202F 
MFOD302F 
MFOD402F 


115^A//iW 

6800 m A/aiW 

1.7mV//iW 


100/iA/fiW 
6000 M A/ M W 
1.5mV/^W 


20 
5.0 
15 


2.5>»s/4.0jis 
40 /is/60 /is 
20 ns/20 ns 


-^ 338B-01 


IDP 
IDP 


MF0D404F 
MFOD405F 


34 mV//iW 
5.0 mV/jiW 


30 mV/^iW 
4.0 mV/^W 


5.0 
5.0 


40 ns/40 ns 
10ns/10ns 



6-2 



TRANSMITTERS 



Complete signal processing circuitry is used to translate electrical energy to optical energy for fiber 
optic systems. This family includes monolithic integrated circuit drivers and complete fiber optic 
modules with infrared source. 



Package 


Device 
Type 


Bandwidth 


Operating 

Voltage 

Volts 


Drive 
Current 


Po 


nm 


Optical 
Port 


Jfl!P 

,l 620-06 


MFOC700* 


1 Mbit TTL 
20 Mbit ECL 


+5.0 


Thru 
100 mA 


- 


- 


- 


^^^^^ 343-01 


MFOL02T 


200 kbit TTL 


+5.0 


100 mA 


140^W 


900 


200 fim 



"To be introduced. 



RECEIVERS 



Devices used to convert optical energy to conditioned electrical impulses in fiber optic systems. This 
family includes monolithic integrated circuit signal processing circuits with AGC and complete 
modules with TTL and ECL outputs. 



Package 


Device 
Type 


Bandwidth 


Operating 

Voltage 

Volts 


AGC 


Dynamic 
Range 


Detector 


Min Input 

for 10- 9 

BER 


,|; 620-06 


MFOC600* 


10 Mbit TTL 
20 Mbit ECL 


+5.0 


yes 


>20dB 


IDPor 
PIN 


- 


^ 343-01 


MFOL02R 


200 kbit TTL 


+5.0 


no 


>20dB 


PIN 


10nW 
-50 dBm 



*To be introduced. 



6-3 



LINKS 



Fiber optic Links are designed as educational tools but are usable in real system applications. Tutorial 
in nature, they include the necessary parts to construct fiber optic communication links. They include 
preterminated fiber optic cable, connectors, source, and detector. In the MFOL02 are complete TTL 
transmitter and receiver modules. 



Device Type 


Transmitter 


Receiver 


Cable 


Data Rate 


MFOL01 
MFOL02 


MFOE103F 
MFOL02T 


MFOD402F 
MFOL02R 


1 meter 
10 meters 


20 megabit NRZ 
200 kbit NRZ 



A€€ESSOR*ES 



A complement of parts are made available to ease the design of fiber optic systems using the Motorola 
ferruled semiconductor components, and are convenient items to the customer's purchasing cycle. 



Device Type 



Description 



MFOA02 
MFOA03 
MFOA10 



Connector, AMP 227240-1 

Cable, 1 meter DuPont S120, Terminated 

Cable, 10 meters DuPont RFAX PIR140, Terminated 



6-4 



FIBER OPTICS 




Data Sheets 



7-1 



FIBER OPTIC DATA SHEETS 



Page 

MFOD1 00 PIN Photo Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-3 

MFOD1 02F PIN Photo Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-5 

MF0D1 04F PIN Photo Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-7 

MFOD200 Phototransistor for Fiber Optic Systems 7-9 

MFOD202F Phototransistor for Fiber Optic Systems 7-11 

MFOD300 Photodarlington Transistor for Fiber Optic Systems 7-13 

MFOD302F Photodarlington Transistor for Fiber Optic Systems 7-15 

MF0D402F Integrated Detector/Preamplifier for Fiber Optic Systems 7-17 

MFOD404F Integrated Detector/Preamplifier for Fiber Optic Systems 7-21 

MFOD405F Integrated Detector/Preamplifier for Fiber Optic Systems 7-25 

MF0E1 00 Infrared-Emitting Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-29 

MFOE102F Infrared-Emitting Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-31 

MFOE103F Infrared-Emitting Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-33 

MFOE1 06F New Generation AIGaAs LED 7-35 

MFOE200 Infrared-Emitting Diode for Fiber Optic Systems 7-37 

MFOL01 The Link 7-39 

MFOL02 Link II 7-41 



7-2 



<8> 



MOTOROLA 



MF0D100 



PIN PHOTO DIODE FOR FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in short length, high 
frequency Fiber Optics Systems. Typical applications include: 
medical electronics, industrial controls, M6800 Microprocessor 
systems, security systems, etc. 

• Spectral Response Matched to MFOE100, 200 

• Hermetic Metal Package for Stability and Reliability 

• Ultra Fast Response — 1 .5 ns typ 

• Very Low Leakage 

ID = 2.0 nA (max) @ Vr = 20 Volts 

• Compatible with AMP Mounting Bushing #22701 5 



\ 



\ 



FIBER OPTICS 
PIN PHOTO DIODE 



CONVEX LENS 




MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


150 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation @ T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
0.57 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J. T stg 


-55 to +175 


°C 





100 

90 

80 

g 70 

i 60 

o 

!2 50 

oc 

£ 40 

< 30 

"■ 20 
10 



FIGURE 1 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL RESPONSE 














/ 


^\ 




















' 


\ 
















/ 




















/ 







































































































































2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1. 
X. WAVELENGTH (^m) 


2 




STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. AN00E 
PIN 2. CATHODE 

NOTES: 

1. PIN 2 INTERNALLY CONNECTED 
TO CASE 

2. LEA0SWITHIN 0.13 mm (0.005) 
RADIUS OF TRUE POSITION AT 
SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM 
MATERIAL CONDITION. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


S.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


8 


4.S2 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


6.22 


6.98 


0.245 


0.275 





0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


F 


1.19 


1.60 


0.047 


0.063 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.10( 


BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° BSC 


450 BSC 



7-3 



MFOD100 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Dark Current 

(V R =20 V,R L = 1.0 M, Note 1) 

T A = 25°C 
T A = 100°C 


id 


- 


1.0 
14 


10 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
Or = 10 M A) 


V(BR)R 


100 


200 


~ 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(lp = 50 mAl 


v F 


— 


— 


1.1 


Volts 


Series Resistance 
(l F =50mA) 


F>s 


— 


~ 


10 


ohms 


Total Capacitance 

(V R =20 V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


c T 


— 


— 


4.0 


PF 


Responsivity (Figure 2) 


R 


0.4 


0.5 


- 


MA//JW 


Response Time 

(V R =20 V, R L = 50 ohms) 


'on 
<off 


— 


1.0 
1.0 


- 


ns 
ns 



1 . Measured under dark conditions. H = 



FIGURE 2 - RESPONSIVITY TEST CONFIGURATION 




1 Meter Galite 1000 Fiber 



DuPont PIR140 



L 




TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

COUPLED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE versus FIBER LENGTH* 



FIGURE 3 - MFOE100 SOURCE 



FIGURE 4 - MFOE200 SOURCE 



10 

5.0 
< 

° 2.0 

o 

o 

| 1.0 

I 0.5 



0.2 

0.1 
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 

*0.045" Dia. Fiber Bundle, N.A. = 0.67, Attenuation at 900 nm = 0.6 dB/m 





2.U 
1.0 

0.5 

0.3 
0? 
















T A = 


- 

25°C 




< 






















^ 














F = 100 


mA 






2 




















a 




















? 




















5 




















z 












= 50m 










^ 























































































































a - ^b"L 






























































lr- = 100 mA 






























































































■ 

























































































































































6.0 9.0 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 



7-4 




MOTOROLA 



Advance Information 



PIN PHOTO DIODE FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in high frequency 
Fiber Optic Systems. It is packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active 
Component (FOAC) case, and fits directly into AMP Incorporated 
fiber optic connectors. These metal connectors provide excellent 
RF I immunity. Typical applications include medical electronics, 
industrial controls, M6800 microprocessor systems, security systems, 
computer and peripheral equipment, etc. 

• Fast Response — 25 ns Typ 

• May Be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

• FOAC Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Prepolished Optical Port 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 A<m (8 mil) Diameter Optical Port 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C Unless otherwise noted) 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


100 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
0.57 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 





FIGURE 1 - CONE OF ACCEPTANCE 






-""""'' \ 










^^•^ ^-** e\ 


i. i 






, *■ ' 


Num 


eric 


al Aperture (NA) = Sin 8 ' 


• i 
i i 
t t 
» / 

. \ / 


Full Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin" 1 INAI 


^--^_/ 



This is advance information and specifications are subject to change i 
Patent applied for. 



MF0D102F 



FIBER OPTICS 

PIN PHOTO DIODE 



\ 



\ 




h B r 



STYLE I: 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2 CATHODE/CASE 



J- 1 




NOTES: 

1. CD IS SEATING PLANE. 

2. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR 
LEADS: 

| 4- I »36(0.014)©|t"| 

3. DIMENSIONING AND 
T0LERANCING PER Y14.5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


B 


254 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 





0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


3.94 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


6.17 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45" 


N0M 


45" 


NOM 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0.245 


0.265 



CASE 338-02 



ithout notice. 



7-5 



MFOD102F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS < t a * 28 ° c) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Dark Current 

<V R = 20V.R L = 1.0 M.H *0) 


id 


- 


- 


2.0 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(l R - 10*iA) 


V(BR)R 


100 


200 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(l F -50 mA) 


Vf 


- 


- 


1.1 


Voltl 


Series Resistance 
dp - 50 mA) 


"s 


- 


- 


10 


ohms 


Total Capacitance 

(V R -20 V,f = 1.0 MHz) 


c T 


- 


- 


4.0 


pF 


Noise Equivalent Power 


NEP 


- 


50 


- 


fW/s/HT 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A - 25°C) 


Responsivity @ 900 nm 

(Vr =20 V, R L = 10n,P » 10 »W) 


R 


0.15 


0.40 


- 


UA/H\N 


Response Time <a 900 nm 
<V R =20V. R L = 50SZ) 


'on 
*off 


_ 


25 
25 


- 


ns 

ns 


Numerical Aperture of Input Port 
(200 Mm [8 mil ) diameter core) 


NA 


- 


0.48 


- 


- 



"Power launched into Optical Input Port. The designer must account for interface coupling losses. 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



FIGURE 3 - DETECTOR CURRENT versus FIBER* LENGTH 



7^ 


~f 


% x 


~t 5 


X ^ 



0.S 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 
A. WAVELENGTH^) 



10 
8.0 
6.0 
5.0 
_ 4.0 
■J 3.0 

I 2 ' 

ac 

S i.o 

£0.8 
o 0.6 
o 0.6 
S 0.4 
o 0.3 
0.2 



' 1 . 


















:e: MF(E102F" 
= 50 mA 












If 


| 








































Ta = n"\. [ 












"""""^-H 




















L2 ! 


T 






























1 


































































































4 


















rN 














































V 







100 120 140 
FIBER LENGTH c™ 



160 1B0 200 220 



Fiber Type: 

I.Ouirti Products QSF200 

2. Galileo Galite 3000 LC 

3. ValtecPCIO 

4. OuPont PFXS 120R 



7-6 



M) MOTOROLA 




MF0D104F 



Advance Information 



PIN PHOTO DIODE FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in high frequency 
Fiber Optic Systems. It is packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active 
Component (FOAC) case, and fits directly into AMP Incorporated 
fiber optic connectors. These metal connectors provide excellent 
RFI immunity. Typical applications include medical electronics, 
industrial controls, M6800 microprocessor systems, security systems, 
computer and peripheral equipment, etc. 

• Fast Response - 6.0 ns Typ @ 5.0 V 

• May Be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

• FOAC Package - Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Prepolished Optical Port 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 jum (8 mil) Diameter Optical Port 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C Unless otherwise noted) 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


100 


Volts 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


100 
0.57 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 





FIGURE 1 - CONE OF ACCEPTANCE 






-T\ 






~^^ ^ 0^ 








, *■ ' 


Num 


eric 


al Aperture (NA) = Sin ^""^--^^ 


i i 
i ( 

V / 

\ / 


Full Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin 1 (NA) 


^*^i / 



FIBER OPTICS 

PIN PHOTO DIODE 



\ 



\ 




STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. AN00E 

2. CATHODE/CASE 




NOTES 

1. CD IS SEATING PLANE. 

2 POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR 
LEAPS: 

| 4 1 » 3610.014)© | T~| 

3 DIMENSIONING AND 
T0LERANCING PER Y14 5, 1973 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0270 


0.280' 


B 


254 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 


D 


0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


3.94 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


617 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45° 


N0M 


45° 


N0M 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0245 


0.265 



CASE 338-02 



This is advance information and specifications are subject to change without notice. 



7-7 



MFOD104F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS < t a = 25 ° c » 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Dark Current 

(V R = 20V,R L = 1.0 M.H * 0) 


id 


- 


- 


2.0 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
<I R = 10*.A) 


V(BR)R 


100 


200 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
ll F = 50mA) 


v F 


- 


0.82 


1.2 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

(V R = 5.0V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


c T 


- 


- 


4.0 


pF 


Noise Equivalent Power 


NEP 


- 


50 


- 


mis/Hz 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C) 



Responsivity <a 900 nm 
(V R = 5,0V.P = 10 mW) 


R 


0.15 


0.40 


- 


jjA/mW 


Response Time @ 900 nm 
V R = 5.0 V 
12 V 
20 V 


ton- «off 


- 


6.0 
4.0 
2.0 


- 


ns 


Numerical Aperture of Input Port, 3.0 dB 
(200 titn [ 8 mil ] diameter core) 


NA 


_ 


0.48 


~ 


~ 



'Power launched into Optical Input Port. The designer must account for interface coupling losses. 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - RELATIVE SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



FIGURE 3 - DETECTOR CURRENT versus FIBER* LENGTH 



7^ 


~y 


~/l V 


~t 5 


X- ^ 



0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 
X. WAVELENGTH (jun) 



100 120 140 
FIBER LENGTH i m 



















80 






:e: MFC E 103F 






































1 1 




5.0 






\ = 25°C 














T 












1 3.0 
£2.0 






"**~*-L^ ' 














^L 




1 










i^**** 


i r 




" in 






L 1 


! ] 








:. 


^0.8 




t A 






























o 06 
















































v 1 










S 0.3 
0.2 








^sl* 














iJNX 




1 
















1 




0.1 




1 


1 


1 ^ 


S. 1 





160 180 200 220 



Fiber Type: 

1 Quartz Products QSF 200 

2 Galileo Galite 3000 LC 
3. ValtecPCIO 

4 OuPontPFXS 120R 



7-8 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MF0D200 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR FOR FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in medium length, 
medium frequency Fiber Optic Systems. Typical applications 
include: medical electronics, industrial controls, security systems, 
M6800 Microprocessor systems, etc. 

• Spectral Response Matched to MFOE100, 200 

• Hermetic Metal Package for Stability and Reliability 

• High Sensitivity for Medium Length Fiber Optic 

Control Systems 

• Compatible with AMP Mounting Bushing #227015 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 


Rating (Note 1) 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


V CEQ 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


10 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


VcBO 


70 


Volts 


Light Current 


'l. 


250 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ Ta = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J T stg 


-55 to +175 


°C 





FIGURE 1 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 





















80 


































60 


































40 


































20 


































n 



















0.4 0.5 06 0.7 08 0.9 1.0 

X, WAVELENGTH (/im) 



FIBER OPTICS 

NPN SILICON 
PHOTOTRANSISTOR 



^ 





STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. BASE 

3. COLLECTOR 

NOTES: 

1. LEADS WITHIN .13 mm (.005) RADIUS 
OF TRUE POSITION AT SEATING 
PLANE, AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL 
CONDITION. 

2. PIN 3 INTERNALLY CONNECTED TO 
CASE. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


B 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


6.22 


6.98 


0.245 


0.275 


D 


0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


f 


1.19 


1.60 


0.047 


0.063 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° BSC 


45° BSC 



7-9 



MFOD200 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Characteristic 



Symbol 



Typ 



Collector Dark Current 

(V CC = 20 V, HasO) T A = 25°C 
T A = 100°C 



I CEO 



M A 



Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l C = 100 ^A) 



v (BR)CBO 



Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
dC= 100 mA) 



v (BR)CEO 



Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 mA) 



V(BR)ECO 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A - 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Responsivity (Figure 2) 


R 


14.5 


18 


- 


jiA/jiW 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 1) 
(Rj_ - 100 ohms) 


tr 


- 


2.5 


~ 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 1 ) 
(R;_ - 100 ohms) 


tf 


— 


4.0 


~ 


MS 



Note 1 . For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation is provided by pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode U «= 900 nm) 
with a pulse width equal to or greater than 10 microseconds, lc = 1 .0 mA peak. 

FIGURE 2 - RESPONSIVITY TEST CONFIGURATION 



1 Meter Galite 1000 Fiber 

or 

DuPont PIR140 



^ 



MFOE100 Connector 




TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 
COUPLED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE versus FIBER LENGTH* 
FIGURE 3 - MFOE100 SOURCE FIGURE 4 - MFOE200 SOURCE 



1000 
500 















































































































































lp- 100 mA 
































l F = 5C 


mA ' 





















































































































































































































10 




























































T A = 


25°C 




































































10 




















































































































lF = l 


OmA 














01 

































































































































nm 























5.0 



10 15 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 



20 



25 



3.0 6.0 9.0 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 
"0.045" Dia. Fiber Bundle, N.A. 3£ 0.67, Attenuation at 900 nm a 0.6 dB/m 



7-10 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MFOD202F 



Advance Information 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in medium frequency 
Fiber Optic Systems. It is packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active 
Component (FOAC) case, and fits directly into AMP Incorporated 
fiber optic connectors. These metal connector's provide excellent RFI 
immunity. Typical applications include medical electronics, industrial 
controls, security systems, computer and peripheral equipment, etc. 

• High Sensitivity for Medium Frequency Fiber Optic Systems 

• May Be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

• FOAC Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Prepolished Optical Port 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 urn [ 8 mil ] Diameter Core Optical Port 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted). 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


V C EO 


50 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


VE80 


10 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


50 


Volts 


Light Current 


"L 


250 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 





This is advance information and specifications are subject to change without notic 



FIBER OPTICS 

NPN SILICON 
PHOTOTRANSISTOR 



^ 








FIGURE 1 - CONE OF ACCEPTANCE 

^^ ^ --"-"^ el 


-7\ 

' i 




Numerical Aperture (NA) - Sin 
~u\\ Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin" 


1 (NA) 


i* ! 
i i 
t f 

\ / 





-A— 1 
B 



STYLE): 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. BASE 

3. COLLECTOR/CASE 




NOTES: 

1. LjD IS SEATING PLANE. 

2. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR 
LEADS: 

| + | 8.36(0.014)®! T| 

3. DIMENSIONING AND 
TOLERANCING PER Y14.5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLILITERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


I 


2.54 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 





0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


334 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


6.17 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.54 6SC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45° 


N0M 


45° 


N0M 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0.245 


0.265 



CASE 338A-02 



7-11 



MFOD202F 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise notes) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 
(V CC = 20 V, H * 0) 


<CEO 


- 


5.0 


50 


nA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100 mA) 


V (BR)CBO 


50 


- 


- 


Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l c = 100 nA) 


V (BF0CEO 


50 


— 


— 


Volts 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C> 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Responsivity 

(V CC = 20 V,R L = 10n,X~900nm, P = 1.0 mW*) 


R 


70 


100 


- 


mA/mW 


Photo Current Rise Time 
(R L = 100 m 


tr 


- 


2.5 


- 


ms 


Photo Current Fall Time 
<R L = 100 n) 


tf 


- 


4.0 


- 


MS 


Numerical Aperture of Input Port — Figure 1 
(200 yjm [8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 


- 


0.48 


- 


- 



•Power Launched into Optical Input Port. The designer must account for interface coupling losses. 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 



FIGURE 3 - DETECTOR CURRENT versus FIBER* LENGTH 

















1 


80 


































1 6 ° 




















































< 



















S 20 


















































0.7 8 0.9 

A. WAVELENGTH l^ml 



1 














1 




















"-"^.^ 






Sourc 


e: MFOE102F 
50 mA 














2 


if - 


















25 C 






































































































































V 4 
































|3|^S 
















































1 
































I i 











100 120 140 160 180 200 220 
FIBER LENGTH (m) 

*Fiber Type 

1. Quartz Products QSF200 

2. Galileo Galite 3000 LC 

3. ValtecPCIO 

4. DuPontPFXS120R 



7-12 



'M) MOTOROLA 



MFOD300 



PHOTODARLINGTON TRANSISTOR 
FOR FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in long length, low 
frequency Fiber Optics Systems. Typical applications include: 
industrial controls, security systems, medical electronics, M6800 
Microprocessor Systems, etc. 

• Spectral Response Matched to MFOE100, 200 

• Hermetic Metal Package for Stability and Reliability 

• Very High Sensitivity for Long Length Fiber Optics 

Control Systems 

• Compatible With AMP Mounting Bushing ^227015 



MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


10 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


70 


Volts 


Light Current 


'L 


250 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation <s> T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J- T stg 


-55 to +175 


°C 





F 

100 

80 

I 6 ° 

> 40 
< 

* 20 





GURE 7 - 


CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 











































V 












































































































4 0.5 


6 7 8 9 10 ll I 
A, WAVELENGTH l^m) 


2 



FIBER OPTICS 

NPN SILICON 

PHOTODARLINGTON 

TRANSISTOR 



H 





STYLE 1: 

PIN 1 EMITTER 

2 BASE 

3 COLLECTOR 

NOTES 

1. LEADSWITHIN. 13 mm (.005) RADIUS 

OF TRUE POSITION AT SEATING 

PLANE, AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL 

CONDITION. 
2 PIN 3 INTERNALLY CONNECTED TO 

CASE 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


531 


5 84 


0.209 


0.230 


B 


452 


4.95 


0178 


0.195 


C 


6.22 


6.98 


0.245 


0.275 


D 


041 


0.48 


0016 


0.019 


F 


1.19 


1.60 


0047 


0.063 


G 


2 54 BSC 


100 BSC 


H 


099 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


122 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


1270 




0500 


- 


L 


335 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° BSC 


45° BSC 



7-13 



MFOD300 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 
(V CE = 10 V, H^O) 


'CEO 


- 


10 


100 


nA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l C = 100 mAI 


v (BR)CB0 


50 


- 


- 


Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
(l C » 100 mA) 


V(BR)CEO 


30 


- 


- 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(IE = 100 nA) 


V(BR)EBO 


10 


~ 


_ 


Volts 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 


Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Responsivity (Figure 2) 


R 


400 


500 


- 


ma/mw 


Photo Current Rise Time (Note 1) 
(RL = 100 ohms) 


t r 


_ 


40 


~ 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time (Note 1 ) 
(R(_ = 100 ohms) 


tf 


— 


60 


~ 


MS 



Note 1 . For unsaturated response time measurements, radiation is provided by pulsed GaAs (gallium-arsenide) light-emitting diode l\ * 900 nm) 
with a pulse width equal to or greater than 500 microseconds, Iq = 1 .0 mA peak. 

FIGURE 2 - RESPONSIVITY TEST CONFIGURATION 



1 Meter Galite 1000 Fiber 

or 

DuPont PIR140 



< 




TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

COUPLED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE versus FIBER LENGTH* 



FIGURE 3 - M FOE 100 SOURCE 



FIGURE 4 - MFOE200 SOURCE 



lu 
5.0 














= 




CT A = 25°C _ 
























































































1.0 








































1 


0.5 
















































































*. I 


p -= 100 mA . 
























01 


















- 


0.05 














Ir = 50mA~ >:v * i 





































































001 





















3.0 6.0 9.0 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 



10 


^s: 




- — 


= 







: = 


= - 


- T A = 25°C - 












































E 













































3 i.o 

o 










































s 










































z 






















F- 






















2 






















§ 0.1 

















S=lF 


= 100 n 


iA--= 


° 



























































l F = 5C 


















































0.01 























5.0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 



*0.045" Dia. Fiber Bundle, N.A. = 0.67, Attenuation at 900 nm = 0.6 dB/m 



7-14 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MF0D302F 



Advance Information 



PHOTODARLINGTON TRANSISTOR 
FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed for infrared radiation detection in low frequency Fiber 
Optic Systems. It is packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active 
Component (FOAC) case, and fits directly into AMP Incorporated 
fiber optic connectors. These metal connectors provide excellent 
RFI immunity. Typical applications include medical electronics, 
industrial controls, security systems, computer and peripheral equip- 
ment, etc. 

• High Sensitivity for Low Frequency Long Length Fiber Optic 
Control Systems 

• May Be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

• FOAC Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Prepolished Optical Port 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 /urn (8 mil) Diameter Core Optical Port 



FIBER OPTICS 

NPN SILICON 

PHOTODARLINGTON 

TRANSISTOR 





MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted). 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Collector-Emitter Voltage 


v CEO 


40 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Voltage 


v EBO 


10 


Volts 


Collector-Base Voltage 


v CBO 


50 


Volts 


Light Current 


•l 


250 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation <s> T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 





FIGURE 1 - CONE OF ACCEPTANCE 








T\ 






^ -"""' 9 f 




1. ! 








, ** 




N 


umerical Aperture (NA) = Sin 6 




• i 

i i 

\ i 
\ i 


Full Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin" 


1 (NA) 


— -i_ / 





p — A 


- 








\ 














STYLE 1 

PIN 1. EMITTER 

2. BASE 

3. COLLECTOR/CAS 


E 




E 


K 



J_ 




NOTES: 

1. QD IS SEATING PLANE. 

2. P0SITI0NALT0LERANCEF0R 
LEADS: 



| + | #36(0.014)© 1 T 1 


3. DIMENSIONING AND 

TOLERANCING PER Y14.5, 1973. 


DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


B 


2.54 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 


D 


0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


334 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


6.17 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45° 


N0M 


45° 


N0M 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0.245 


0.265 



CASE 338A-02 



This is advance information and specifications are subject to change without notice. 

7-15 



MFOD302F 



STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C> 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Collector Dark Current 

(V C C= 12V,H«0,T A = 2 5°C) 


'CEO 


- 


10 


100 


nA 


Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage 
!l c = 100 mA) 


V (BR)CBO 


50 


~ 


_ 


Volts 


Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage 
dC= 100 mA) 


V (BR)CE0 


40 


— 


~ 


Volts 


Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage 
(l E = 100 fiA) 


V (BR)EBO 


10 






Volts 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°CI 


Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Responsivity 

(Vcc = 5.0 V,R L = 10n,\ * 900nm,P = 1.0 mW') 


R 


2000 


6000 


- 


mA/mW 


Photo Current Rise Time 
(R[_= 100 ohms) 


«r 


- 


40 


- 


MS 


Photo Current Fall Time 
(R(_= 100 ohms) 


tf 


- 


60 


- 


MS 


Numerical Aperture of Input Port — Figure 1 
(200 Mm [8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 


— 


0.48 


_ 


~ 



"Power launched into Optical Input Port. The deisgner must account for interface coupling losses. 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - CONSTANT ENERGY SPECTRAL RESPONSE 





















80 


































60 


































40 


































20 


































n 



















7 8 9 

A. WAVELENGTH Ijim) 



FIGURE 3 - DETECTOR CURRENT versus FIBER* LENGTH 

100 
80 
60 
50 
40 
30 

20 

10 
8.0 

6.0 
5.0 
4.0 
3.0 



20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 

FIBER LENGTH (m) 

•FIBER TYPE 

1. Quart/ Products QSF200 

2. Galileo Galite 3000 LC 

3. ValtecPCIO 

4. DuPontPFXS 120R 





















































































































































2 














1 


































































































































Source: MF0E 
IF = 50 mA 
Ta = 25°C 


02F 




















^N^4 
















3*^ 



















































7-16 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MF0D402F 



INTEGRATED DETECTOR/PREAMPLIFIER 
FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed as a monolithic integrated circuit containing both 
detector and preamplifier for use in medium bandwidth, medium 
distance systems. Packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active Com- 
ponent (FOAC) case, the device fits directly into AMP Incorporated 
fiber optic connectors which also provide excellent RFI immunity. 
The output of the device is low impedance to provide even less 
sensitivity to stray interference. The MFOD402F has a 200 £im [8 
mil] fiber input with a high numerical aperture. 

• Usable for Data Systems Up to 30 Megabaud 

• Dynamic Range Greater Than 100:1 

• RFI Shielded in AMP Connector #227240-1 

• May Be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

• FOAC Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Prepolished Optical Port 



FIBER OPTICS 

INTEGRATED DETECTOR 
PREAMPLIFIER 




MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted). 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Operating Voltage 


vcc 


20 


Volts 


•Total Device Dissipation <s> Ta = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


PD 


250 
1.43 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 


•Package Limitations. 



FIGURE 1 - CONE OF ACCEPTANCE 




nerical Aperture (NA) = Sin 6 
Full Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin" 





r — A ~ 








F 


l-T-l 






-4 — , 




II II I 


EJ 




STYLE 2: I 






PIN 1. OUTPUT 


K 


2 Vcc 




3. GROUND/CASE | | [ 








-4-o 




. 




I /yji 






N ~T^ 


J) G 




NOTES: 


1. LjD is SEATING PLANE. 


2. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR 


LEADS: 


I -f ||. 36(0.014)®| T| 


3. DIMENSIONING AND 




T0LERANCING PER Y14.5, 1973 






DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 




MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


B 


2.54 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 





0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


334 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


6.17 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45° 


N0M 


45° 


N0M 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0.245 


0.265 




CASE 338A-02 





Patent applied for. 



7-17 



MFOD402F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (v cc = 15 v,T A = 25°C) 



Characteristics 


Symbol 


Conditions 


Value 


Units 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Power Supply Current 


"CC 


Circuit A 


1.4 


1.7 


2.0 


mA 


Quiescent dc Output Voltage 


Vq 


Circuit A 


0.6 


0.7 


0.9 


Volts 


Resistive Load 


RrjMax 




300 


- 


- 


Ohms 


Capacitive Load 


CoMax 




- 


- 


20 


pF 


Output Impedance 


z o 




- 


200 


- 


Ohms 


RMS Noise Output 


VNO 


Circuit A 


- 


0.3 


- 


mV 


Noise Equivalent Power 


NEP 




- 


57 


- 


pW/VHz 


Operating Voltage Range 


VCC 




5.0 


- 


15 


Volts 


Bandwidth* (3.0 dB) 


BW 




- 


17.5 


- 


MHz 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 


Responsivity (V c c = 15 V.\ = 900 nm, P = 10 juW**) 


R 


Circuit B 


0.6 


1.5 


- 


mV/MW 


Pulse Response 


tr.tf 


Circuit B 


- 


20 


- 


ns 


Numerical Aperture of Input Core 
(200 nm (8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 




— 


0.70 


- 


— 



'Calculated from Step Response. 
* "Power launched into Optical Input Port. The designer must account for interface coupling losses. 
See Application Note AN-804. 



FIGURE 2 - EQUIVALENT SCHEMATIC 



FIGURE 3 - TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 



Input X L. 



3 71 



Light 
Pipe 



Package 




3 

-O Ground 
and 
Case 





t^^-J 


> 

kmp 




> 

amparator 


_ Data 
Output 


1 


OD402F 


IV 


A 


C 


MF 



7-18 



MFOD402F 



TEST CIRCUIT A 



No Optical 
Input 



t e ( mA ) O+IS V 

JO.01 jifTi.OjiF 




DUT 



v J DC Volts 



x*v Boonton 
( V J 92BD 
^Y'BF Millivo 



TEST CIRCUIT B 



Pulse 
Generator 




i 







I oo :l 



jiF Jtx 1.0 uF 





,-pMF -p 



I Tektronix 
■±- P6106 Probe 
(13pF, 10M) 



Oscilloscope 
(ac Coupled) 



Optical Power 
Launched into 
Optical Input Port 



APPLICATIONS INFORMATION 



The MFOD402F is designed primarily for use in ac 
coupled fiber optic receivers as shown in Figure 3. Best 
performance is to be obtained with receivers in approxi- 
mately the 10 MHz (20 Mbs) range. The output is an ac 
voltage in the range of 1-100 mV riding on a 700 mV 
quiescent dc level. The ac signal should be amplified by a 
high-gain amplifier such as an MC1733 or MC1590 and 
applied to suitable comparators to transform it into the 
desired logic form. 

The device is designed for use with 8 mil (200 iim) 
fiber optic cables. This size is becoming standard in com- 
puter use and is well designed for the frequency range 
common in this equipment. 

A typical operating system should be designed to deliver 
a suitable amount of power to provide at least a 10 dB 
signal to noise ratio. If the system is operated at maximum 



bandwidth, approximately 3 /iW of power from an 8 mil 
fiber will typically provide this ratio. 

The performance of the device is affected by the capac- 
itance seen at the output port to ground. This should be 
held below 20 pF to provide lowest noise operation. 
Values above about 50 pF may cause it to oscillate. Lower 
capacitance values will cause less overshoot in the transient 
response. The transient response is also affected by the 
operating voltage. The recommended operating voltage is 
15 V, although the device can be operated at 5 V if the 
overshoot is tolerable in the particular system. (Figures 
4 and 5.) See Application Note AN-794. 

For best results, the MFOD402F should be inserted 
into an AMP metal fiber optics connector with the case, 
circuit ground, and metal connector all grounded. This 
will minimize RFI and lower the error rate observed 
in the system. 



7-19 



MFOD402F 



FIGURE 4 - OUTPUT WAVEFORM WITH V cc = 15 V 




FIGURE 5 - OUTPUT WAVEFORM WITH V C c = 5.0 V 




7-20 



M) MOTOROLA 




MF0D404F 



INTEGRATED DETECTOR/PREAMPLIFIER 
FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed as a monolithic integrated circuit containing both detec- 
tor and preamplifierfor use in medium bandwidth, medium distance 
systems. It joins Motorola family of Straight Shooter devices 
packaged in the Fiber Optic Ferrule case. The device fits directly into 
AMP Incorporated fiber optic connectors which also provide 
excellent RFI immunity. The output of the device is low impedance to 
provide even less sensitivity to stray interference. The MFOD404F 
has a 200 pm (8 mil) fiber input with a high numerical aperture. 
• 



Usable for Data Systems up to 10 Megabaud 

Dynamic Range Greater than 100:1 

RFI Shielded in AMP Connector #227240-1 

May be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

Ferrule Package — Small and Rugged 

Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

Prepolished Optical Port 



FIBER OPTICS 

INTEGRATED DETECTOR 
PREAMPLIFIER 




MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Supply Voltage 


v C c 


7.5 


Volts 


Operating Temperature Range 


T A 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 



FIGURE 1 - EQUIVALENT SCHEMATIC 




en" 

STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. -V u T 

2 +V 0UT 

3. GND/CASE 

4. +V CC 



-i B r 


M ! 


i 


w 

K 




1. [T] is seating plane. 

2. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR LEADS: 
1 t | 8 0.36 (0.014)" © 1 T~| 

3. DIMENSIONING AND T0LERANCING 
PER Y14.5. 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


B 


2.54 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 


C 


10.16 


10.80 


0.400 


0.425 


D 


0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


3.94 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 I - 


0.500 | - 


M 


450 BSC 


45« BSC 


N 


6.22 | 6.73 


0.245 | 0.265 



CASE 338B-01 



Patent applied for. 



7-21 



MFOD404F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (V cc = 5.0 V, T A = 25°C) 



Characteristics 


Symbol 


Conditions 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Units 


Power Supply Current 


<cc 


Circuit A 


30 


3.5 


5.0 


mA 


Quiescent dc Output Voltage {Non-Inverting Output) 


V q 


Circuit A 


0.5 


0.6 


0.7 


Volts 


Quiescent dc Output Voltage (Inverting Output) 


V q 


Circuit A 


2 7 


3.0 


33 


Volts 


Output Impedance 


z o 




- 


200 


- 


Ohms 


RMS Noise Output 


v N o 


Circuit A 


- 


0.4 


1.0 


mV 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 



Responsivity (V cc = 5 V. P = 2 ^W) A = 900 nm 

A = 820 nm 


R 


Circuit B 


20 


30 
35 


50 


mV/ M W 


Pulse Response 


t r ,tf 


Circuit B 


- 


35 


50 


ns 


Numerical Aperture of Input Core 
(200 )im [8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 




— 


070 


— 


— 


Signal-to-Noise Ratio @ P m = 1 (jW peak* 


S/N 




- 


35 


- 


dB 


Maximum Input Power for Negligible Distortion in 
Output Pulse* 






— 


— 


30 


M W 



RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS 



Supply Voltage 


vcc 




40 


5.0 


6.0 


Volts 


Capacitive Load 


c L 




- 


- 


100 


pF 


Input Wavelength 


A 




- 


900 


- 


nm 



"Power launched into Optical Input Port The design 



ust account for interface coupling losses 



FIGURE 2 - TYPICAL PERFORMANCE OVER 
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE 



2 20 

2 1.6 

£ 1 4 

J ° 1.2 

t£ l 

T E2 0.8 

jE 06 

g 04 







































































>•', 

Y 


y 










































^ 


R 
















— . 




^>J 




-V 

•cc 










-•«. - 






^*> 


. 








, - 






- — ' 








■"*-*- 


*«J 


:= -=l 


V- 






















V 




_ — ' 









































































-30 -20 -10 



10 20 30 40 50 60 
TEMPERATURE. °C 



No 

Optical 

Input 



TEST CIRCUIT A 

1 — » — C mA J — ° +5 '° v 

'Tool (iFM.OjiF 

Non-Inverting 




Inverting 




I jBoonton 
y) DC Volts J_ 92BD 



— RF 
Mitlivoltmeter 



Optical Power 
Launched into 
Optical Input Port 



TEST CIRCUIT B 




1p 01 J_ 

jfcjUF^LO/uF 



O+5.0 V 
F 



\ 



[ T~ 20% 

= sT-80% 

— -|h-t r 



^p |UF /-p I 
^ ^ ~ Non-Inverting 

DU j>^ ^czz>- 

y^ Inverting Tektronix 

_L -±r P6 106 Probe 



Oscilloscope 
(ac Coupled) 



(13 pF. 10 M) 



7-22 



MFOD404F 





Pulse response of MFOD404F to square wave input with peak 
optical input power of 2 microwatts at V^c : 50V 



MF0D404F response to psuedo random bit stream input with 
average optical input power of 1 microwatt Note the good 
quality eye pattern at 10 Mbits per second, VqC 5 V 



APPLICATIONS INFORMATION 



The basic function of the MFOD404F integrated detec- 
tor preamplifier is to convert an optical input into a 
voltage level proportional to the received optical power. 
Withinthepackageisa monolithic chip having the detec- 
tor diode and a transimpedance amplifier with emitter 
follower isolation amplifiers on both the inverted and 
non-inverted outputs. A high level of RFI EMI immunity is 
provided by this detector circuit. 



The MF0D404F is in the Motorola ferrule fiber optic 
semiconductor package with a 200 ^m fiber core input. 
With the AMP connector, #227240-1, these ferrule 
devices are easily and precisely assembled into systems, 
can be connected to plastic or glass cable of almost any 
diameter and are easily interchanged for system modi- 
fication or upgrade. Mechanics of the use of the ferrule 
devices and basic optic system losses are presented in the 
Motorola Application Note AN-804 



AMP Bushing 
227240-1 




Motorola Ferrule 
Semiconductor 



Self Tapping 
Screws 



AMP Ferrule 
Connector 



Motorola ferrule semiconductors 
fit directly into AMP terminating 
bushing «227240 1 



7-23 



MFOD404F 



APPLICATIONS INFORMATION (continued) 



A Simple, 10 Mbps Fiber Optic Link 

The schematic diagram in Figure 6 illustrates how 
easily a high performance fiber optic link can be con- 
structed with low-cost commercially available compon- 
ents when based on the MFOD404F integrated detector/ 
preamplifier. 

When used with the fiber indicated in Figure 6, the 
MF0E1 03F conservatively launches a peak power of 5.0 
microwatts when driven with a peak current of only 50 



milliamperes. Since the receivers sensitivity is 0.1 micro- 
watts average power for 10-9 BER(Bit Error Rate) at data 
rates up to 10 Mbps NRZ, reliable communications links 
can be constructed up to 500 meters in length while 
providing both a 6.0 dB power margin for LED time and 
temperature degradation and 3.0 dB for connector loss at 
the receiver (worst case design). In addition, since the 
receiver dynamic range exceeds 20 dB, there is no danger 
of overloading the receiver in short link length applications. 



Transmitter 



Data 
Input ( 

Transmitter* 
Enable 



FIGURE 6-10 Mbps LINK SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 



^ 



MFOE103Fi 



> 



4 MC75452 



Optical Cable 
S ITT-T1302 Fiber 
^ == s or Equivalent 

> (10dB/km@ 900 nm) 



+5.0 V +5.0 V +5.0 V 

9 



27 k ?18k 



+5.0V 
Q 



I.OmF 



+5.0 V 
Q 




KO/iF 



MPSH32 



' '> • 



MPSH32 



-^ 



2.4 k 
— <wv- 




+ ^ TTL 

Output 



;27k £27k 

0.1 M F 
' 1(— 



Receiver 



J f 



MPSH81 




7-24 



'M) MOTOROLA 



MFOD405F 



INTEGRATED DETECTOR/PREAMPLIFIER 
FOR FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

designed as a monolithic integrated circuit containing both detec- 
tor and preamplifier for use in computer, industrial control, and 
other communications systems. 

Packaged in Motorola's Ferrule case, the device fits directly into 
AMP Incorporated fiber optic connectors which also provide 
excellent RFI immunity The output of the device is low impedance to 
provide even less sensitivity to stray interference. The MFOD405F 
has a 200 ^m (8 mil) fiber input with a high numerical aperture 

• Usable for Data Systems Through 40 Megabaud 

• Dynamic Range Greater than 100:1 

• RFI Shielded in AMP Connector #227240-1 

• May be Used with MFOExxx Emitters 

• Ferrule Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Input Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Prepolished Optical Port 



FIBER OPTICS 

INTEGRATED DETECTOR 
PREAMPLIFIER 




MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Supply Voltage 


v C c 


7 5 


Volts 


Operating TemDerature Range 


T A 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to + 100 


a C 



FIGURE 1 - EQUIVALENT SCHEMATIC 



Internal 

Light 

Pipe 




r - r_ r 




1 V(X 



-o Inverted 
Output 



_ o Non-Inverted 
Output 



- A - 
- B - 



E 



STYLE 1 
PIN 1 



- V 0UT 
•^0117 
GND CASE 



[ Tj IS Se ATING PLANE 
POSITIONAL TOLERANCE EOR LEADS 
J] } t~ 36 10 014) ,-v) ; T j 
DIMENSIONING AND T0LERANCING 
PFR Y14 5. 1973 



^ MILLIMETERS ^ INCHES 

DIM: MIN ! MAX * MIN j MAX 

" A ' 6 86 ] 7 11 T 270 I 280 

6 * 2.54 1 2.64 ] 100 i 1 04 

C ' 10.16 ; 10 80 400 ' 



40 048 

3 94] 4 44 

2 54 BSC 

1270 [ 

45° BSC 



0016 
0.156 



0425 
0019" 
0175 



100 BSJL 
0.500 1 - 
45"'bSC 



6.22 j 6.73 ; 0.245 [ 265 
CASE 338B-01 



Patent applied for 



7-25 



MFOD405F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (V cc = 5 V, T A = 25°C) 



Characteristics 


Symbol 


Conditions 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Units 


Power Supply Current 


'cc 


Circuit A 


3.0 


4.5 


6.0 


mA 


Quiescent dc Output Voltage (Non-Inverting Output) 


V Q 


Circuit A 


0.6 


0.7 


0.8 


Volts 


Quiescent dc Output Voltage (Inverting Output) 


V q 


Circuit A 


2.7 


3.0 


3.3 


Volts 


Output Impedance 


z 




- 


200 


- 


Ohms 


RMS Noise Output 


VNO 


Circuit A 


- 


0.5 


10 


mV 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A =25°C) 



Responsivity (V cc = 5.0 V, \ = 820 nm, P = 10 |iW'| 


R 


Circuit B 


30 


4.5 


7.0 


mV/VW 


Pulse Response 


t r . tf 


Circuit B 


- 


10 


15 


ns 


Numerical Aperture of Input Core 
(200 (im [8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 




— 


070 


— 


— 


Signal-to-Noise Ratio @ P m = 2 /jW peak' 


S/N 




- 


24 


- 


dB 


Maximum Input Power for Negligible Distortion in 
Output Pulse' 




Circuit B 


— 


— 


120 


M W 



RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS 



Supply Voltage 


VCC 




4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


Volts 


Capacitive Load (Either Output) 


c L 




- 


- 


100 


pF 


Input Wavelength 


A 




- 


820 


- 


nm 



'Power launched into Optical Input Port The designe 



i account for interface coupling losses as discussed in AN-804 



FIGURE 2 - TYPICAL PERFORMANCE OVER 
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE 





16 


s ^ 


lb 


< < 


1 4 


5 => 




£*> 


13 


z m 




cj^ 


12 


u° 








** Q_ 


1.0 


^CC 


09 


•i-JE 


08 


tr S 






/ 




06 

























R 
























t r . t, 










































.^ 






















s' 








~- 














' 








V 






■ ■=■: 


---» 













■ — 













■ — " 


~~~l 








*.-. 














.^ 








































V 



















































20 40 

TEMPERATURE. °C 



TEST CIRCUIT A 

mA) O+5 V 



J0.01 mfTi.0 m F 

Non-Inverting 




V. ) Boonton 
y ) DC Volts JQ 92BD 



— RF 
Millivoltmeter 



TEST CIRCUIT B 



Pulse 
Generator 



Optical Fiber 



■ly£ML£ 



_L ooi _L 

^p^lF /r> 1 >iF 



'f -*■ r"- -»-| L- t r 



10^W 




Non-Inverting 



Tektronix 
■^ P6106 Probe 
(13 pF. 10 M) 



Oscilloscope 
(ac Coupled) 



Optical Power 
Launched into 
Optical Input Port 



7-26 



MFOD405F 









Output waveform in response to a 50 nanosecond. 6 microwatt 
optical input pulse 



Eye -pattern generated by pseudo- random bit stream at 40 Mb/ s 



APPLICATIONS INFORMATION 



The basic function of the MFOD405F integrated detec- 
tor 'preamplifier is to convert an optical input into a 
voltage level proportional to the received optical power. 
Within the package is a monolithic chip having the detec- 
tor diode and a transimpedance amplifier with emitter 
follower isolation amplifiers on both the inverted and 
non-inverted outputs The device in the connector 
assembly is virtually immune to RFI 'EMI The I DP circuit 
itself provides a high level of RFI 'EMI immunity EMI 
pickup at the input of a fiber optic receiver can be a poten- 
tial problem, but as the MFOD405F is a single monolithic 
chip this function between the optical port and the receiver 



is quite small and essentially eliminates this source of 
EMI. Finally, the whole device is mounted inside the AMP 
metal connector with a special RFI/EMI shielding option. 
The MFOD405F is in the Motorola ferrule fiber optic 
semiconductor package with a 200 ^m fiber core input. 
With the AMP connector, #227240-1, these ferrule 
devices are easily and precisely assembled into systems, 
can be connected to plastic or glass cable of almost any 
diameter and are easily interchanged for system modi- 
fication or upgrade Mechanics of the use of the ferrule 
devices and basic fiber optic system losses are presented 
in the Motorola Application Note AN-804 



AMP Bushing 
227240 -1 




AMP Ferrule 
Connector 



Motorola Ferrule 
Semiconductor 



Motorola ferrule semiconductors 
fit directly into AMP terminating 
bushing #227240-1 



7-27 



MFOD405F 



APPLICATIONS INFORMATION (continued) 

40 Mb/s FIBER OPTIC LINK USING MFOD405F DETECTOR 



The attached figure shows a receiver capable of 
operation at data rates in excess of 40 Mbps when driven 
by a suitably fast LED. The quasi -differentia I output of the 
MFOD405F is amplified by a two-stage differential 
amplifier consisting of two stages of an MC101 1 6 MECL 
line receiver. It is important to utilize MECL layout 
practices in this receiver because of the very high data 
rates of which it is capable. The receiver requires about 
5.0 microwatts of optical input power to drive the output 
to full MECL logic levels. The attached photograph of the 
eye-pattern at 40 Mb/s shows the capability of very clean 
data transmission at this speed. The transmitter shown 
can drive fast LED's to suitable speeds for use with 
this receiver. 

Further suggestions for circuits using the MFOD405F 
can be found in an article by R. Kirk Moulton in Electronic 
Design of March 1, 1980. 




Eye-pattern output of receiver operating at 40 Mb/s 



FIGURE 7 



TRANSMITTER 



Input 
VbbO C 




(^) Optical 

O Fiber 



6-5. 2V 




Ovbb(Pin 11) 

RECEIVER 



220> 220< 16J_1 




MECL 
~° Output 



U1 — MFOD405F 

U2A, U2B, U3 — 1/3 MC10116 

Q1, Q2 — 2N2369 



7-28 



M) MOTOROLA 




INFRARED EMITTING DIODE FOR 
FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 

. . . designed as an infrared source in medium frequency, short 
length Fiber Optics Systems. Typical applications include: medical 
electronics, industrial controls, M6800 Microprocessor systems, 
security systems, etc. 

• Spectral Response Matched to MFOD100, 200, 300 

• Hermetic Metal Package for Stability and Reliability 

• Fast Response — 50 ns typ 

• Compatible With AMP Mounting Bushing =227015 



FIGURE 1 - LAUNCHED POWER TEST CONFIGURATION 




1 Meter Galite 1000 Optical Fiber 



C ' \ 

D.U.T. Connector 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 






Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current -Continuous 


If 


100 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation <a> T A - 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


p D m 


250 
2.5 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J. T stg 


-55 to +125 


°C 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 




Charactersitics 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


"JA 


400 


°C/W 


(1) Printed Circuit Board Mounting 









MF0E100 



I R- EMITTING DIODE 

FOR 

FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 



CONVEX LENS 




SEATING 
PLANE 



n 




PIN 1. ANODE 
PIN 2 CATHODE 



NOTES: 

1. PIN 2 INTERNALLY CONNECTED 
TO CASE 

2 LEADS WITHIN 0.13 mm (0005) 
RADIUS0F TRUE POSITION AT 
SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM 
MATERIAL CONDITION 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MINI MAX j 


MIN | MAX 


A 


6.31_, 


584 
h 4.35 " 


0.209 i 0.230 
0.178] 0.195 


B 


4 52 


C 6.22 


6.98 


0.245 


0.275 
"0.019 
0.063 


D 

F_J 


041 
1.19" 


0.48 


0.016 
^ 0.047 


U 


2.54 


BSC , 0.100 BSC 


H~[ 0.99 


1.17 


J 039 
033 


0.046 


J i 0.84^ 


1.22 


0.048 
0T5F 


K 
L 


12.70 
3.3V 


~ 4.01 " 


0.500 
0.132 


M 


45° BSC 


45° 


BSC 



CASE 209-02 



7-29 



MFOE100 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A - 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R - 3.0 V, R L - 1 .0 MeBohm) 


- 


|R 


- 


50 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
R -100;uA) 


- 


V(BR)R 


3.0 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(l F -100imA) 




v F 


- 


1.5 


1.7 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

(V R =0 V, f- 1.0 MHz) 


- 


c T 


- 


100 


- 


pF 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A - 25°C) 


Total Power Output (Note 1 ) 
(lp - 100 mA, \« 900 nm) 


1.2 


Po 


700 


1000 


- 


juW 


Power Launched (Note 2) 
(lp - 100 mA) 


3 


PL 


14 


20 


- 


/iW 


Optical Turn-On and Turn-Off Time 


- 


ton. *off 


- 


50 


- 


ns 



1 . Total Power Output, P , is defined as the total power radiated by the device into a solid angle of 2w steradians. 

2. Power Launched, Pi_, is the optical power exiting one meter of 0.045" diameter optical fiber bundle having NA « 0.67, 
Attenuation = 0.6 dB/m @> 900 nm, terminated with AMP connectors. (See Figure 1 .) 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 



FIGURE 3 - POWER OUT OF FIBER versus FIBER LENGTH 



3 



a: 2.0 

i ,0 

1 °' 5 

z 

£ 0.2 







T ' LUL. 
































T 


i'i 






























— 














































































































































































































































































































































































































































— 


— 

















































































































































5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 

if, INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



u. 10 
o 

1- 

l 7.0 

3 
o 
°- 5.0 

3.0 















































\G 


alite 10 


)0 
























T 
If 


* = 25° 
-100 


mA 


























































































uPont F 


iFax PI 

















































3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 
FIBER LENGTH (m) 



7.0 8.0 9.0 10 



7-30 



M) MOTOROLA 




MF0E102F 



Advance Information 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE FOR 
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed as an infrared source for Fiber Optic Systems. It is 
packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active Component (FOAC) case, 
and fits directly into AMP Incorporated fiber optics connectors for 
easy interconnect and use. Typical applications include medical 
electronics, industrial controls, M6800 microprocessor systems, 
security systems, computer and peripheral equipment, etc. 

• Fast Response — 25 ns typ 

• May Be Used with MFODxxx Detectors 

• FOAC Package - Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Output Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Optical Port is Prepolished 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 ^im [8 mil] Diameter Core Optical Port 



FIBER OPTICS 

IR-EMITTING DIODE 




MAXIMUM RATINGS 








Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current— Continuous 


if 


100 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
2.5 


mW 

mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°c 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 


Characteristics 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


<>JA 


400 


°c/w 





FIGURE 1 - CONE OF RADIATION 








"T\ 






^""-■~— ^ ° f 




!. ; 












N 


umerical Aperture (NA) = Sin 8 




1 1 

1 1 
I / 
\ / 
\ / 


Full Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin" 


1 (NA) 


— -i_ / 





- — A 


- 








\ 














L-U 

STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2. CATHODE/CASE 






E 


1 
K 

1 



-1L-D 




NOTES: 

1. QD IS SEATING PLANE. 

2. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR 
LEADS: 



| + 1 ♦.36(0.014)® |T | 


3. DIMENSIONING AND 

TOLERANCING PER Y14.5, 1973. 


DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


B 


2.54 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 





0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


3.94 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


6.17 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.64 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45° 


N0M 


46° 


NOM 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0.245 


0.265 



CASE 338-02 



Thi» is advance information and specification* are subject to change without notice. 
Patent applied for. 

7-31 



MFOE102F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 2500 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R =3.0 V,R L = 1.0 Megohm) 


|r 


- 


50 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(Ir = 100 mA) 


V(BR)R 


3.0 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(l F = 50 mA) 


v F 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

(V R = V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


c t 


- 


45 


- 


pF 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C) 



Total Power Output From Optical Port 
dp = 50 mA, \ « 900 nm) 


Po 


40 


70 


- 


MW 


Numerical Aperture of Output Port (Figure 1 ) 
(200 jum (8 mil) diameter core) 


NA 


- 


0.48 


- 


- 


Wavelength of Peak Emission 


- 


- 


900 


- 


nm 


Spectral Line Half Width 


- 


- 


50 


- 


nm 


Optical Turn-On or Turn-Off Time 


ton.toff 


- 


25 


- 


ns 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



2.0 

1:0 
0.500 

0.200 
0.100 
0.050 

0.020 
0.010 
0.005 



FIGURE 2 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 



FIGURE 3 - POWER OUT OF FIBER* versus FIBER LENGTH 







































































:=^- 






—--■ 






___ 


=:=jl 


?:: — 










































































































































































^ - 






















1 






























































































= 






=1= 






E - 














— h 










f 


















































T 






































































1 

































80 




































| 


60 






































40 
30 

20 




Ta = 25°C 








































































10 












2 
































a.o 










































ro 


* 




















b.O 












1 










3.0 






















































S*3 










1.0 












4*% 











10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 

IF, INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 4 - OPTICAL POWER OUTPUT 
_ versus JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 



100 120 140 
FIBER LENGTH (m) 



































































































































































03 

















"Fiber Type 

1. Quartz Products QSF200 

2. Galileo Galite 3000 LC 

3. Valtec PC10 

4. DuPont PFXS 120R 



50 -25 25 50 75 100 

Tj. JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C) 



7-32 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MF0E103F 



Advance Information 



INFRARED EMITTING DIODE FOR 
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS 

. . . designed as an infrared source for Fiber Optic Systems. It is 
packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Active Component (FOAC) case, 
and fits directly into AMP Incorporated fiber optics connectors for 
easy interconnect and use. Typical applications include medical 
electronics, industrial controls, M6800 microprocessor systems, 
security systems, computer and peripheral equipment, etc. 

• Fast Response — 15 ns typ 

• May Be Used with MFODxxx Detectors 

• FOAC Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Output Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Optical Port is Prepolished 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 jum [8 mil] Diameter Core Optical Port 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current— Continuous 


if 


100 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
2.5 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 


Characteristics 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


0JA 


400 


°C/W 





FIGURE 1 - CONE OF RADIATION 








-T\ 






^^^ ^^"^ el 




!. i 








■ ** > 




N 


umerical Aperture (NA) = Sin 6 




• i 
t i 

\ i 
\ i 
\ / 


Full Cone of Emittance = 2.0 Sin" 


1 (NA) 


* ^■i_ / 



This i< advance information and specifications are subject to change without notice. 
Patent applied for. 

7-33 



FIBER OPTICS 

IR-EMITTING DIODE 






[ 1 


-A 

B 

q 


\ 








'. 






STYLE 1. 

PIN 1. ANODE 

2. CATHODE/CASE 






E 


K 

1 



-4-D 




NOTES: 

1. GlD IS SEATING PLANE. 

2. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE FOR 
LEADS: 

| 4 I ♦■36(0.014)© | T~1 

3. DIMENSIONING AND 
TOLERANCING PER Y14.5, 1973. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


6.86 


7.11 


0.270 


0.280 


B 


254 


2.64 


0.100 


0.104 


D 


0.40 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


E 


3.94 


4.44 


0.155 


0.175 


F 


6.17 


6.38 


0.243 


0.251 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.100 BSC 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


M 


45° 


N0M 


45" 


N0M 


N 


6.22 


6.73 


0.245 


0.265 



CASE 338-02 



MFOE103F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R = 3.0 V,R L = 1.0 Megohm) 


|r 


- 


50 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(l R = 100 mA) 


V (BR)R 


3.0 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
<I F = 50 mA) 


VF 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

<V R =0 V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


c t 


~ 


45 


- 


pF 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 



Total Power Output From Optical Port 
lip = 50 mA, \ = 900 nm) 


Po 


40 


70 


- 


MW 


Numerical Aperture of Output Port (Figure DIO.OdB 
(200 »im |8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 


- 


0.70 


- 


- 


Wavelength of Peak Emission 


- 


- 


900 


- 


nm 


Spectral Line Half Width 


- 


- 


50 


- 


nm 


Optical Turn-On or Turn-Off Time Up = 100 mA) 


l on. l off 


- 


15 


22 


ns 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 





FIGURE 2 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 












































1.0 




































0.500 








































































0.200 






































































0.100 




































0.050 
















































































































































0.010 




































0.00b 
















































































































































nno? 





































FIGURE 3 - POWER OUT OF FIBER* versus FIBER LENGTH 



10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 

iF. INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 



FIGURE 4 - OPTICAL POWER OUTPUT 
versus JUNCTION TEMPERATURE 



















































1.0 














































































































3 

















1UU 






















60 
























Ta = 25°C 
















s * u 
















cc 
















i 






!r 






















° 10 


^ 


^-v^ 








2 








_ == 


° 6.0 




^^ 


b^^*" 




^y 


f 


- 3 - 






























*" 30 




































V: 






















r 








1.0 












1 









100 120 140 160 
FIBER LENGTH (m) 



180 200 220 



'Fiber Type 

1. Maxlight KSC200B 

2. Galite 3000 LC 

3. Siecor 155 

4. DuPontPFXS120R 



-50 -25 25 50 75 

Tj, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C) 



7-34 



® 



MOTOROLA 



MF0E106F 



Advance Information 



NEW GENERATION AIGaAs LED 

Specifically designed for Fiber Optics. This high-power, 820 nm 
LED is packaged in Motorola's Fiber Optic Ferrule case, and fits 
directly into AMP, Incorporated fiber optics connector #227240-1 
for easy interconnect use. Typical applications include medical 
electronics, industrial controls, M6800 microprocessor systems, 
security systems, computer and peripheral systems, etc. 

• Fast Response - 12 ns typ 

• May Be Used with MFODxxx Detectors 

• Ferrule Package — Small and Rugged 

• Fiber Output Port Greatly Enhances Coupling Efficiency 

• Optical Port is Prepolished 

• Compatible with AMP Connector #227240-1 

• 200 Mm [8 mil] Diameter Core Optical Port 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


Vr 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current— Continuous 


'F 


150 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation @ T A * 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


Pd 


250 
2.5 


mW 

mW/oc 


Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-30 to +85 


°C 


Storage Temperature Range 


T stg 


-30 to +100 


°C 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 


Characteristics 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


0JA 


175 


°c/w 





FIBER OPTICS 

IR-EMITTING DIODE 




CASE 338D-01 



FIGURE 1 - CONE OF RADIATION 








"A 






*"^^ ^^"^ el 




;. 






N 


umerical Aperture (NA) - Sin 6 




i i 

\ i 
\ i 
\ / 


Full Cone of Emittance - 2.0 Sin~ 


'(NAI 


— -i / 



Thi» it advance information and specification! are subject to change without notice. 
Patent applied for. 



7-35 



MFOE106F 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IT A = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R =3.0 V,R L = 1.0 Megohm) 


|r 


- 


50 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(l R = 100 »lA) 


V (BR)R 


3.0 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
<I F = 50 mA) 


VF 


- 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

(V R =0 V, f = 1.0 MHz) 


c t 


~ 


450 


- 


pF 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C> 



Total Power Output From Optical Port 
dp = 100 mA, \ « 820 nm) 


Po 


- 


700 


- 


mW 


Numerical Aperture of Output Port (Figure 1 )10.0 dB 
(200 Mm |8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 


- 


050 


- 


- 


Wavelength ol Peak Emission 


- 


- 


820 


- 


nm 


Spectral Line Half Width 


- 


- 


35 


- 


nm 


Optical Turn-On or Turn Off Time 


«on. 'off 


" 


12 


20 


ns 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - POWER OUT OF FIBER* versus FIBER LENGTH 























































































00 ^B| 


-s^ 






>>-. 
























5 — 












^ 


r 












JgL.3 




^ 
































i 














\V 


^ 


7 




N 


/ 


< 










2 
10 1 






k> 


^ 


6 


V 


"< 


H 


^ 


» 




■^ 



FIBER LENGTH (km) 

'Fiber Type 

l.Beldon 220001 

2. 0uPontS120 

3. Siecor 155B 

4. Maxlight KSC200B 

5. Galile3000LC 

6. Siecor 142 
I.T.T.T1302 

7. Galite 5020 



7-36 



M) MOTOROLA 




INFRARED EMITTING DIODE FOR 
FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 

. . . designed as an infrared source in low frequency, short length 
Fiber Optics Systems. Typical applications include: medical 
electronics, industrial controls, M6800 Microprocessor systems, 
security systems, etc. 

• High Power Output Liquid Phase Epitaxial Structure 

• Spectral Response Matched to MFOD100, 200, 300 

• Hermetic Metal Package for Stability and Reliability 

• Compatible With AMP Mounting Bushing #227015 



FIGURE 1 - LAUNCHED POWER TEST CONFIGURATION 



1 Meter Galite 1000 Optical Fiber 



= -*|Pi 



\ 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 


Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


3.0 


Volts 


Forward Current— Continuous 


if 


100 


mA 


Total Device Dissipation <g> T^ = 25°C 
Derate above 25°C 


p D d) 


250 
2.5 


mW 
mW/°C 


Operating and Storage Junction 
Temperature Range 


T J- T stg 


-55 to +125 


°C 


THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 


Charactersitics 


Symbol 


Max 


Unit 


Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient 


0JA 


400 


°C/W 


(1) Printed Circuit Board Mounting 



MF0E200 



HIGH-POWER 

IR-EMITTING DIODE 

FOR 

FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS 




SEATING yf 
PLANE 




STYLE 1: 

PIN 1. ANODE 
2. CATHODE 

NOTES: 

1. PIN 2 INTERNALLY C0NNECTE0 
TO CASE. 

2. LEADS WITHIN 0.13 mm (0.005) 
RADIUS OF TRUE POSITION AT 
SEATING PLANE AT MAXIMUM 
MATERIAL CONDITION. 



DIM 


MILLIMETERS 


INCHES 


MIN 


MAX 


MIN 


MAX 


A 


5.31 


5.84 


0.209 


0.230 


B 


4.52 


4.95 


0.178 


0.195 


C 


6.22 


6.98 


0.245 


0.275 





0.41 


0.48 


0.016 


0.019 


F 


1.19 


1.60 


0.047 


0.063 


G 


2.54 BSC 


0.1O 


BSC 


H 


0.99 


1.17 


0.039 


0.046 


J 


0.84 


1.22 


0.033 


0.048 


K 


12.70 


- 


0.500 


- 


L 


3.35 


4.01 


0.132 


0.158 


M 


45° 8SC 


45° BSC 



7-37 



MFOE200 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A - 2B°C) 



Characteristic 


Fig. No. 


Symbol 


Mln 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 

(V R -3.0 V,R L - 1.0 Megohm) 


- 


|R 


- 


so 


- 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
Or -100 mA) 


- 


V(BR)R 


3.0 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(IF - 100 mA) 




v F 


- 


1.5 


1.7 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

IV R -0 V, f »1.0 MHz) 


- 


c T 


- 


150 


- 


pF 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A - 25°C) 


Total Power Output (Note 1) 
(Ip - 100 mA. X « 940 nm) 


1.2 


Po 


2.0 


3.0 


- 


mW 


Power Launched (Note 2) 
(Ip - 100 mA) 


3 


PL 


35 


45 


- 


*iW 


Optical Turn-On and Turn-Off Time 


- 


ton. 'off 


- 


250 


- 


nt 



1 . Total Power Output, P Q , is defined as the total power radiated by the device into a solid angle of 2n steradians. 

2. Power Launched, P;_, is the optical power exiting one meter of 0.045" diameter optical fiber bundle having NA = 0.67, 
Attenuation = 06 dB/m @ 940 nm, terminated with AMP connectors. (See Figure 1 .) 



TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



FIGURE 2 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT 
versus FORWARD CURRENT 



FIGURE 3 - POWER OUT OF FIBER 
versus FIBER LENGTH 



Ml 












































































20 










































































in 






































5.0 
















































































































2.0 










































































i n 






































0.5 
















































































































0.2 














































































































0.1 







































5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 

i F , INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (mA) 







































































































































T A = ?5°r. 












Gaiite 1000 


I F -100 mA 


































































































































>ont PiFax PIR1 




























































DuPont PiFax S120 













































!.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 
FIBER LENGTH (m) 



7-38 




MOTOROLA 



MF0L01 



THE LINK 

A complete Fiber Optic one way transmission path component 
assembly. 

The Link includes an infrared emitter, one meter of cable with 
connectors, an integrated detector preamplifier and the compatible 
ferrule semiconductor connectors. 

Also included are basic design formulas, system design examples, 
descriptive material on fiber optics, circuit ideas, several application 
suggestions, and device data sheets. 

• 17 MHz Linear Capability 

• NRZ Data to 20 Mb/s 

• Expandable System Lengths (cable loss dependant) 

• Rugged, Prepolished, Ferrule Semiconductors 

• No Optical Expertise Needed 

• RFI Shielded Detector 



FIBER OPTICS 
KIT 



THE LINK ASSEMBLY 



Infrared 
Emitter 
MFOE103FB 




Detector 
MFOD402FB 



7-39 



MFOL01 



MFOE103FB IR EMITTER 



MAXIMUM RATINGS 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Reverse Voltage 


v R 


30 


Volts 


Forward Current — Continuous 


if 


100 


mA 


Operating Temperature Range 


Ta 


-30 to +85 


°C 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Reverse Leakage Current 
(V R = 3.0 V, R L = 1 Megohm) 


|R 


— 


50 


— 


nA 


Reverse Breakdown Voltage 
(Ir= 100 M A) 


V(BR)R 


3.0 


- 


- 


Volts 


Forward Voltage 
(lp = 50 mA) 


v F 


— 


1.2 


1.5 


Volts 


Total Capacitance 

(V R = V, f = 1 MHz) 


c T 


— 


45 


— 


pF 


OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 


Total Power Output From Optical Port lp = 50 mA 
(A~900nm) lp = 100 mA 


Po 


40 


70 
140 


— 


f.W 


Numerical Aperture of Output Port 3.0 dB 
(200 ^m [8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 




048 


~~ 


— 


Optical Turn-On or Turn-Off Time 


'on. l off 


- 


15 


22 


ns 



MFOD402FB INTEGRATED DETECTOR PREAMPLIFIER 
MAXIMUM RATINGS (T A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) 



Rating 


Symbol 


Value 


Unit 


Operating Voltage 


v C c 


20 


Volts 


Operating Temperature Range 


t a 


-30 to +85 


°C 



•Power launched into Optical Input Port The designer must account for interface coupling losses 



ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (V cc = 1 5 V, T A = 


25°C) 










Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Value 
Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Power Supply Current 


'cc 


1.4 


17 


20 


mA 


Quiescent dc Output Voltage 


V Q 


0.6 


07 


0.9 


Volts 


Resistive Load 


RrjMax 


300 


- 


- 


Ohms 


Capacitive Load 


CoMax 


- 


- 


20 


pF 


Output Impedance 


2 o 


- 


200 


- 


Ohms 


RMS Noise Output 


v NO 


- 


03 


- 


mV 


Noise Equivalent Power 


NEP 


- 


57 


- 


pW/v'Hz 


Operating Voltage Range 


V C C 


5.0 


- 


15 


Volts 


Bandwidth (3.0 dB) 


BW 


- 


17 5 


- 


MHz 



OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 












Responsivity(Vcc= 1 5 V, A = 900 nm, P= 10 >,W*) 


R 


06 


15 


- 


mV/ M W 


Pulse Response 


t r . t f 


- 


20 


- 


ns 


Numerical Aperture of Input Core 
(200 |im [8 mil] diameter core) 


NA 


— 


048 


— 


— 









MFOA03 FIBER OPTIC CABLE ASSEMBLY 


Type: DuPont S-120 












Number of Fibers: 1 












Fiber Core Diameter, 


nominal 


200 ts 


m (8 mil) 






Numerical Aperture, 


nominal 


0.4 








Attenuation: 100 dB 


Km (3> 900 nm 








Cable Connectors: AMP Optir 


nate m 


etal connecto 


s compatible with AMP 227240- 


Connectors. 



7-40 




MOTOROLA 



MF0L02 



LINK II 

A Complete Fiber Optic Simplex TTL communication data link. 

Link II features a transmitter and receiver module, 10 meters 
of fiber cable, preterminated with appropriate matching AMP 
connectors. 

Link II includes complete component specifications, extensive 
application literature discussing The Theory of Operation of 
LINK II, and the "basic concepts" of fiber optics and fiber optic 
communications. 

• Simplex TTL 200 kHz BW Data Link 

• TTL Transmitter and Receiver Modules 

• Preterminated 10 meters of Fiber Optic Cable (Expandable to 2 km) 

• Link II Theory of Operation 

• System Design Considerations, Data Sheets, Application Notes 



TTL 

FIBER OPTIC 

DATA 

LINK 




7-41 



MFOL02 



MFOL02T TRANSMITTER 
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS <T A = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Power Supply Voltage 


V CC 


- 


5.0 


- 


Volts 


Power Supply Current (Idle Mode) 


'cc 


- 


80 


- 


mA 


Total Power Output From Output Port * 
(A = 900 nm , Idle Mode If = 50 mA) 


Po 


40 


70 


- 


^W 


Numercial Aperture of Output Port 


NA 


- 


0.70 


- 


- 


Bandwidth 


BW 


DC. 


- 


200 


Kbit 



•Transmitter features MF0E102F 



MFOL02R RECEIVER 

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T A = 25°C) 



Characteristic 


Symbol 


Min 


Typ 


Max 


Unit 


Power Supply Voltage 


v C c 


- 


5.0 


- 


Volts 


Power Supply Current (Idle Mode) 


'cc 


- 


8.0 


- 


mA 


Receiver Sensitivity" 


s 


- 


0.01 


- 


M W 


Numerical Aperture of Input Port 


NA 


- 


0.70 


- 


- 


Bandwidth 


BW 


DC 


- 


200 


Kbit 


Dynamic Range (NRZ) 


- 


- 


25 


- 


dB 



"Receiver features MFOD102F 



MFOA10 CABLE ASSEMBLY 

10 meters of single fiber core preterminated cable. 

LINK II can be expanded to several km by 
utilization of other Motorola FOAC Devices 
ie.MFOE106F/MFOD405F(820/nm system) 



7-42 



FIBER OPTICS 



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Applications Information 



8-1 



AN-794 

Application Not* 



A 20-MBAUD FULL DUPLEX FIBER OPTIC DATA LINK 
USING FIBER OPTIC ACTIVE COMPONENTS 



Prepared By: 
Vincent L. Mirtich 



INTRODUCTION 

This application note describes an optical trans- 
ceiver which is designed to be used in a full duplex 
data communications link. Its electrical interface 
with the outside world is TTL. The optical interface 
between modules consists of separate transmit and 
receive ports, which use the Motorola Fiber Optic 
Active Component (FOAC) for the optical to 
electrical transducers Two modules can optically 
communicate via either two separate fibers or via an 
optical duplexer such as a three-port directional 
coupler and a single fiber. The data rate can be 
anything from 20 Mbaud on down as long as the 
transmitter input rise times are compatible with TTL 
specifications. For NRZ data where one baud per bit 
is required, data can be transferred at rates up to 20 
Mbits. For RZ data where 2 bauds per bit are 
required, data can be transferred at rates up to 10 
Mbits. The small-signal 3.0 dB bandwidth of the 
system is 10 MHz minimum. The unit can also be 
configured as an optical repeater by connecting the 
receiver electrical output to the transmitter electrical 
input. 

The receiver is edge coupled and therefore places 
no constraints on data format. Since the edge 
coupling removes the data base line variation, there 
is no base line tracking required. Consequently, there 
is no limit on the length of a string of ones or zeroes. 
The receiver latches and remembers the polarity of 
the last received data edge. The use of the Motorola 
FOAC for the transmitter and receiver transducers 
greatly simplifies the optical interface. It eliminates 



the handling of delicate fiber pigtails, the need for 
terminating and polishing such pigtails, and is 
compatible with the AMP connector system. 

This application note will follow the following 
format: 

I. Transmitter Description 

A. Block diagram and functional description 

B. Schematic diagram and design 
considerations 

C. Transmitter performance 

II. Receiver Description 

A. Functional block diagram and design 
considerations 

B. Amplitude detector coupling 
and required S/N 

C. Schematic diagram and circuit 
implementation 

D. Receiver performance 

III. Building the Boards 

A. Parts list and unique parts 

B. Working with FOACs and AMP connectors 

C. Shielding requirements 

IV. Testing the Boards 

A. Test equipment required 

B. Looping transmitter to receiver. Caution 
with LED 

C. Waveform analysis 

D. Setting hysteresis 

V. System Performance 

A. Interpreting fiber, emitter, and detector 
specifications 

B. Calculating system performance. Loss 
budget, dispersion limit. 



8-2 



TRANSMITTER DESCRIPTION 

Transmitter Block Diagram and Functional 
Description 

Figure 1 shows the functional block diagram of the 
optical transmitter. The first block is the logic 
interface. Since the transmitter is intended for use 
in data communications applications, it has to inter- 
face a common logic family and provide some stan- 
dard load and input signal requirements. Also, since 
it is intended for use at data rates of up to 20 Mbaud, 
TTL is a good choice for the logic family. The logic 
interface function then could be implemented by one 
of the standard TTL gates, inverters, etc., to provide 
an electrical port which can be driven from any TTL 
output. 



Data s. 

Input ^ 










Logic 
Interface 




Driver and^*-*^ 






Current ^^"^ i 

^ !m 


al Connector 






LED and Optic 



FOAC 
Fiber Optic Active Component 



Fiber Light Guide 



TO-18 Header 




Semiconductor Emitter 
or Detector 



FIGURE 1 — Optical Transmitter Functional Block Diagram 



FIGURE 2 — FOAC Construction 

In addition to these functions, it would be nice if the 
transmitter had the following features. It would be 
convenient if the LED current were easily set to what- 
ever value was desired. It would be desirable if the 
LED current were not influenced greatly by power 
supply fluctuations or temperature variations. Since 
this transmitter is to be operating beside a receiver 
operating on the same power supply, it would greatly 
simplify transmitter/receiver isolation if the trans- 
mitter didn't cause large supply current variations 
which modulated the power supply lines. Finally, it 
would be useful if the transmitter could easily be 
gated off by another logic signal so that the LED' did 
not respond to the data input. 



The second block in Figure 1 , the LED Driver and 
Current Gain, has several functions. First, it must 
provide the forward current required by the LED for 
the particular optical output power desired. Secondly, 
it must switch that current on and off in response to 
the input data with rise and fall times consistent with 
the maximum baud rate expected. Third, it must 
provide enough current gain to amplify the limited 
source a«d sink current of the logic interface block up 
to the needed LED current. 

The third block, the LED and Optical Connector 
could be broken into two separate functions, as is 
usually the case. However, through the use of a well 
thought out and economically advantageous 
approach to the electrical to optical fiber translation, 
the electrical to optical transducer and the fiber 
coupling functions have been addressed in concert. 
The electro/optical transducer is an LED which 
emits pulses of optical energy in response to the data 
input. In this case, the optical energy is near infrared 
which is invisible to the unaided eye. The LED pack- 
age, a FOAC, efficiently couples as much emitted 
energy as possible into a short internal pre-polished 
pigtail fiber. The coupler or connector then mounts, 
the FOAC so that its optical port is aligned with the 
core of the system fiber. In this way, the percentage of 
emitted optical power that is launched into the system 
fiber is maximized without any special preparation 
of the transducer by the user. Refer to Figure 2. 



Transmitter Schematic and Design 
Considerations 

Figure 3 shows the transmitter circuit schematic 
and indicates which portion of the circuit performs 
each of the previously mentioned functions. 

The logic interface has been implemented using 
the two sections of the SN74LS40 dual four input 
NAND gate in cascade. The LS40 was chosen as the 
particular part because of its buffered output. Since it 
can sink 24 mA instead of the normal 8.0 mA (typical 
LS output) and still provide 0.5 V for a low output, it 
puts less of a current gain requirement on the follow- 
ing circuitry. The reason two sections were used in 
cascade rather than one is that every TTL gate intro- 
duces some differential prop delay. This is a difference 
in propagation times through the gate for positive 
and negative transitions. It is primarily a function of 
the gates' output transistor configuration and how 
hard they are driven by internal circuitry. In some 
instances, it can be very near zero, and in other parts 
it can be as high as 10 ns. However, on a particular 
chip, all sections will tend to have differential prop 
delays of the same polarity and very nearly equal. If 
two inverting functions on the same chip are then 
cascaded, the differential prop delay through the 
pair will tend to null to zero since both polarities of 
incoming data edges are processed as positive 
transitions by one gate and as negative transitions 
by the other gate. 



8-3 



09/ 3 B 



O5.0V 




LED and 
Optical | 

Connector I 



LED Driver and 
Current Gain 



FIGURE 3 — Transmitter Schematic 



The effect of a 10 ns longer propagation delay for 
high to low transitions on a 20 Mbaud squarewave 
is shown in Figure 4. It will be noted that processing 
the distorted signal through a second gate having 
prop delays equal to those of the first gate corrects the 
duty cycle distortion at the expense of a little higher 
absolute prop delay. The distorted waveform is 
delayed by tpHL only whereas the undistorted 
waveform is delayed by tpjjL + tPLH- This slight 
increase in absolute prop delay is usually 
insignificant compared to the absolute prop delay 
through the transmission medium. It will also be 
noted that if the distortion is not corrected, then the 
waveform applied to the LED driver is of a higher 
baud rate, thus requiring wider system bandwidth. 

The cascading of two identical inverting gates also 
provides a way of balancing their power supply 
currents and avoids putting transients on the +5.0 V 
power line. The schematic shows different loads on 



the two NAND gate sections so that the currents are 
not equal for the two logic input levels. However, if 
additional power supply decoupling were needed to 
further reduce transmitter and receiver crosstalk, 
putting a 430 ft pull-up resistor from Pin 6 of Ul A to 
+5.0 V would improve the balance of transmitter 
power supply current between the two logic states at 
the expense of another 10 mA or so in transmitter 
current drain. 

The gating function mentioned earlier is also not 
shown in the schematic but can be easily implemented 
by tying one of Pins 2, 4, or 5 of U 1 A to +5.0 V through 
a suitable pull-up resistor and then providing this pin 
to the outside world for a logic low to gate off the data. 
This data off condition would also produce an LED 
off condition. 

The 75 ft termination across the data input is to 
terminate an expected 75 ft coaxial cable. If data rates 
significantly lower than 20 Mbaud are transmitted 



20 Mbaud 
Square Wave 
Input 



Distorted 
25 Mbaud 
Output of the 
First Gate 



Undistorted 
20 Mbaud 
Square Wave 
Output of the 
Second Gate 



LC 



i 
i 

tpHL = 20 ns 



-60 ns » 



ML- tpHL 

hT - tPLH = 10 ns 



10 ns 



L 



-50 ns- 



r 



x. 



tpHL = 20 ns 



to 



ti t 2 



FIGURE 4 — Correction of Duty Cycle Distortion Caused by Gate Differential Prop Delay 

8-4 



then a coaxial cable may not he necessary and a 
different termination can he used. The reader is 
cautioned, however, that an unshielded data line into 
the transmitter could cause crosstalk to the receiver 
and thereby destroy the system error rate perfor- 
mance. Therefore, if an unshielded lead-in is desired, 
it should be implemented while monitoring bit errors 
in the receive channel. 

The LKD driver and current gain function is 
implemented with a discrete current limited dif- 
ferentia! amplifier with the LKD as one of the collec- 
tor loads. The amplifier's emitter coupled configura- 
tion is well known for providing fast switching 
speeds. Its non-saturating characteristic prevents 
any stored charge accumulation in the transistor 
base region and the corresponding degradation in 
turn off time. Therefore, rise and fall times of this 
driver are fast and very nearly the same. Since these 
driver transistors don't saturate, they also preserve 
their high small-signal current gain and consequently 
minimize base drive requirements. 

The current source. Q4. is biased so that its collector 
current is equal to the peak LKD current desired. The 
emitter resistor of (}4 sets the current and the com- 
ponent values shown in Figure 3 bias Q4 at 100 mA. 
Diode 1)2 matches the thermal drift in the emitter 
voltage of Q4 which holds its collector current 
constant over temperature. 

Once this current is fixed, the logic state at Pin 8 of 
I! 1 B determines if it flows through Q2 and the LKD 
or through Q;i and the 12 !l resistor. A logic high at 
Pin 8 reverse biases 1)4 and allows the Cj2 base 
current to be supplied by the resistor divider network 
and consequently turns on the LKD. A logic low at 
Pin 8 biases Q2 and the LKD off. 

The required logic condition at the TTL input to turn 
on the LKD can easily be switched 18() c by driving 
the LKD with the opposite side of the differential 
amplifier. It should be pointed out that this is the 
preferred way of switching the transmitter phase 
rather than adding another stage of logic inversion 
which would introduce differential prop delay and 
hence duty cycle distortion. 

The use of a differential driver does cause the trans- 
mitter current drain to be relatively constant even 
when the LKD is off. However, the disadvantage of 
higher standby drain is far outweighed by the reduc- 
tion in power line transients on the +5.0 V line due to 
no significant power supply current switching. This 
greatly enhances the isolation between the trans- 
mitter and receiver. 

The LKD and connector used is the MFOKlO.'JF 
in the ferruled package and the AMP 227240-1 
connector. This LKD has a maximum rise time of 
22 ns and a typical power out of 70 M W at 50 mA 
drive current. 
Transmitter Performance 

Figure 5 shows the calculated exit power expected 
for six different fibers when driven from the trans- 
mitter. This chart can be used to determine which 
fiber delivers the most exit power for a given path 
length. 

Figure 6 shows the variation in LKD current and 
transmitter output power over temperature. This was 
measured at the end of a 20 foot length of the Seicor 
cable, with the LKD biased for continuous operation. 
Figure 7 displays the duty cycle distortion intro- 
duced by the transmitter logic interface and LKD 
driver. Figure 7<a> shows a 50"'. duty cycle square- 
wave at the transmitter TTL input and Figure 7(b) 



VALTEC PC-10 ilM Ijflt 
MSC200B 




10 100 1UU 

PATH LENGTH (METERS) 

FIGURE 5 — Calculated Peak Exit Power versus Fiber Path 



+ 3 

3+2 

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88 












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t a rc 



-5 +5-' 25 46 65 

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 

FIGURE 6 - Optical Output Power and LED Current 
versus Temperature 



shows the corresponding LKD current waveform 
measured with a high frequency current probe. It will 
be noted that the current waveform exhibits an 
indiscernible amount of duty cycle distortion. 

The biasing of the base of Q2 in both logic states 
relative to the bias at the base of Ql can be another 
source of duty cycle distortion. If this is critical to the 
application and must be held to less than a couple of 
nanoseconds, these resistors may be selected to 
tighter tolerances. Also, replacing the LS40 NAND 
gate with an S40 (standard Schottky) NAND gate 
will reduce distortion contributed by that source. 

Figure 8 shows the absolute prop delay through the 
transmitter. It will be noted that both positive and 
negative transitions are delayed about 4.5 ns. 

Figure 9 shows the lO'^-HO 1 '' rise and fall times of 
the LKD current waveform to be about 17 ns and 
13 ns respectively. 



8-5 




(a) Transmitter TTL Input 




(b) LED Current 
FIGURE 7 — Transmitter Duty Cycle Distortion 




FIGURE 8 — Transmitter Absolute Prop Delay 




FIGURE 9 — LED Current Rise and Fall Time 



RECEIVER DESCRIPTION 

Functional Block Diagram and Design 
Considerations 

Figure 10 shows the receiver functional block 
diagram. 

The first element is the optical detector which 
receives pulses of optical energy emanating from the* 
end of a fiber. It typically looks like a current 
source (see Figure 11) whose magnitude is dependent 
on the incident optical energy and a parallel 
capacitor whose value is dependent on device design 



and the magnitude of reverse bias across it. This 
capacity adds in parallel with any external load 
capacity to form a net load capacity which must be 
charged and discharged by the minute photo current 
from the detector. Because this detector output is a 
high impedance source and its signal is very small, it 
is a difficult point to interface without introducing 
noise, RFI, and reactive loads which degrade the 
signal quality. 




Data 
Output 



FIGURE 10 — Optical Receiver Functional Block Diagram 



8-6 



I 


At 


At 


AV 



For this reason, the second element shown in the 
block diagram, the current to voltage converter, 

is usually coupled as closely as possible to the 
optical detector and very often this interface is then 
shielded from outside interference. This converter is 
typically a transimpedance amplifier circuit built 
from an op amp or other high gain amplifier with 
negative current feedback. This circuit does three 
things. First, it provides signal gain by producing an 
output voltage proportional to the input current. 
Second, by virtue of its high open loop gain and 
negative feedback, it provides a low output 
impedance. Third, it provides a virtual ground at its 
signal input. That is to say, it has a very low input 
impedance. Because of this, there is little or no 
voltage swing at its input. Since the capacitive load 
on the optical detector has to be charged by the photo 
current, the relationship of 



(1) 
(2) 



holds true. This says that for a capacitor C, being 
charged by a constant current I, the change in voltage 
across it, AV, will occur in time interval At. Thus, for 
the model in Figure 1 1, 

if 1 - 50 nA 
C ■- 10 pF 
AV - 1.0 mV 
then At - 200 ns 

Naturally, if the virtual ground input of the 
current to voltage converter reduces AV to very 
nearly zero, the transition time, At, also approaches 
zero and much faster rise times can be recovered. 
Also, by reducing the capacitance, C, one can 
improve the rise time. 

This capacitance is the parallel equivalent of the 
optical detector capacitance, the amplifier input 
capacitance, and parasitic capacitance of the printed 
circuit board. An integrated detectorpreamp (II)P) 
reduces the component capacitances to a minimum 
and completely eliminates the PCB capacitance, 
thereby minimizing rise time and providing a low 
impedance voltage source to which interfacing is 
easily accomplished. 

Now that the optical signal has been converted 
into a voltage pulse coming from a low source imped- 
ance and having fast rising and falling edges, it can 
be processed by more conventional means. For this 









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Tvp 1 


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reason, the third element in the block diagram is a 
linear voltage amplifier. This amplifier should 
have sufficient gain to amplify the expected noise 
from the current to voltage converter up to the 
minimum level detectable by the amplitude detector. 
The reason for this will be seen later. 

With this consideration in mind, the minimum gain 
of the voltage amplifier can then be defined as 



Amplitude Detector Threshold (V I 
I to V Converter Noise Output (V ) 



C,]) 



Having more gain than this merely amplifies 
signal and noise together beyond the minimum 
amplitude detector threshold and accomplishes 
nothing but a higher required detector threshold. 
Thus, it would behoove the designer to have a voltage 
gain block whose gain tracked detector threshold 
from unit to unit or else a voltage gain and detector 
threshold which did not vary significantly from unit 
to unit. The latter is much easier to accomplish. 

The next characteristic of the linear amplifier that 
must be considered is its bandwidth or rise time. Rise 
time will be considered here because data links are 
usually characterized by a rise time budget rather 
than a bandwidth budget. The system rise time is 
defined as the rise time of the signal appearing at the 
amplitude detector input which in this case is the 
voltage amplifier's output. For reasons explained 
later, a well designed system has its bandwidth 
determined in the optical detector and preamp so the 
voltage gain block's rise time should not degrade 
system rise time by more than 10%. Rise time 
contributions through the system add as the square 
root of the sum of the squares. System rise time is 
exhibited by the output waveform of the voltage 
amplifier. It is usually determined by contributions 
from the current to voltage converter and the voltage 
amplifier such that: 



l Rs» 



where t^ys ' s tne s >' stem r i se time desired at the 
voltage amplifier's output 
t}{ij)p is the rise time of the integrated 
detector preamp 

t-R A ' s t ne required rise time of the voltage 
v amplifier 
This is only true if all other rise times in the system, 
such as the I,KI) driver, the LED, and the fiber dis- 
persion, are fast enough so as not to contribute 
significantly to the system rise time. 

Now, if the voltage amplifier rise time should not 
degrade the well designed system by more than 10%, 
then using equation (4) 



l Ksy> 



H.llt, 



FIGURE 1 1 — Practical Photo Detector Model 



^ 'W 2 +(t K A / 

and t K % (0.458)t H 



11 t H 



There is also a lower limit on this voltage amplifier's 
rise time which precludes it from having as fast a rise 
time as is available. That is, as the noise from each 
noise source in the receiver is added, its relative 
contribution is a function of its bandwidth. For 
example, if the IDP is characterized as having a noise 
bandwidth B\, an input noise of e n i V/\/Hz,and a 
gain of A V i and if the voltage amplifier similarly has 
equivalent parameters of B2, e n Q, and A V q, then the 
noise presented to the amplitude detector in volts is 



Kr / B l A v, + e n2 y B 2 l A v 



(6) 



From equation (6) it can be seen that if the voltage 
amplifier's noise bandwidth, B2, is too large in 
relation to the IDP's bandwidth, Bi, its noise 
contribution can be significant or even dominant in 
which case a much wider noise spectrum and higher 
noise levels are available at the amplitude detector to 
degrade S/N. The upper limit on the voltage ampli- 
fier's bandwidth then is the point at which the noise 
contribution of the voltage amplifier is about 50%. of 
the IDP noise. This will enable the IDP noise to still 
determine amplitude detector threshold. 

A V .A„„ = 2e„„ J R„ A v , 



' B, A Vl A V2 



B, 



B,[- 



(A.,We ni ) 



2e„ 



To sum up the characteristics of the voltage gain 
block, it should have sufficient gain to amplify the 
IDP noise up to minimum amplitude detector 



threshold as well as gain which doesn't vary more 
than amplitude detector threshold from unit to unit. 
It should have a rise time fast enough so as not to 
degrade system rise time by more than 10% but not so 
fast a rise time that its noise bandwidth contributes 
significantly to system noise. 

The next component in the block diagram of Figure 
10 is the differentiator. As was mentioned in the 
Introduction, this edge coupled receiver strips off 
the base line variations with duty cycle from the data 
stream. This is the function of the differentiator and 
there are a few considerations to be made in picking 
the values of R and C. Figure 12 compares the wave- 
forms through an ac coupling network with those 
through a differentiator. Figures 12(a) and 12(b) each 
show a 20% duty cycle pulse train and an 80% duty 
cycle pulse train as two possible extremes in data 
format for a particular system. When passed through 
the ac coupling network shown in Figure 12(c), the 
resulting waveforms will have the levels shown in 
12(e). Note the 3.0 V variation in "logic 1" levels and 
the same variation in "logic 0" levels as the duty 
cycle varies from 20% to 80%. In practice, an even 
wider range in duty cycle is often encountered, 
thereby making the lowest "logic 1" and the highest 
"logic 0" even less distinguishable from one another. 
As a result, if a level detector such as a comparator is 
used to decide whether a "logic 1" or a "0" is present, 
it must compare the data stream to a floating refer- 
ence which tracks the reference level of the data 
stream so that it is always centered between the 
peaks. For best noise immunity, this reference would 
have to be at the midpoint of the peak to peak 
amplitude of the data. Under this condition, the noise 
immunity would be equal to the amplitude of the data 
pulses. If the data should lapse for a period of time, 



20% Duty Cycle 



80% Duty Cycle ' 20% Duty Cycle 



80% Duty Cycle 



Mi_R 



U lUl&JUJ U L 



(a) 
Input Waveform 



(b) 
Input Waveform 



3000 pF 
Data >— 1£ 
C 



62 pF 



<ioon 



v 



l — 



•Vo 



:Rl 
• 100 n 



(c) 

AC Coupling Network 



+4.0 V Reference 



Edge Coupling Network 

J_ OVdc 



NC" | * " \ Base Line f 



Ideal 
Reference 

-1.5 V 



(e) 



Constant with 
Duty Cycle 



(f) 



Capacitively-Coupled Data 



Edge-Coupled Data 



r 



FIGURE 12 — Comparison of Data Stream Waveforms Through AC-Coupled and Edge-Coupled Systems 

8-8 



this floating reference would decay to its appropriate 
limit for minimum or maximum duty cycle. Once 
transmission resumed, depending on the initial duty 
cycle, the first few bits of data could be missed until 
the reference returned to its proper level. 

A much more versatile system which is tolerant of 
any duty cycle from continuous "logic IV to con- 
tinuous "logic O's" is the edge coupled system. As can 
be seen from Figures 1 2(b), (d), and (f), only the edges 
of the data pulses are passed by the coupling 
network. These pass at reduced amplitude and then 
the recovery or discharge of the network occurs 
before the next data edge comes along. Since the Vo 
out of the network in Figure 12(d) is the drive signal 
for the amplitude detector, it should be maximized. 
Since Vo is the product of the load resistor and the 
capacitor current, Io should be maximized. 
Therefore, 



and 



v = RJo 




dV r 




V„-R L .C 


_dV< 
dt 



(7) 



where V c is the voltage across the differentiator 
capacitors. Hence, the Rl,C ^ me constant should be 
maximized to provide maximum amplitude detector 
drive. If the input waveform to the edge coupling 
network appears as Figure 13(a), Vo will appear as 
that shown in 13(b). 

However, in maximizing the RlC time constant, it 
cannot be increased without limit. As can be seen 
from Figure 13(b), within the minimum bit time, the 
differentiator must be allowed to recover fully. 
Allowing 4 time constants (4 RlC) after the system 
rise time tRgyS ^ as occure ^ w '^ permit sufficient 
recovery. Hence the minimum bit time, T, is given by 



T = t, 



.+ 4 R,C max 



T-t 



and RiC max 



"svs 



(«) 




There is an implication here that may not be 
obvious. That is, to provide the required input to the 
amplitude detector, two requirements must be 
satisfied. The differentiator input signal must have 
adequate amplitude and it must have an adequately 
fast rise time. Looking back at equation 7, it will be 
noted that it is dV c which determines Vo and 

therefore there is a myriad of combinations of 
amplitude and rise time which will provide adequate 
results. However, if the transition height of the input 
waveform is so small that its peak value is below 
detector threshold, or if the rise time is so slow that 
the RlC time constant decays significantly before 
the transition is complete, then the pulse will go 
undetected. An example of this occurs if the fiber link 
is disrupted during the transmission of an LED 
"ON" condition ("logic 1"). That disruption 
generates so slow a transition that it will not couple 
through the differentiator and the receiver will 
indicate that the LED is still on until the link is 
restored and a fast LED "OFF" transition is 
received. 

There is another subtlety implied here and that is 
that all coupling capacitor time constants ahead of 
the differentiator must be long enough so as not to 
decay, during a long string of ones or zeroes, so fast 
as to generate an edge that is differentiable. A cou- 
pling time constant of one or two orders of magnitude 
longer than the differentiator time constant is 
suitable. 

From a practical point of view the output impedance 
level of the differentiator should be kept low so that 
measurements with scope probes can be made without 
destroying the waveshape of the differentiator output 
signal. It was found that an R value of 500 (1 or less 
was needed to keep a conventional 10X, 7.0 pF probe 
from severely loading differentiators having time 
constants in the 5 to 20 ns range. 

With the data stream now differentiated, the next 
block in Figure 10, the amplitude detector can be 
considered. Refer to Figure 14. Since each differenti- 
ated edge returns to the reference voltage level from 



Hysteresis 



_ru L_n i l 

(a) 
Transmitter Input Data 



Threshold 1 

Vref dc 
Threshold 2 



(b) 



Amplitude Detector Input Data and Noise 



_TU LIT 



l: 



-- Voh 
■- Vol 



(c) 
Receiver Output Data 



Differentiator 

Vref dc 



(d) 
Amplitude Detector Implementation 



FIGURE 13 — Differentiator Waveforms 



FIGURE 14 — Edge Detector Operation 



8-9 



either polarity of pulse, what is required is an 
amplitude detector with two thresholds, one above 
the reference voltage and one below; in essence a 
Schmitt Trigger function which has hysteresis and 
whose threshold is dependent on the output state. 
Looking at the next block of Figure 10 and noting 
that it must generate a logic interface, in this case a 
TTL interface, it can be seen that both blocks can be 
accomplished by using a comparator or line receiver 
with positive feedback as the amplitude detector. 
Figure 14 describes the operation and implementa- 
tion of this amplitude detector with hysteresis. As 
can be seen, when a positive edge crosses threshold 1, 
the output switches low and the feedback to the 
non-inverting input causes threshold 2 to now apply. 
Since the positive edge decays back to VreF> 
threshold 2 is not crossed and the output is latched 
low. The next edge to come along must be negative 
and when it occurs it crosses threshold 2 causing the 
output to switch high. Similarly, it latches in this 
state and reinstates threshold 1. 

In order for the hysteresis to be symmetrical about 
VREF. it must be centered between the limits of the 
TTL output swing. That is, 



+ V n 



(9) 



Referring to Figure 14(d), the hysteresis is deter- 
mined by: 



H = (V nH - V nI .) ( 



R2 



R2 + 



R3* 



(10) 



Rl is made equal to R2 so as not to introduce voltage 
offsets due to the input current of the amplitude 
detector. In practice, Rl and R2 should be made fairly 
low values so that the actual input voltages do not 
have a step between the two states due to the voltage 
drop of these resistors and the amplitude detector 
input current. Because they are low values, 100-500 fi 
is typical, Rl also becomes the load of the 
differentiator. 

As can be seen from Figure 14(b), the hysteresis 
must be made greater than the peak-to-peak noise 
riding on the data stream. The amplitude detector 
used in this 20-Mbaud system is similar to this but is 
driven differentially. To afford a better under- 
standing of why this type of amplitude detector was 
chosen, a discussion of different amplitude detector 
implementations and their relative merits follow. 
Amplitude Detector Coupling and 
Required S/N 

Just how much larger than the noise the hysteresis 
must be depends on the probability of error one is 
willing to accept. That probability, or Bit Error Rate 
performance, directly' relates to the required signal- 
to-noise ratio. These two parameters of BER and S/N 
have been related by Curve A shown in Figure 15. 
This curve is derived by evaluating the error function 
for a normal distribution which defines the .prob- 
ability of a noise pulse being some factor, N, times the 
rms noise level for various values of N. However, this 
curve is only applicable to amplitude detector 
performance if certain assumptions are made. The 
first is that the amplitude detector threshold or 
decision level is always midway between the two 
extremes of the data stream level. The second 





i BER 






















10 










































\ 






1 x 10 2 




® S 














®\ 
























\ 
























! 






























1 x 10 6 
















































1 x 10 8 










\ 




c, 




nl 


S/N 












\ 




ky 


1 


(dB| 



6.0 90 12 15 18 21 



24 



27 



30 



® Theoretical Cure — ac-coupled, Single-Ended, No Hysteresis. 
(•) Calculated Performance for differential, edge-coupled detector with no 

offsets 
[V] Calculated Performance for differential, edge-coupled detector with 

offsets 
(D Measured Data — Increased Hysteresis to accommodate detector 
offsets and transmitter crosstalk. 

FIGURE 15 — BER versus S/N Performance 

assumption is either that during the absence of data 
it is acceptable for noise crossing threshold to cause 
output transitions or else that data is never absent. 
The third is that there is no hysteresis around the 
threshold. The expected waveforms are shown in 
Figure 16(a). 

This S/N versus BER curve and the waveforms of 
Figure 16(a) apply to both ac-coupled as well as 
dc-coupled systems as long as the above assump- 
tions prevail. However, because of the difficulty of 
controlling the amplified thermal drifts in a 
dc-coupled system, ac coupling is usually used in an 
optical data transmission system. Therefore 
dc-coupled systems will not be considered here. 

Referring to Figure 16(a), as long as the waveform 
is above threshold the data bit is labeled a "logic 1" 
and if the waveform is below threshold, the data bit is 
labeled a "logic 0." As long as data is always present, 
that is idle channel condition is marked with a flag, a 
squarewave or some other recognizable pattern, the 
only time an error will occur is when a noise pulse is 
large enough to reach threshold. Looking at Figure 
16(a) it can be seen that when the noise peak equals 
or exceeds the threshold voltage, a bit error is made. 
The amplitude to which noise peaks will rise only 
once in 1 x 10"9 attempts is 6.15 times the rms noise 
amplitude. Therefore, the required peak signal 
amplitude for a 1 * 10 _ 9 BER is 6.15 times the rms 
noise. If the signal is any smaller than that, a noise 
pulse riding on the data which is large enough to 
cross threshold and cause a bit error will occur more 
often and the BER will be less than 1 * 10-9. 
Expressing this in more conventional terms then, the 
required S/N ratio for a 1 * 10"9 BER is: 



6.15 e n 

.) = 20 log ( — ) 



S/N = 20 log (- 
S/N = 15.8 dB 



This can be seen to lie on Curve A in Figure 15. This 
S/N is not a true power ratio but merely 20 times the 
log of a ratio of a peak voltage to an rms voltage. 



8-10 



Amplitude 
Detector 



Data 
Output 




— Threshold Voltage 



Single-Ended ac-Coupled Data and Noise with Fixed Threshold at 50°o Level 



Amphtud 
Dt 



;t ;; t;to , >m ',,.-- fi\- k /w. 

put Threshold V.n ' U\NW\\\\W^A\VMVM jf "^VAWAVmWAV.W 



Data 



Output 



^_n r 



(b) 
Differential ac Coupled Data and Noise 



Amphtudi 



Data 
Output 



Data , /V.V.'.'.'A", 



\w/ \>, , ,'.',','.V,-,',',V^ \aw. 



H V T1 V T2 

VT1 

— V T2 
VW 



Tor's "on Hi 



10 



Single Ended ac Coupled Data and Noise with Threshold Hystersis (H) around 50 l o Level 



Amplitude 

Detector 

Input 



Data 
Output 




Missing Transition Hoi: »| 

(d) 
Single-Ended Edge-Coupled Data and Noise with Threshold Hysteresis (HI 

Noise Peak 
> H 



Ahiphtude Threshold .V- /\ 

n, ,,,. Data wvvy \ ' 

Stream W^A, Y 

,— v 



Input 



Out, i 
Output 



_r 




Differential Edge-Coupled Data and Noise 



FIGURE 16 



-11 



However, by convention these units are called dBs of 
signal-to-noise. 

If the data in Figure 16(a) drives the detector differ- 
entially, then the waveforms of Figure 16(b) apply. 
Here, rather than comparing data to a fixed noise free 
threshold centered between the voltage extremes of 
the data stream, the data is compared to a threshold 
voltage which is different for a logic one bit than it is 
for a logic zero bit. This threshold is the data stream 
inverted. That is, it is data plus noise which is equal 
in amplitude to the data stream data plus noise, but 
opposite in phase. Since both the data stream and the 
threshold are capacitively coupled, their base lines 
float to maintain an average value of zero. Thus, 
referring to Figure 16(b), the data stream and thres- 
hold levels are separated from each other by a voltage 
difference which is a function of the incoming duty 
cycle (D.C.). The amplitude of noise this system can 
tolerate without making bit errors is, therefore, a 
function of duty cycle. This means the peak signal to 
rms noise required by this system to insure a 1 x 10~9 
BER is also a function of duty cycle. 

Looking at Figure 16(b) it can be seen that the 
data stream is in a logic one state for a small per- 
centage of the time and in a logic zero state the rest 
of the time. This represents a low duty cycle pulse 
train. As the duty cycle is increased so that the data 
stream remains in a logic one state for a longer 
percentage of the time, the entire data stream wave- 
form will float downward, so that the logic zero volt- 
age level will move farther from and the logic one 
voltage level will move closer to the quiescent bias 
level Vq. As this happens the threshold waveform 
on the other hand will remain in the logic zero state 
for the same increased percentage of time and the 
waveform will move upward a corresponding 
amount. Thus, the two waveforms will be close to 
one another and noise immunity will be relatively 
low for large duty cycles as well as for low duty cycles 
and their separation from each other and the noise 
immunity will be maximized when the duty cycle 
is 50%. 

Thus, the promimity of the threshold and data 
stream waveforms depends on the limit of incoming 
duty cycle furthest from 50%. If this limit is less than 
50%, the value of D.C. to be used in equation (11) is 
equal to the decimal equivalent of the duty cycle 
itself. If the limit of duty cycle is greater than 50%, 
then the value of D.C. is the decimal equivalent of 
100% minus the duty cycle. 
That is 



6.15 (e nrms ) 

speak rj r* 

6.15 (e n ) 

(e t ,) =■ r ™ 



(11) 



^ ak 2(D.C.) 
for a square wave or 50% duty cycle, 
e^ t = 6.15 (e n ) 

»peak "rms 

or S/N = 15.8 dB 



For a 20% to 70% variation in duty cycle, the limit is 
20% and the value of D.C. is 0.2. 



6.15 (e„ rms ) 

Vak 2 (.2) 

or S/N = 20 log [ Spea " ] 

e n 

S/N = 23.7 dB 

For a 30% to 80% variation in duty cycle, the limit is 
80% and the value of D.C. is 1.00 -0.8 = 0.2. 
Hence, 



6.15 (e nrms ) 

peak 2( 2) 

S/N = 20 log [ 6speak ] 
e n 

S/N = 23.7 dB 



and 



for the general case and a 1 * 10 _ 9 BER requirement, 



S/N = 20 log [ 



6.15 



2(D.C.) 



20 log [ 



(6.15K.5) 
(D.C.) 



S/N = 15.8 dB + 20 log < TT7T> 
where D.C. is always ^ 0.5. 



(12) 



The added benefit of differential drive is the common 
mode rejection of extraneous signals being radiated 
or conducted into the amplitude detector inputs. 

The idle channel pattern is not always a continua- 
tion of constant amplitude transitions. In some cases 
it is a continuous logic state and in such cases idle 
channel noise can be rejected by hystersis in the 
amplitude detector. Such is the case in Figure 16(c). 
In this case the data stream is compared to a thres- 
hold which is different for a logic one output than it 
is for a logic zero output. This threshold is not gener- 
ated by inverting the data stream. It is generated by 
feeding back a portion of the output data signal to the 
non-inverting input of the amplitude detector. Since 
the threshold is not a linear function of the input data 
stream, there is no noise riding on it. The difference 
in threshold voltage for the two states is called the 
hysteresis. The hysteresis must be wide enough to 
reject all noise spikes of amplitudes which occur more 
often than once in 10^ when no data is present. That 
is to maintain a BER of 1 * 10~9, 



2 e npeak or 2 (6.15 e„ rms ) 



Once this condition is satisfied a detection will 
occur every time the peak signal plus noise exceeds 
one-half the hysteresis. However, if this is all that is 
required, there will be much greater edge ambiguity 
or jitter in this system than in the previous ones be- 
cause of the increased proximity between the noise 
and the amplitude detector threshold. Therefore, in 
order for this edge jitter to be no worse than before, 
the peak signal must exceed the threshold by the 
same amount as it did before or, 



8-12 



e s eak 



V-2 H + e 

6.15e, 

12.3e 



+ 6.15 e„ 



In other words, imposing the condition of idle 
channel noise rejection has caused a degradation in 
system sensitivity for the same BER performance. 
The signal-to-noise ratio required for this idle channel 
noise rejection is, 



S/N =20 log ( — 5fiL 



S/N = 21.8 dB 



20 log ( 



12.3 e„ 



This system is 6.0 dB less sensitive than those pre- 
viously discussed. Its benefit is freedom from data 
format constraints such as the maximum length of a 
string of ones or zeroes or having to present an 
appropriate idle channel pattern for noise rejection. 
The effect of edge coupling or differentiation 
rather than ac coupling can be examined by refer- 
ring to Figure 16(d). The first thing to be noticed is 
that the data is compared to the same type of thres- 
hold as in the previous case; that is a two state 
threshold generated by feedback from the amplitude 
detector output to non-inverting input. The 
difference between these two thresholds is the 
hysteresis H. Referring to Figure 16(d), it will be 
noticed that after the edge or transition is coupled 
through to the detector, the differentiation network 
immediately begins to discharge according to its 
time constant. This forces the amplitude detector 
input to return to its base line level midway between 
the two threshold levels during every bit cell. Because 
of this, the hysteresis H must once again be greater 
than the peak to peak noise level for the required 
probability of error regardless of the idle channel 
condition. Otherwise noise would toggle the detector 
during almost every bit interval after the network 
discharge was complete. Since this system should 
have no more jitter than the others, the signal should 
exceed threshold by the same amount as before or 
en ak" Thus the required signal level at the 
amplitude detector input is 



Speak 



H 

2 n peak 

12.3 e„ 



6.15 e„ 



+ 6.15 e„ 



S/N= 2.2 dB + 20 log I s '*' ak ) = 2.2 dB + 20 log (12.31 
e n 

S/N = 24.0 dB 

This relatively high signal to noise requirement is 
8.2 dB higher than the originally proposed approach 
of Figure 16(a) but this loss of sensitivity buys the 
freedom from idle channel noise and simplicity of no 
base line variation with duty cycle. 

Finally, the edge coupled system differentially 
driven will be examined. Refer to Figure 16(e). Once 
again as in the case described in Figure 16(b), the 
threshold for this differentially driven edge coupled 
case is generated by inverting the incoming data 
stream plus noise. However, unique to this case, is 
the fact that there is hysteresis in the threshold as 
well. This hysteresis limits the levels to which the 
threshold can decay after the inverted data edges 
couple through the differentiator network. This 
hysteresis, H, is the difference between the two 
threshold levels, Vfi and Vx2- These levels can be 
seen clearly in Figure 16(e) only if the data edges are 
separated in time long enough to allow the RC dif- 
ferentiators to discharge completely. The noise on 
these threshold levels can also be noticed. Assuming 
the data base line is centered between Vxi and Vf2. 
the hysteresis must be 

H = 2 (e npea 

to insure that noise doesn't toggle the output. As can 
be seen from the inset below, a noise pulse riding on 
the data stream will cause the same ambiguity in 
zero crossing (i.e. At) whether the threshold is fixed 
or is inverted data plus noise. 



Inverted Data 
Threshold and 
Noise Pulse 



Fixed Threshold 



Data Stream and 
Noise Pulse 



In order to keep edge jitter the same in this system as 
it was in previous systems then, the peak signal must 
exceed threshold by the same amount or e n Dea u. 

Therefore referring to Figure 16(e) the peak signal 
required is 




Since this is after the differentiation, the effect of the 
differentiator on the signal to noise ratio must be 
taken into account in order to compare sensitivities 
at the same point in the circuit. It has been experi- 
mentally determined that the loss of the differentiator 
is 8.2 dB for the rms noise. When measuring the dif- 
ferentiators loss to the signal, it must be remembered 
that the differentiators peak output transition is the 
response to the peak to peak input transition. The 
amplitudes of those two transitions have been com- 
pared and it has been determined that the input was 
10.4 dB larger than the output. Therefore, the S/N 
has been degraded by 10.4 dB less 8.2 dB or 2.2 dB. 
Therefore, the required S/N ratio into the differenti- 
ator for a BER of 1 * 10"9 is 



where Vps i s the threshold at the time of switching. 
However, the threshold doesn't remain at Vpi but 
starts moving in opposite phase with the data edge 
with the same rise time as the data edge. Because 
of this, the data edge and threshold edge will cross 
each other and thereby cause an output transition 
when they have traversed equal voltage increments. 
Since the data stream baseline is assumed to be 
centered between Vxi and Vx2- this crossover will 
occur halfway between Vxi an< ^ the baseline and so 
the actual threshold voltage level will be Vxi or 
1/2 H less 1/4 (H). Xhat is 



8-13 



C/2H 



'AH) 



'AH 



therefore e. 



'AH + e„ 



2e„ 



and for a BER = 1 x 10 9 



S/N = 20 log (■ 



= 20 log 2 



/b.lo e„ r \ 

V e n rm , ' 



S/N = 21.8 dB 

Once again this is out of the differentiator and to 
translate it to the differentiator input an additional 
degradation in S/N of 2.2 dB must be taken into 
account. Therefore for the differentially driven edge 
coupled detector the S/N ratio required for a 1 x 10"9 
BER is 

S/N = 21.8 dB + 2.2 dB 

S/N = 24.0 dB 

Table I below summarizes the pros and cons of these 
amplitude detector approaches. 

It can be seen looking at Table I that the differenti- 
ally driven edge coupled detector accommodates the 
most variation in data format and idle channel sig- 
nalling. In addition it provides common mode rejec- 
tion of extraneous signals thereby providing better 
performance under full duplex conditions. For these 
reasons it was chosen as the detector for this receiver 
which needed such flexibility. The price for this 
versatility is about 8.2 dB in S/N sensitivity. Cer- 
tainly this is not insignificant and if the data format 
and idle channel signalling in a particular applica- 
tion permitted, the system designer would do well to 
consider the ac coupled approaches. 

One practical factor not considered here is that the 
amplitude detector device itself will have input offset 



specifications which vary from unit to unit. This 
means that in all of the amplitude detectors 
described, a certain amount of additional signal will 
be required to insure that threshold is always crossed 
regardless of the offset for a particular unit. For the 
device used here, theMC75107, a potential difference 
of 25 mV or greater between inputs must exist to 
guarantee states. This directly affects the required 
hysteresis. The two amplitude detector inputs which 
are separated by H/2 volts must now be separated by 
2 e n pea k + 25 mV rather than by 2 e n k in the 
previous comparison. Similarly, the peak signal 
must now exceed the reference level, Vf, by 2 e n ^ 
+ 25 mV. 
That is: e_ , 



and V T 

Therefore e. , 

speak 

for a BER of 1 * 10"9 



'AH — e. 



= 2e n . + 25 mV 

"peak 



= 12.3e„ 



+ 25 mV 



The value of e nrmg was experimentally determined 
to be 2.4 mV rms. Since 25 mV is 10.4 times the 
2.4 mV rms measured at the detector input, 

= 12.3 e„ + 10.4 e„ 



s peak 



20 log (- 



22.7 e nrms 
-) =27.1 dB 



Taking into account the 2.2 dB degradation in S/N 
due to the differentiator, the required S/N is 

S/N = 27.1 dB + 2.2 dB 
S/N = 29.3 dB 

to accommodate all MC75107 detector chips. This 
point is also plotted on Figure 15. 
The remaining function in the block diagram of 



TABLE I 



DETECTOR 
APPROACH 


S/N 
SENSITIVITY 

FOR 
1X10' 9 BER 


ADVANTAGES 


DISADVANTAGES 


Single Ended ac 
Coupled. No hysteresis 


15.8 dB 


Maximum sensitivity. 


Requires continuous idle channel pattern and duty 
cycle limits to reject noise as well as a reference 
voltage that tracks data base line. No common 
mode rejection. 


Differential ac Coupled 


* 15.8 dB 
+ 20log< — ) 


No base line tracking required. Common mode 
rejection . 


Requires continuous idle channel pattern and duty 
cycle limits to reject noise. Sacrifice in sensitivity 
dependent on duty cycle limits. 


Single Ended ac 
Coupled with hysteresis 


21.8dB 


Doesn't require continuous idle pattern and duty 
cycle limits for noise rejection . 


Sacrifices 6 dB in sensitivity. Requires threshold 
which tracks data stream base line. No common 
mode rejection. 


Single Ended Edge 
Coupled with hysteresis 


24.0 dB 


Doesn't require idle channel pattern or duty cycle 
limits to reject noise. Doesn't require tracking 
reference voltage. 


Sacrifices 8.2 dB in sensitivity. No common mode 
rejection. 


Differential Edge Coupled 
with hysteresis 


24.0 dB 


Doesn't require idle channel pattern or duty cycle 
limits. Doesn't require tracking reference voltage. 
Offers common mode rejection. 


Sacrifices 8.2 dB in sensitivity. 



"See text for definition of D.C. 



8-14 



Figure 10 is the logic interface. Its purpose is to 
generate a standard logic level and provide sufficient 
drive capability for simple interfacing. The TTL logic 
level in this receiver is actually generated by the 
amplitude detector. However, in order to buffer the 
amplitude detector's output, another line receiver 
section is used for isolation and the interface to the 
TTL world. In addition, an emitter follower provides 
the needed drive for a 75 ft coaxial line to the external 
test equipment. 

Receiver Schematic Diagram and Circuit 
Implementation 

Figure 17 shows the receiver schematic and indi- 
cates which portions perform each of the functions 
outlined in the functional block diagram description. 

The first active component in the receiver sche- 
matic is the MFOD402F integrated detector preamp 
(IDP). It performs both the optical detector and 
current to voltage converter functions described 
earlier. It also affords all the isolation advantages 
of the integrated structure that were outlined in a 
previous section. Its transfer function is typically 
1.0 mV of output amplitude per jjW of optical input 
power. Output impedance is specified as 200 ft typical 
and although its maximum real and reactive loads 
are also specified, it was found that these loads 
caused excessive ringing of the IDP output. There- 



fore, in this circuit, the real load was kept above 
500 ft and the capacitive load was minimized by 
careful printed circuit layout. The output rise time 
of the MFOD402F is specified as typically 20 ns and 
that is about what appears at the output of the linear 
amplifier where the signal is sufficiently large in 
amplitude to measure. The supply voltage of +15 V 
was chosen so that operation on the flat portion of 
the IDP's At R curve was guaranteed. Below 10 V, 

AVcc 
the IDP's rise time begins to degrade rapidly. 

The shield over the optical connector and IDP is 
required for isolation from the receivers own TTL 
output and the crosstalk of the transmitter. Its 
contribution to performance may only be measurable 
in terms of improved bit error rate. 

The noise out of the IDP is specified as300^Vrms 
typical, and is a good number to use in calculating the 
amplitude detector hystersis required. 
Linear Amplifier 

The MC1733 was chosen as the linear amplifier 
primarily because of its wide gain bandwidth and its 
reasonably low noise. It was used at a gain of 100 
because that provides sufficient gain to amplify the 
IDP noise up to minimum amplitude detector thres- 
hold, as will be seen later, and it also allows the 
simple strapping of Pins 3 and 12 together using a 



U2: MFOD402F 
U3: MC1733C 
U4: MC75107 
01.0.5,0.6 MPS6515 




Optical Detector 
and Current to 
Voltage Convertei 



Linear I Differentiator Amplitude 

Amplifier j I Detector 

| | Initialize 

I | Circuit and 

, Voltage Reference 



Logic Interface, 
Buffer, and 
Line Driver 



FIGURE 17 — Receiver Schematic 



8-15 



foil runner beneath the chip itself. This proved 
simpler than bringing Pins 4 and 11 out around the 
chip and tying them together with an external gain 
setting resistor. Pins 4 and 1 1 are the emitters of the 
input differential amplifier and proved very suscep- 
tible to the injection of noise and positive feedback 
from the TTL output. 

Output Pins 7 and 8 provide the data stream 
waveforms which are the vital signs of the system. 
They provide information about the system signal to 
noise ratio, the system rise and fall time, and an 
indication of received signal level. See Figure 18. 
With the MC1733 strapped for a differential gain of 
100, each output will deliver a single ended signal 50 
times larger than the IDP output. 

With this gain strapping on the MC1733, the rise 
time out of this amplifier is typically 10 ns when 
driven from a fast pulse generator. The input bias 
resistors were chosen to be as low as the IDP could 
drive so as to enhance gain stability of the MC1733. 



The differentiators consist of the 62 pF capaci- 
tors and the 100 11 resistors for the amplitude 
detector's input bias. Since the output of the MC1733 
is taken differentially, there are two such networks 
required. The impedance of these networks was made 
low so as to minimize the voltage step at the detector 
input pins caused by the drop across the 100 n 
resistors. This step results from the change in base 
current of the amplitude detector between the ON 
and OFF states. Specified as a total worst case base 
current change of 80 n A, the 100 (I differentiator will 
cause an 8.0 mV step at Pin 2 of the amplitude detec- 
tor and a subtracting of 8.0 m V from the hysteresis at 
Pin 1 of the amplitude detector. Another reason to 
keep the differentiator impedance low is to prevent 
instrument loading. A 10X scope probe, for example, 
will load a 1000 i! differentiator enough so as to make 
time constant measurements meaningless and wave- 
form analysis unreliable. 

As mentioned earlier, in equation (8), the differenti- 





System Rise and Fall Time at Pin 8 of MC1733 



System S/Nat Pin 8 of MC1733tora BER of <1 * 10" 9 




Typical Waveforms at Amplitude Detector Inputs 
Pins 1 and 2 of MC75107 




Jh ■ 



(d) 
Amplitude Detector Output 



FIGURE 18 — Receiver Waveforms 



8-16 



ator time constant is controlled by the minimum bit 
time and the system rise time. From equation (8) 



V REF 3.6 - 1.85 



Ru 



2.5 k 



0.7 mA 



4R, C n 



U RSYS 



where T is the minimum bit time and tRcys * s * ;ne 
system rise time. Assuming for now that the system 
rise time, that which is measured at the MC1733 out- 
put is 30 ns worst case, the maximum RC time con- 
stant consistent with a 20 Mbaud bit cell is 



R L c„ 



R,C„ 



T-t„ 



50 ns - 30 ns 



= 5.0 ns 



The values used are 62 pF and 100 fl giving a time 
constant of 6.2 ns. This hedging by 1.2 ns means that 
the required transition height from the MC1733 will 
have to be slightly higher to be detected for transi- 
tions spaced 50 ns apart than they will be if spaced 
by 55 ns or greater. 

The MC75107 line receiver is the amplitude 
detector and Ql and Q5 perform the voltage 
reference and initialize functions, respectively. The 
amplitude detector is basically a high speed 
comparator with positive feedback to perform a 
Schmitt Trigger function. Its output swing is 0.1 to 
3.6 Vdc, limited by the active pullup. With that output 
swing the hystersis is 130 mV. With this output 
swing, the optimum reference voltage is using 
equation (9) 



+ V r 



3.6 V + 0.1 V 



V REF = + 1.85 V 

As was mentioned previously, the 100 fl input bias 
resistors were that low to minimize the voltage step 
at the amplitude detector inputs when the output 
changed state. Similarly, to reduce the step in 
reference voltage when the output switches, the 
current in the reference transistor, Q 1 , has been set to 
4.0 mA and its base to ground impedance (rfo) has 
been lowered to about 360 fl. This makes the voltage 
reference output impedance approximately 



Rn = r. + 



R = 8.9 n 



26 - mA 
4.0 mA 



360 n 
150 



To evaluate the step change in reference voltage 
when the data output changes states, the amount of 
current that the voltage reference, Ql, must source 
and sink must first be found. 



-V n 



R« 



1.85 -0.1 
2.5 k 



= 0.7 mA 



where Rjj is the sum of the feedback resistor and bias 
resistor for the amplitude detector. From Figure 21, 
RH = Rll + RlO = 2.4 k + 100 fl = 2.5 k. Similiarly, 



Thus, the total change in reference current between 
logic states is 1.4 mA. With Rfj = 8.9 fl, the step in VreF 
= 12.5 mV. This step is almost completely a common 
mode signal which is about 0.6% of VreF and thus 
insignificant. The voltage divider formed by the 2.4 k 
hystersis resistor and the 100 fl bias resistor does 
introduce a differential signal of 1/25 of this step in 
reference voltage. Therefore, the differential signal at 
the amplitude detector input resulting from this 
12.5 mV step in VreF is on ly °- 5 mV - Refer to Figure 
18 for typical waveforms at the amplitude detector 
input and output. 

The sensitivity specification on the MC75107 is 
±25 mV over temperature and unit to unit variations. 
It will be noted from Figure 18(c) that the hysteresis 
must be large enough so as to keep the voltage 
difference between the data base line and the 
threshold always greater than 25 mV, including the 
noise peaks, except during transitions. When the 
absolute difference between these two inputs to the 
MC75107 falls below 25 mV, the output state is not 
defined and thus errors can be made. Consequently, 
the hystersis was empirically set to 130 mV to insure 
this 25 mV separation between inputs at all points on 
the waveform. Only when this is accomplished does 
the BER approach 1 * 10~9 or less as was discussed in 
the section on amplitude detectors. 

The initializing circuit, Q5, which does not 
appear on the simplified block diagram of Figure 10, 
merely injects a pulse of approximately 250 ps in 
duration into the amplitude detector during power up 
to insure that the output always turns on to the low 
state in the absense of optical transitions. By pulling 
down on the positive input of the amplitude detector a 
logic high at Pin 4 of the MC75107 is inhibited. After 
the discharge of C 16, the leakage current and depletion 
capacity of the Q5 collector base junction are inconse- 
quential to the performance of the circuit. 

The logic interface, buffer, and line driver 
have been implemented using the other section of the 
MC75107 and Q6. The MC75107 section regenerates 
the TTL level already at Pin 4 but isolates the positive 
feedback from the external loading conditions. Q6 
provides the additional drive required to the 75 fl 
cable used in the test set up. At 20 Mbaud, the shield- 
ing of this lead is essential. Since the error detector 
used provided a 75 fl coaxial interface, RG-59 cable 
was selected. 
Receiver Performance 

Figure 18, once again, shows the typical waveforms 
one should expect at key points in the receiver, as 
well as system rise time and the S/N ratio required 
for good BER performance. 

Figure 15, Curve B, shows the typical BER versus 
S/N at the differentiator input. Curve B represents 
performance that can be expected when amplitude 
detector input offsets and transmitter crosstalk are 
accounted for. Figure 19 relates S/N to optical input 
power for this 20 Mbaud receiver. This curve was 
generated by measuring S/N and then calculating 
backwards from the measured signal level out of the 
MC1733 amplifier through the receiver gain of 
50 mV//iW. 

The dynamic range of the receiver is precisely 
defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the maximum 
usable signal detected to the amplitude of the 



M7 



minimum usable signal detected. There the precision 
ends, however, because what is usable in one applica- 
tion is not in another. The minimum usable signal 
can be picked off of the curve in Figure 19 for what- 
ever S/N is required to achieve the desired BER. The 
maximum usable signal is where distortion gets to 
be prohibitive. Duty cycle distortion versus output 
level of the MC1733 is plotted in Figure 20. 



Dynamic 
Range 



10 log 



70 ,xW 
4.0 u.W 



S/N |dB) 
















































































































































































































































































































































































Pin 



10 10 100 

FIGURE 19 — Signal-to-Noise versus Optical Input Power 



PULSE STRETCHING 
T OF POSITIVE BIT (ns) 
























1 






























1 
Inpu 


= 2 


01 
rn 


Aba 


dNI 


Z 


















t 




1/ 


Patt 


















1 








| 






















j 


' 










' 








'\ 


























{<s 


v 


y 
















































































































































































e (V 



-80 



0.1 10 10 

MCI 733 OUTPUT VOLTAGE (PIN 8) 

FIGURE 20 — Receiver Overload Characteristic 

This curve was measured by simulating high level 
optical inputs with a pulse generator in place of the 
IDP and having equivalent output impedance and 
transition times. The distortion occurs in the MC1733 
output before the IDP overloads and thus this is a 
valid test. The dynamic range can be deduced then by 
dividing the optical input power needed to cause an 
intolerable level of distortion, say 5.0 ns, by the 
optical input power needed to provide the required 
BER, say 1 * 10-9, and taking 10 log of the ratio. To 
find the optical input power that causes overload, 
refer to Figure 20 and divide the output voltage in mV 
by 50 mV/fiW. To find the optical input power 
required for a 1 * 10"9 BER, refer to Figure 15, Curve 
B, and then use that S/N ratio to find optical power 
required from Figure 19. For this example then, the 
dynamic range would be 



12.4 dB 



Dynamic 
Range 

Temperature testing indicated that over the 0°C to 

70°C temperature range, no significant degradations 

in performance occurred. Nominal drifts in detector 

offsets did not cause any significant changes in 

sensitivity. 

BUILDING THE BOARDS 

In building the boards, the last components to be 
inserted should be the optical transducers and mount- 
ing bushings. This will reduce their handling and 
thus the probability of scratching or contaminating 
the optical ports with particles commonly found in 
a work bench environment. 

To begin building the boards, refer to the parts list 
and complete schematic (Figure 21), the component 
overlay (Figure 22) and the photograph of the com- 
pleted board (Figure 27). It is recommended that the 
IC sockets mentioned in the part list be used at least 
on the first pair of boards to allow looking at system 
performance versus tolerances in device parameters 
and to allow for the misfortune of damaging an IC 
during construction. The decoupling chokes should 
be available from Ferroxcube. When installing them, 
care should be taken so as to position them so that the 
turns protruding from the ends of the ferrite are not 
shorted together. When ordering electrolytic 
capacitors to fit the board layout, the approximate 
dimensions on the parts list should be used as a 
guide. Where there is ground foil on the component 
side of the board, care must be used when inserting 
all components so that no leads are shorted to 
ground. 

It will be noted in the schematic of Figure 21 and in 
the parts list, that a shield can is specified for shield- 
ing the receiver optical transducer. This is to pre- 
vent the sensitive receiver input from picking up 
energy radiating from the receivers TTL output as 
well as from the transmitter circuitry. The can part 
number listed must be notched out to fit over the AMP 
mounting bushing and then sweat soldered down to 
the ground foil pattern on the component side of the 
board. Refer to Figure 24 for details of shield prepara- 
tion. Without the shield, there will probably be more 
ringing in the waveform at the detector input and the 
bit error rate will be significantly degraded. To accom- 
modate this shield, capacitor C4 may have to be 
installed on the solder side of the board depending on 
the vintage of the actual board used. Before any 
components are installed, it is recommended that the 
holes for the BNC connectors first be enlarged to a 
0.375 inch diameter and the holes for the +5.0 V, 
-5.0 V, and ground wires be enlarged to about a 0.070 
inch diameter in order to accommodate #18 AWG 
stranded wire. 

After all other components are mounted to the 
PCB, and before the receiver shield is put on, the 
FOAC's and their bushings must be assembled. 

It will be noted that the FOAC, shown in Figure 
23(a), has a flat spot on the circumference of the 
ferrule and this flat spot affords it a stable position 
on the PC board. Therefore, when assembling the 
FOAC and bushing, refer to Figure 23(b), the FOAC 
is first inserted into the connector so that the flat 
spot is facing down toward the PC board. Large 
coupling losses will be encountered if the FOAC is 



8-18 



not seated properly in the bushing. To eliminate the 
uncertainty of whether or not these parts are seated 
properly, the distance between the back of the FOAC 
and plane "A" of the bushing, shown in Figure 23(b), 
can be measured. It should be no greater than 0.130 



inches. The plastic retention plate puts sufficient 
tension on the FOAC's so as to maintain proper 
seating. 

Once the FOAC is properly seated, its leads can be 
formed to fit the foot print on the PC board. The 



RECEIVER SECTION 



^. 





C22 



kn=ii 



9 / 

0.1 v / 



^m 



R19 | 



.i 1 <+5.0 



-<COM 



-<-50V 



-e-<; 



TRANSMITTER SECTION 

Value when optical input is present 
Voltage measurement shown: Receiver Section value when optical input is not present 

-r -~ o .- Value when TTL input is high 

Transmitter Section -^-= ■ „, , v — : — — a 

Value when TTL input is low 



FIGURE 21 — Complete Transceiver Schematic 

8-19 



PARTS LIST 



Reference 
Symbol 

CI, C2. C3. C6, C7, C8, C9, 
C12. C13, C14, C15, C18. C21. 
C22, C27, C28. C29, C30, C31, 
C32 
C5 

C10, C11 

C16, C23 

C4, CI 7, C19. C20, 

C24, C25 

C26 

D1 

D2, D3, D4 

L1, L2. L3. L4, L5, 
L6, L7 

Q1, Q2, Q3, Q5, Q6 
Q4 

R1, R3 

R2 

R4, R5, R8, R12, R16 

R6 

R7 

R9, R10 

R11 

R13 

R17 

R15 

R18, R19 

R20, R25 

R21 

R22 

R23 

R24 

R26 

R27 

U1 
U2 
U3 
U4 



Description 

Capacitors 

1 /if — 3=50 V Ceramic Capacitors, 250" lead spacing, 
MalloryC25C104M101CA 



0.01 /<F — 50 V Disk Ceramic Capacitors, 250" lead spacing, 

290" OD, Sprague UK50-103 
62 pF 5% Dipped Mica Capacitor 

2 0/iF, 25 WVdc — 0.250" OD><9/16" long, Sprague TE-1 201 
25 M F, 25 W Vdc, 0.25" OD « 0.625", Mallory TT25X25B 

100 pF 5% Dipped Mica Capacitor 

Diodes 

MF0E103F, Infrared LED 

1 N914, High-Speed Switching Diode 

Chokes 

Ferroxcube VK200-09/3B 

Transistors 

MPS6515 General-Purpose High-Gain NPN Transistor 
2N4400, Low V(;e ( sa ^ Switching Transistor 
Resistors (1 /4 W, 5%, Carbon composition) 

510 n 
51 n 
i kn 
680 n 
750 n 
100 
2.4 kn 
47 kfl 
2.2 kn 

ioo n 
75 n 
i8on 
330 n 
8.2 n 
39 n 
270 n 
240 n 
12 n 

Integrated Circuits 

SN74LS40B, Dual 4-lnput Buffered NAND Gate 
MFOD402F, Integrated Photodetector Preamp 
MC1733, Wide Band Linear Video Amp 
MC75107, Dual TTL Line Receiver 

Non-Referenced Items 

3 Low Profile IC Sockets, AMP #530177-1 

1 Shield Can, Hudson Tool & Die Co., #HU5655, 0.734" long, steel 

2 BNC Bulkhead Connectors, UG1094/U Female 

2 Active Device Mounting Kits, AMP Part #227240-1 



8-20 




FIGURE 23 — Assembly of the FOAC and Connector 

8-21 



bushing is then fastened down to the PC board using 
the two self-tapping screws included with it, and the 
leads appropriately soldered. See Figure 23(c). 

The bushing, retention plate, self-tapping screws, 
lockwasher, and jam nut are available as kit #227240 
-1 from AMP, Inc. Additional FOAC's i.e., the 
MFOE103F and MFOD402F, are available through 
Motorola distributors. 

Once the MFOD402F is mounted in its bushing 
and the assembly is mounted on the PC board, the 
shield can be mounted over the receiver front end. 
The cover specified in the parts list must be notched 
as shown in Figure 24 in order to fit over the AMP 
bushing. Once it is notched it can be sweat soldered 
at the corners to the component side ground foil pro- 
vided for this purpose. 

If more printed circuit boards are required, it should 
be kept in mind that the PC layout with its bus ground 
structure and component side shielding is an integral 
part of the circuit. Any deviation from this layout 
can be expected to cause changes in isolation 
between the receiver TTL output and the receiver 
input as well as between the transmitter and receiver. 
Figure 30 shows the full size artwork which can be 
used to make a photomaster in order to duplicate the 
boards. 

The artwork shown is positive with the emulsion side 
down so that a photo negative of this should provide 
the proper photomaster. Alignment of the two photo- 
masters can be achieved by drilling through the 
photomasters and the board at the hole locations 
for the optical connector mounting screws and the 
+5.0 V and the -5.0 V power connection pads. 



T 



Hudson Tool and Die 
#HU5655 



^ 




-T 



0.030- 



0350 
0500- 



o o 

' UTTT 



FIGURE 24 — Shield Preparation 



TESTING THE BOARDS 

To test the completed boards to their full capability, 
the following equipment is required: 

1. One known-good 1 meter fiber of 200 /um core 
(See Figure 28 for suggested types). 

2. Tektronix 475 oscilloscope or equivalent with 
two 10X, 7.0 pF probes. 



3. Two compliments of power supplies each con- 
sisting of: 

1-HP 6205 dual power supply, or equivalent, 

for ± 5.0 V 
1-HP 6218A power supply, or equivalent, 

for +15 V 

4. One Tektronix 6042 DC to 50 MHz current 
probe, or equivalent 

5. One HP 3780A Pattern Generator/Error 
Detector, or equivalent 

6. One E.H. Research Labs Model 139 Pulse 
Generator, or equivalent 

7. One Wavetek Model 142 Function Generator, 
or equivalent 

8. Assorted RG-59 coaxial cables, 1-4 ft. long, 
and two 75 (1 BNC terminations 

9. DC Multimeter General Purpose type 100 kfl/ 
volt or greater 

10. Two system fibers (see section on System 
Performance) 

11. One Photodyne Model 22 XL Optical Power 
meter, or equivalent 

If the two boards in the kit are built correctly, 
and connected as shown in Figure 25, with appropri- 
ate lengths of the system fiber chosen, then a 1 x 1 _ 9 
BER or better should be measurable in both direc- 
tions. 

It must be kept in mind that this receiver is 
sensitive to electrical signal variations at the inter- 
face to the electro/optic transducer, regardless of 
their source. Because of this, the unshielded 
receiver is sensitive to EMI. 

Before any attempt at measuring system per- 
formance is made, each module should be given 
a cursory check by comparing dc voltage levels to 
those typical dc voltages shown on the schematic in 
Figure 21. 
CAUTION 

An inadvertent short from the LED 

cathode or Q2 collector to ground will 

place a momentary 5.0 V of forward 

bias across the LED and DESTROY IT. 

Care should be taken in probing this 

portion of the circuit. Probing the collector 

of Q3 rather than Q2 will provide an 

indication of proper switching without 

the danger of shorting the LED. 

If meaningful BER measurements are to be made, 

either a shielded enclosure for the receiver or a 

shielded environment such as a screen room will be 

required. The latter enables lower bit error rates to be 

measured because it allows the pattern generator/ 

error detector which is also sensitive to EMI and line 

transients to be shielded as well. 

If the above BER performance is not achieved, then 
some troubleshooting must be done. Each module 
should be first checked out individually by looping a 
transmitter back to its own receiver with the 
known-good 1 meter fiber. The testing sequence listed 
below can be used. 

TROUBLE SHOOTING TEST 
SEQUENCE 

1. Test Module A in loop mode with 1 meter fiber. If 
data output is good proceed to Step 2. If bad, 
follow module troubleshooting tree to locate 
problem and retest. 

2. Test Module B in loop mode with 1 meter fiber. If 
data output is good, proceed to Step 3. If bad, 
follow module troubleshooting tree to locate 
problem and then retest. 



8-22 



Pattern Generator 
Error Detector 



,_ -a J? ;> * 
» S. O o -J c 
o> Jr ra u — 

r a) ra — i x _i 

h DQU1UU 



4|S- 



Pulse 
Generator 



TEK475 
> Channel 1 



T 

<75 Trigger 

1 Input 

""Channel rWVO- 
? 2 — 75 



RG59/U 



Data 
""•- Input 
_r- Data 
j 1- Output 



Data 
Output pH 
Data 
Input 



FIGURE 25 — BER Test Setup 



RECEIVER OUTPUT 
Check for data 



Link Operating 



Check MC1733 outputs 
for rf500 mVpp. See 
Figure 18. 



500 mVpp 



© 



Check MC75107 circuitry 
(Hyst. = 130 mV). 



Check MC1733 input ui 
Pin #14 for >10 mVpp. 



10 mVpp 



Check MCI 733 circuitry 



Check MFOD402F ouput 
for 0.7 Vdc. 



Check insertion depth of 

MFOD402F. 

See Figure 23(b). 



s£0.130in. 



Measure fiber exit power 
See exit power table 



£0.7 Vdc 


Check orientation and pin outs 
of ferrule Replace if required 








--0.130 


Unsolder leads, loosen connector 
from PC board Push MFOD402F 
all the way in. 


in 






SPe 


Check optical port of the MFOD402F 
for visible damage or contamination 





Test Module A in loop mode with system fiber A. 
Examine recovered signal at MC1733 Pin 8. 
Amplitude should be ^ 500 mVpp. If not, enter 
module troubleshooting tree at Box #3. 
Test Module A in loop mode with system fiber B. 
Examine recovered signal at MC1733 Pin 8. 
Amplitude should be 3; 500 m Vpp. If not, system 
fiber B exhibits too much loss. 
Test Module B with system fiber B. Examine 
recovered signal at MC1733 Pin 8. Amplitude 
should be ^ 500 mVpp. If not, enter module 
troubleshooting tree at Box #3. 
With both modules working and both system 
fibers functioning, retest duplex link in con- 
figuration shown in Figure 25. 



EXIT POWER TABLE 



FIBER CORE 
DIAMETER 


EXIT POWER 
REQUIRED (Pel 


150 M m 
200 M m 
250 |im 
400 M m 


10jiW 
16/iW 
25 M W 
63 M W 



Check LED current 
waveform 



Check orientation of 
MFOE103Fand leads 



Trace signal back to TTL 
input 



Check insertion depth 
of the MFOE103F 
See Figure 23(b). 



Re-orient MFOE103F 



Check optical ports 
for damage or 
contamination 



Unsolder leads, loosen 
connector and reinsert 



System fiber 
exhibits too 
much less. 



FIGURE 26 — Module Troubleshooting Tree 



8-23 




FIGURE 27 — The Completed Transceiver 



SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 

Before system performance is calculated, the ele- 
ments of system loss will be reviewed. (Refer to 
Figure 28.) 



LcM is clad mode loss which reflects the portion of 
the LED's measured output that exits from the clad 
of the FOAC and is essentially unusable. 




System Fiber 



Alignment Loss (La e ) 
Reflective Loss (Lr) 
Clad Mode Loss (L cm ) 



\ 



Attenuation Loss 
(U 




Alignment Loss (LaJ 
Reflective Loss (Lr ) 



I 

Diameter Loss (Ld) 

Numerical Aperture Loss (L NA ) 

FIGURE 28 — Components of Loss Budget 

8-24 



Lj) is the diameter loss which is the portion of light 
lost when the system fiber has a different core diame- 
ter than the 200 »M core of the FOAC. 
LAE an d LAD are the alignment losses at the emit- 
ter and detector respectively due to mechanical 
tolerances of the connector and ferrule. 
Lr is the reflective loss at the interface between two 
fiber ends. 

LNA is the NA loss incurred when the system fiber 
NA, which is a function of fiber length, is different 
from the NA of the FOAC. 

La is the signal attenuation loss due to the attenua- 
tion of the fiber per unit length. 
These loss components will be evaluated in a sample 
calculation using Maxlight MSC200B fiber. 

First, the clad mode loss has been measured experi- 
mentally. For very short systems using 200 /*M core 
fibers or systems having fiber core diameters of 
250 nM or more, the clad mode loss would be ignored 
since light exiting the clad of the FOAC would be 
usable. In most systems, however, this is not the case. 
Therefore, the power out of the LED must be reduced 
by 5% which is the amount of the FOAC output that 
exits from the clad. Therefore, the clad mode loss 
is given by: 



L CM = 10 1og(- 



-) = 10 log (- 



(0-95 P> 



L CM = 0.2 dB 

L]), or diameter loss, is proportional to the relative 
cross sectional areas of the system fiber core and the 
FOAC core. If the system fiber is of a smaller core 
diameter than the FOAC, the diameter loss will be 
incurred at the emitter/fiber interface. If the system 
fiber is of a larger core diameter than the FOAC, the 
diameter loss will be incurred at the fiber/detector 
interface. The loss across this type of diameter step is 
given by: 



L D = 10 log ( 



larger diameter 
smaller diameter 



) 2 



for MSC200B fiber, 

200 y.m 
L D = 0.0 dB 

L/^, or alignment loss, is incurred at each inter- 
connect whether that is between two fibers, a fiber 
and a FOAC, or two FOAC's. It is due to finite toler- 
ances in the mechanical dimensions of the mounting 
bushing, the ferrule, and the FOAC. These tolerances 
allow some axial and angular misalignment as well 
as some longitudinal tip to tip separation between 
the fiber and the FOAC. Measurements indicate that 
this loss component is typically 2 dB at the emitter/ 
fiber interface and 1 dB at the detector/fiber inter- 
face. The reason it is less at the receive end is that the 
cone of light exiting the fiber subtends a smaller solid 
angle than the cone of light exiting the LED FOAC. 
Therefore, the fiber/detector interface is more 
tolerant of longitudinal tip to tip separation. Thus, 
the values of alignment loss are: 

Lap = 2 dB 



Lr, the reflective loss, is due to the loss of light incur- 
red by the reflection off of the surface of the fiber 
core at both the emitter and detector interfaces. These 
losses amount to about 0.5 dB for each interface. 
However, where the IDP is used as the photo detector 
component, its transfer function in mV per jiW 
already includes the reflective loss at its optical port, 
so that a receiver sensitivity calculation includes 
this loss. Therefore, with that type of detector the 
reflective loss need only be accounted for at the 
emitter interface. With other detectors, namely the 
PIN photo diode, photo transistor, or photo darling- 
ton, reflective loss has to be accounted for at both 
ends of the system. For this system using the IDP 
then, 

Lr = 0.5 dB 

LNA is the loss incurred when light emitted from 
an LED or fiber subtends a larger solid angle then the 
acceptance cone of the mating fiber or detector. If the 
LED source has a numerical aperture (NA) larger 
than the NA of the system fiber, then the loss will 
occur at the LED end of the system. If on the other 
hand the system fiber has an NA larger than the 
LED and photo detector, then all of the light emitted 
by the LED will be accepted by the system fiber 
but the NA loss will occur at the fiber/detector 
interface. 

A complicating facet of NA loss is that fiber NA 
decreases as fiber length increases and each fiber 
has a different characteristic. Some fiber manufac- 
turers plot it as a function of length and others 
specify it only at a kilometer. Some fibers have a slow 
variation of NA over path length and others appar- 
ently vary exponentially. The path length must be 
known so that the fiber NA can be defined by the 
fiber manufacturer. Once the NA is defined, the NA 
loss can be calculated from: 



10 log ( 



larger NA 
smaller NA 



The N A's used here are the 10% intensity N A's for the 
FOAC and fiber. The 10% NA's provide much closer 
correlation to measured results than do the 50% NA's. 
This formula is based on certain assumptions and 
provides a good first order approximation to the 
actual NA loss. In this example, the component of 
NA loss will be left undefined until later. 

Next, L a ,the signal attenuation loss, is merely the 
product of the cable attenuation factor in dB per unit 
length and the path length needed. It is expressed by: 



dB 



(a in ) • ( 2 in meters) 



For MSC200B fiber, the attenuation factor is typi- 
cally 18 dB/KM. 

Finally, the last component of the loss budget is the 
system gain margin. This is the amount of excess 
signal desired at the receiver input. Some amount of 
signal above sensitivity level should be supplied to 
the receiver to insure that the system still performs 
well through out the LED aging and expected varia- 
tions in ambient conditions. For this example a gain 
margin of 3 dB will be assumed. That is: 



ldB 



GM = 3 dB 



8-25 



The sum of all of these loss components is the 
system loss budget. That is: 



Loss Budget = L.B. = L CM + L D + L A 
l re + Lrd + l na + K + GM 

For MSC200B fiber then: 

L.B. = 0.2 dB + dB + 2 dB + 1 dB + 
dB + L v . + L + 3 dB 



+ L a 



0.5 dB + 



L.B. 



6.7 dB + L N , + L„ 



This loss budget must now be compared to the differ- 
ence in power levels between the transmitter output 
power and the receiver minimum input power. This 
difference in power levels is called system gain. If the 
loss budget exceeds this system gain then there is no 
excess system gain and the desired performance can- 
not be obtained. Either a shorter path length must be 
used or less Gain Margin must be specified or the 
transmitter output power or receiver input sensitivity 
must be increased. If, on the other hand, the loss 
budget doesn't exceed the system gain, then there 
will be excess system gain and the desired perfor- 
mance will be obtained. 

The output power of the transmitter described here 
can be taken from the MFOE103F data sheet. At 
100 mA, the typical output power is 125 jiW. Refer- 
enced to 1 mW, this is -9.0 dBm. The receiver input 
sensitivity is defined by the measure of BER per- 
formance required. From Figure 15, curve B, a S/N 
ratio of about 30 dB is required for a BER of 1 * 10-9. 
From Figure 19, a S/N ratio of 30 dB requires an 
optical input power of 4 pW. Referenced to 1 mW, this 
is -24.0 dBm. Therefore, the system gain is: 



9 dBm- (-24 dBm) 



= 15 dB 



If a specific path length is known, the NA loss and 
signal attenuation loss can be evaluated. For 
example, assume 100 feet or 31 meters is the desired 
path length. From the Maxlight MSC200B data sheet, 



at 31 meters, the NA = 0.40. 



therefore, from eq. (13) L NA = 10 log (- 



0.63 
0.40 



L NA = 3.9 dB 

It will be noted that 0.63 was used for the NA of the 
FOAC. This is the 10% NA which, as explained 
earlier, must be used in this formula. What appears 
on the present MFOE103F data sheet is the 50% NA 
of 0.48. Use of this 50% N A will give erroneous results 
for the NA loss. Now that LnA has been evaluated, 
L a can be determined. 

L a =-- (18 dB/kM) • (0.031 kM) 
L a = 0.6 dB 

Now the loss budget for this fiber is found using 
equation (14). 

L.B. = 6.7 dB + 3.9 dB + 0.6 dB 
L.B. = 11.2 dB 



Now the excess system gain can be found. It is 
given by: 

A G sys = G sys ~ LB 

For this 31 meter system, 

AG SVS = 15 dB - 11.2 dB 

A G svs = 3.8 dB 

Since A G svs is a positive number, the system will 
perform better than expected. If A G S y S were zero, 
the system would perform as expected with typical 
connectors and components. If A G svs were negative, 
the system would not have performed as expected or 
may not have performed at all if A G svs were a large 
negative number. 

Since a A G svs was positive, that 3.8 dB of excess 
system gain can be spent in a variety of ways. One 
way is that the fiber path length can be increased 
by an amount which will cause LnA pl us L Q to 
increase the loss budget by 3.8 dB. Another way is 
that a splice can be inserted in the system fiber path 
which will use up about 2.5 dB of the 3.8 dB. A third 
way of spending the 3.8 dB of excess system gain is to 
reduce LED current until the P drops 3.8 dB and 
thereby increase LED reliability. Or the 3.8 dB can be 
left unspent and allowed to provide extra gain 
margin for less susceptibility to disruption of com- 
munications. 

In this example the path length was known and 
the loss budget was easily calculated in order to 
determine excess system gain. Very often the path 
length is the unknown and the maximum path 
length is what needs to be determined. In this case a 
re-iterative calculation is necessary. This is done by 
assuming a path length such as the length that has 
been calculated already and then calculating the 
A G svs . If A G S y S turns out to be positive, as in this 
example, the fiber length can be increased until the 
Lna ar >d L a increase by an amount equal to A G S y S 
according to the fiber manufacturers plots of N A and 
L a vs. length. If on the other hand this guess at path 
length yields a negative A G S y S , then the length 
should be reduced until the sum of Lna ar >d L a is 
reduced by an amount equal to A G sys . Once this 
second guess at fiber length has been made, a recal- 
culation of A G S y S is made and should be much 
closer to zero. When A G S y S is essentially zero, then 
that path length is L\JAX- 

For example, since a 31m length of MSC200B fiber 
yielded a A G S y S of 3.8 dB, a second guess of path 
length of 200 m will be made in order to find L^AX- 
When the length is increased from 33 m to 200 m, the 
NA drops from 0.40 to 0.36 according to the fiber data 
sheets. That means the new value of Lna i s: 



""-W" 



4.9 dB 



The signal attenuation loss is also increased to: 
L a = (18 dB/kMo) • (0.2 kM) = 3.6 dB 

Therefore, the new loss budget using equation 14 is: 
L.B. = 6.7 dB + 4.9 dB + 3.6 dB = 15.2 dB 



8-26 



Using equation 15, the excess system gain for 200 
meters is: 

A G sys = 15 dB - 15.2 dB 

A G sys = - 0.2 dB 

That is 200 meters is slightly longer than the 
maximum path length that will provide the desired 
performance. Reducing this new path length suf- 
ficiently to reduce the loss budget by 0.2 dB will 
cause an insignificant decrease in Lj^A- Therefore, 
this 0.2 dB can be spent by shortening the system 
by approximately: 



a e = 



0.2 dB 
18 dB/kM 



= 11m 



In other words, with Maxlight MSC200B fiber and 
typical characteristics for connectors, transmitter 
and receiver, the maximum path length that will 
allow 1 x 10 _ 9 BER performance with a 3 dB gain 
margin is: 

Lway = 189 meters 



fiber in response to a sub-nanosecond wide pulse 
being launched into the fiber. Since the pulse exiting 
the fiber is Gaussian in shape, the 10%-90% rise time 
is about 72% of this 50% pulse width. Therefore, if the 
short system rise time of this 20-Mbaud system is 
30 ns, the rise time of the fiber for less than 10% 
degradation due to modal dispersion is: 



f 



,..,„«>* llt «s 



(30 ns) 2 + (t Kf - lbH ) 2 * 1-1 (30 ns) 



900 ns 2 + (tR flbcr ) 2 ^ 1089 ns 2 
(t Kfibe ,)* ^ 189 ns 2 
tK.u... * 13.7 ns 



The length of PC-10 which will cause this much deg- 
radation is given by: 



Figure 29 summarizes similar calculations for a 
variety of other fibers. 

All of these calculations assume that the system 
under consideration is attentuation limited. But 
there is another limitation relating to the maximum 
data rate that can be transmitted over a given dis- 
tance. The source of this limitation is a transit time 
phenomenon of fiber propagation called modal 
dispersion. 

Because of the relatively short system path 
lengths summarized in Figure 28, modal dispersion 
is not a factor in these systems. At what path length 
modal dispersion in a particular fiber begins to 
degrade system rise time can be calculated if the pulse 
spreading specification or dispersion for the fiber is 
known. For example, Valtec PC-10 has a pulse 
broadening specification of 40 ns/km. This represents 
the pulse width at the 50% points of a pulse exiting the 



t K , t (ns) = (0.72) (Dispersion-; — )x (length) 
K f,ber km 



length 



length 



0.72(Disp) 



km 



13.7 ns 



0.72 (40 ns/km) 



= 476 meters 



In other words, if a 10% degradation in system per- 
formance is all that is tolerable and improvements in 
this 20-Mbaud system extend the use of PC-10 to 
beyond 476 meters, then 476 meters will remain as 
the maximum allowable path length. The system will 
no longer be attenuation limited but will now be dis- 
persion limited. 





Maxlight 


Seicor 


Valtec 1 


Valtec 1 


DuPont 1 


DuPont 1 


Fiber/System Parameters 


MSC200B 


155 


PC-08 


PC-10 


PIR 140 


S-120 Type 30 


Fiber Core Diameter 


200 urn 


200 (xm 


200 (im 


250 nm 


368 (im 


200 (im 


Clad Mode Loss (Lcm) 


0.2 dB 


0.2 dB 


0.2 dB 


0.0 dB 


0.0 dB 


0.2 dB 


Diameter Loss (Ld) 


0.0 dB 


0.0 dB 


0.0 dB 


1.9 dB 


5.3 dB 


0.0 dB 


Alignment Loss (Lae + Lad) 


3.0 dB 


3.0 dB 


3.0 dB 


0.5 dB 


0.5 dB 


3.0 dB 


Reflective Loss (Lr) 


0.5 dB 


0.5 dB 


0.5 dB 


0.5 dB 


0.5 dB 


0.5 dB 


(Using IDP) 














Loss Budget (L.B.'I without Lna 


6.7 dB 


6.7 dB 


6.7 dB 


5.9 dB 


9.3 dB 


6.7 dB 


or L„ including 3 dB G.M. 














Fiber NA (<• C max 


0.36 


0.40 


0.38 


0.38 


0.44 


0.38 


NA Loss (Lna) 


4.9 dB 


3.9 dB 


4.4 dB 


4.4 dB 


3.1 dB 


4.4 dB 


Allowable Attenuation Loss (L„) 


3.4 dB 


4.4 dB 


3.9 dB 


4.7 dB 


2.6 dB 


3.9 dB 


(15 dB — LB.' — Lna) 














Fiber Attenuation Factor (a) 


18dBkM 


35 dB kM 


70 dB kM 


70 dB/kM 


950 dB/kM 


95 dB/kM 


Maximum Path Length ( £ max ) 


189 m 


126 m 


55 m 


67 m 


2.7 m 


41 m 



1 Calculations for this fiber are based on measured NA versus length data which is available from the fiber manufacturer but is as 
yet unpublished. 

FIGURE 29 — Maximum Path Length Calculations with 15 dB of System Gain 



8-27 




(b) Component Side 
FIGURE 30 — Printed Circuit Artwork 



8-28 



SUMMARY 

The fiber optic data link described herein is quite 
versatile. With a TTL interface, no data format con- 
straints, 0-20 Mbaud capability, and full duplex 
operation, it can be inserted into almost any system 
as a transparent link for the purpose of evaluating the 
contribution of fiber optics to improved system per- 
formance. In addition, it can be configured as a sim- 
plex optical repeater by strapping the receiver data 
output to the transmitter data input. 

This application note has also introduced the 
reader to the Motorola Fiber Optic Active Component, 
or FOAC, and some of the mechanical and optical 
considerations involved in its proper use. The 
necessary functional blocks as well as some of the de- 
sirable characteristics of an optical data transmitter 



and receiver have also been discussed. The text and 
waveform diagrams dealing with signal detection 
schemes should offer insight into whether or not edge 
coupling is appropriate for a particular application. 
The data shown here on transmitter, receiver, and 
system performance was generated from measure- 
ments on two units in a system. It should be con- 
sidered typical performance and normal variations 
around these values should be expected. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The author would like to acknowledge the labora- 
tory assistance of John Toney in gathering data and 
generating several inter a tions of printed circuit 
board design. 



8-29 



AN-804 



APPLICATIONS OF FERRULED COMPONENTS 
TO FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM 



Prepared By: 
Horst Gempe 



THE MOTOROLA FERRULED LED 
Construction and Optical Characteristics 

This device is constructed by assembling an infrared 
light emitting diode (LED) in a package suitably confi- 
gured to mate with and become an integral part of a fiber 



optic connector. This active connector concept is illus- 
trated in Figure 1(a). The ferruled semiconductor and its 
exploded view are illustrated in Figures 1(b) and 1(c). 



Threaded Cable 
Connector Assembly 





Clad Fiber Light Guide 



TO-18 Header 



Press On 
Retention Plate 




r «_ Highly Polished 
Fiber Tip 



Index Matching 
Epoxy 



Semiconductor Emitter 
(c) or Detector 



FIGURE 1 — Motorola Fiber Optic Active Component (FOAC) 

(a) Package/Connector Concept 

(b) External View of FOAC 

(c) Exploded View of FOAC 



8-30 



A depiction of the light emission pattern of the LED 
is shown in Figure 2. The fiher cladding carries less than 
five percent of the total output power since most clad 
modes are ahsorbed by the high index of refraction epoxy. 



Low Order Mod 
Ra 



Epoxy 




High Order Mode 
Ray 



Fiber Cladding 



Clad Mode Ray 

Absorbed by 

Epoxy 



FIGURE 2 — Light Ray Patterns in FOAC LED 



The core carries high- and low-order modes with the 
distribution of total energy as shown in Figure 3. The 
presence of high-order modes makes the effective nu- 
merical aperture (NA) greater than would be found for 
a fiber length longer than about one meter. 



0.9 

08 
0.7 
















(1 


S ,n-1 


NA 
















2 














































0.5 
04 
03 


















































































01 






















^h 










MOdB 



























1 ^ 



50' 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 

iu, Angle From Peak Axis 



FIGURE 3 — Light Emission Pattern for FOAC LED 



Measurement of Output Power 

There are several methods currently in use for meas- 
uring the output of F O sources. 

The integrating sphere method shown in Figure 4 col- 
lects the power radiated from the source in all directions 
and directs it to the silicon detector cell of a radiometer. 
It is the most repeatable technique of measurement since 
it is effectively independent of geometry. However, since 
it is not sensitive to the NA of the source, it does not 
enable the user to predict the amount of the measured 
power that can be coupled from the source into a fiber. 



Diffuse White Surface 




FIGURE 4 — Integrating Sphere/Radiometer Measurement 
Method 

The barrel method, Figure 5. simulates the condition 
of coupling into a fiber. Only the power that passes 
through the aperture is measured. Repeatability re- 
quires exact duplication of the aperture size, the distance 
between the source and the silicon cell, and the accurate 
positioning of the source orthogonal to the direction be- 
tween source and cell. 



'-=* 



FOAC 
LED 



t 



^ 



Jfc 



Aperture 



FIGURE 5 — Barrel/Radiometer Measurement System 

As an example of measurement difference between the 
integrating sphere and barrel methods, a device was 
measured under like-drive conditions in the integrating 
sphere of a PhotoResearch PR 1000 Radiometer and a 
barrel tvpe Photodyne Radiometer. The results are given 
in Table I. 



Measurement Method 


MFOE102F Measured Power 


Integrating Sphere (PR 1000) 
Barrel (Photodyne) 


73 microwatts 
67 microwatts 



For the MFOE102F (NA = 0.7) the correction factor 
between the barrel and the integrating sphere is 0.91. 
Devices with smaller NAs will have a correction factor 
approaching 1.0. 



8-31 



THE MOTOROLA FERRULED DETECTOR 
Construction and Optical Characteristics 

The detector members of the FOAC family utilize the 
same construction as the LED. Again, because of the 
short length of the fiber in the ferrule, the effective NA 
is larger than found for longer sections of the same type 
of fiber. The angular response for the detector is similar 
to the emission pattern for the LED, Figure 6. 



1 i BC 



0.1 


50° 40° 30° 20° 10° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50 

<u. Angle From Peak Axis 

FIGURE 6 — Light Response Pattern for FOAC Detector 

Measurement of Responsivity 

The response of the detectors is given in output volt- 
age or current per unit of optical power coupled into the 
detector's input port. It does not include losses (see Fres- 
nel and connector losses later in this bulletin) between 
the power source and the input port since these are a 
function of each individual system's variables. 

The FOAC detector responsivity is measured by con- 
necting a FOAC LED to a one meter length of fiber that 
is connected to a simulated detector ferrule, see Figure 
7. The power launched from the simulated ferrule is 
measured in an integrating sphere, and is a true measure 
of the actual power coupled into a ferrule detector. The 
power measured by the sphere/radiometer is recorded. 













N 


V 


o 


= sirrl 


NA 














\ 


2 


















\ 
































































































































S\+- 








. 










J^V. 


r*^ 
















"1 ^ 



Integrating 
Sphere 



FOAC 
LED 



Fiber Cable 



3*1 



/ 

Simulated 
Detector 
Ferrule 




| Radiometer | 



FIGURE 7 — Calibration of Light Source for Detector 
Responsivity Measurement 

The detector to be measured is then connected to the 
fiber in place of the simulated ferrule, Figure 8, and the 
output voltage or current is noted. The responsivity for 
the detector is taken as the ratio of the output voltage 
or current to the power as measured by the integrating 
sphere. 



FOAC 
LED 



^v 



Fiber Cable 



oT^ 



vo 



FOAC 
Detector 



FIGURE 8 — Detector Responsivity Measurement 

OPTICAL FIBERS 

To calculate the total losses for a system, it is impor- 
tant to know and understand the parameters of the 
system fiber. The two most critical parameters are: 

1. Output NA of the fiber 

2. Fiber attenuation 

Output NA of a Fiber 

The output NA of a fiber is a function of its length, as 
shown in Figure 9. Most fiber manufacturers specify NA. 
If it is not available for a particular fiber, it can be meas- 
ured as shown later in this bulletin. 



I 0.5 
I 
t 0.4 























Source N/ 


Hill 

= 0.7 
































\ 


= 900 nM 



















































































































































































































0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100 

Fiber Length (Meters) 

FIGURE 9 — NA versus Length for a Sample Fiber 

Fiber Attenuation 

The attenuation characteristic of a fiber is usually 
specified in dB per meter or dB per kilometer. If it is 
given as a single value, the manufacturer will specify 
the wavelength of measurement. Usually the attenua- 
tion is given graphically as a function of wavelength. 
Figure 10 shows several examples. The specified atten- 
uation does not contain losses due to N A changes, since 



0,000 






















































































































































1,000 






















































































































































100 
























































































































10 










































































































































in 































400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1, 

Wavelength (nMI 
FIGURE 10 — Attenuation versus Wavelength for Several 
Fibers 



8-32 



it is usually measured with a very narrow angle (small 
NA) source. In many applications, the NA of the 
system source is greater than the NA of the system 
fiber. This means additional loss is incurred which will 
have to be added to the total attenuation loss when 
calculating a system flux budget. 

THE MEASUREMENT OF NA 
Source NA 

The measurement of NA for an LED source can be 
made as shown in Figure 11(a). The power from the 
source is measured by a silicon cell 'radiometer through 
a very small aperture. The peak power level is measured 
and recorded. The source is rotated and the angle be- 
tween the two points at which the power level drops to 
one tenth the peak power level i - 10 dBi is noted. Sig- 
nifying this angle as O, the source NA is calculated: 



NA (source) = sin (() 2) 



(1) 



Detector NA 

The NA for a detector is measured in a similar ar- 
rangement, see Figure 11(b). The silicon cell radiometer 
is replaced by a stable light source. The peak detector 
response is measured and recorded, and the angle be- 
tween the two points at which the response is one tenth 
the peak i - 10 dB) is noted. Again signifying this angle 
as O: 



NA (detector) = sin (O 2) 



(2) 



*^ ir 




FIGURE 11 — NA Measurement 

(al For FOAC LED 

!b) For FOAC Detector 

(cl For Fiber 



Fiber NA 

If the NA of a fiber is not known, it can be measured. 
The fiber to be tested is terminated in standard cable 
connectors (AMP Part #530954). One end of the fiber to 
be measured is connected to a FOAC LED. The other end 
of the fiber is directed at a silicon cell/radiometer, Figure 
11(c). The peak power level from the fiber is recorded. 
The end of the fiber is then rotated and the angle between 
the points at which the power level is one tenth the peak 
( - 10 dBi is noted. Again, using this angle, O: 

NA (fiber) = sin <0'2) (3) 

CONNECTOR LOSSES 

There are a variety of losses that can occur in the 
interconnections in a system. These are: 
NA loss 
Diameter loss 
Gap loss 

Axial misalignment loss 
Fresnel loss 
Angular loss 



Diam 1 



* 




FIGURE 12 — NA Loss 

NA Loss 

It was shown earlier that presence of high order modes 
in the FOAC LED give it an effective NA higher than 
a long length of the same type of fiber, Figure 9. As 
shown in Figure 12, the difference in the two areas of 
the spatial patterns represents lost power due to different 
NAs. The magnitude of this loss is given by: 



NA Loss = 20 log (NA1 NA2) 



(4) 



Note that in the case of coupling from a small N A fiber 
to a larger NA fiber, no energy is lost due to NA differ- 
ence so that the loss in equation 4 becomes zero. (Ex- 
ample: coupling from a system fiber into a FOAC 
detector i 

Diameter Loss 

If two fibers of different diameters are coupled, an ad- 
ditional loss may be incurred. It is given by: 

Diameter Loss = 20 log (DiaLDia2) (5) 

Again, if the receiving fiber has a diameter greater 
than the source fiber, Figure 12, the diameter loss re- 
duces to zero. 



8-33 



FIGURE 14(c) 



Gap Loss 

Ideally, two fibers would be joined such that no gap 
exists between them. In practice a small gap is inten- 
tionally introduced to prevent mechanical damage to the 
fiber surfaces. The Motorola FOAC devices and AMP 
connector bushings are designed to hold this gap to about 
0.1 mm. The result of variations in the gap for several 
sample NAs is given in Figure 13. 































1.78 — 

f / 






| 


M 


— 










0.70 ' 






A\ 


*- i 








/ 


/ 


/ 


0.50 














// 




/ 














/ 


/ 


/ 
















/A 


/ 
















/< 


y 






NA = 0.32 








,i 


p 


s 
















A 


>- 



















0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.E 

d. Gap (mm) 

FIGURE 13 — Gap Loss 

Axial Misalignment Loss 

If two connected fibers are not concentric there will be 
an obvious loss of power. The effect of this misalignment 
for several NAs is shown in Figures 14(a), 14(b), and 
14(c). The effect of gap separation is also included in 
these graphs. 

FIGURE 14(a) 

5.0 



. 0.25 . 




























































0.2 


































*/ 




r*" d 


0.15 














|h 


r 


















, T 














NAIS 


ource) 


= 0.7 




_<J = c 


mm. 







































0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 
I, Misalignment (mm) 



















FIGURE14(b) 






























































-^ 


'tis 


^ 




0.25 














■^ 


# 
















^\s 


^ 








0.2 










"^ 


y 


r 








0.15 








^ 


'/ 


r 










0.1 










r 


























VA (Sou 


ce) = ( 


5 


n 


d = o 


mm. 



















0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 
I, Misalignment (mm) 

























0.25 




















' 0.20 




















/ ," s 


















// 


0.1 




















d = 


= o mm 


































































NA (Source) = 0.32 


"^. 





















0.01 0.02 0.03 



0.04 0.05 0.06 
I, Misalignment (mm) 



FIGURE 14 — Misalignment Loss 

Fresnel Loss 

As light passes through any interface, some energy is 
transmitted and some reflected. The amount of energy 
lost is a function of the indices of refraction of the ma- 
terials forming the interface. For the FOAC family of 
devices and glass core fibers this loss is a fairly consistent 
0.2 dB per interface. 

Angular Loss 

If the surfaces of the two connected fiber ends are not 
parallel, an additional loss is incurred. The magnitude 
of this is shown in Figure 15. 

FLUX BUDGET 

Once the various losses in a system have been iden- 
tified and quantified, it is a relatively simple exercise to 
calculate the total system loss and thus predict system 
performance. To illustrate this, and to highlight a major 
loss element in systems, two examples will be considered. 
In each case an MFOE102F LED is used for the source 
and an MFOD102F PIN diode as the detector. System 
A uses a 50 meter length of cable, while system B uses 
two 50 meter lengths joined by a fiber/fiber splice. 





















































































































0.5 























































































2° 3° 

, Angular Displacement 




FIGURE 15 — Angular Loss 



8-34 



System A Flux Budget 

System A is shown in Figure 16. A proper flux budget 
should consider all significant losses. These include: 

1. Connector losses: gap. misalignment and Fresnel 
(angular losses are usually quite small so the very 
low loss that results will be ignored). 

2. Numerical aperture loss 

3. Fiber attenuation 

4. Diameter loss — the two systems being analyzed 
will use the same diameter fiber throughout so that 
diameter loss can be considered to be zero 

The following specifications apply: 

MFOE102F: P, ( - 125 >jlW «, 100 mA 
NA (10 dB effective i - 0.7 
Core diameter - 200 u.M 
Wavelength - 900 n.M 

MFOD102F: R - 0.4 |jlA \x\X «, 900 nM 
NA (10 dB effective i - 0.7 
Core diameter - 200 ijlM 
I(dark) 2.0 nA «> 25 C 

Fiber: Length 50 M 

Attenuation - 25 dB Km << 900 nM. 

Figure 10 
NA «, 50 M ■- 0.32 
Core diameter - 200 p.M 

Connectors: Gap - 0.15 mm typical 

Misalignment 0.05 mm typical 



Connector 
Bushing 



tfe 



50 Meter Cable 



FOAC 

LED 

MFOE102F 



FOAC 
Detector 



FIGURE 16 — 50 Meter F/O System 

The total system loss can now be calculated: 

LED to Fiber Connector Loss. Figure I4'a'2.7 (IB 
LED to Fiber Fresnel Loss 0.2 (IB 

LED to Fiber NA Loss 

[20 log INAiLEDi NAiF1BFRi|! 
Fiber Attenuation 1 50 Meters' 
Fiber to Detector Connector Loss. 

Figure 14(c) 
Fiber Exit Fresnel Loss 
Detector Entrv Fresnel Loss 



Total System A Los 



6.79 dB 
1.25 dB 

1.5 dB 
0.2 dB 
0.2 dB 

12.84 dB 



TABLE II 




Point in the System Power Units (dBm) 


P(nW) 


PI: LED ■< 100 mA 9 03 


125 


P2: Power in Fiber 11.93 
(P1 — Connector loss — Fresnel loss) 


P3 Power from Fiber -20 17 

IP2 — NA loss — Attenuation — exit Fres 


Tel) 


P4: Power into Detector -2187 
(P3 — Connector loss — entry Fresnel) 


6 5 



Of course, this could have just as easily been calculated 
from the total system loss of 12.6 dB: 



System Loss - 10 log IPiim Piouti 
12.84 - 10 log |125 uW Pi out 1 1 
Pi out) - 6.50 llVV 



(8) 

(9i 

(10) 



However, partitioning the power level at any point in 
the system, as in Table II, enables us to plot the power 
level over the system as shown in Figure 17. 



lu 


























— 








- LEO F ber & Fresnel Loss 




























B 
















NA Attenuation 
































? 
















" & Fresne 






K"~- — 








1 








* PI 


















20 


9 03 


\ " 








" 










P , 


93' 


\~~"~ 


lX~>rT 








V 






P3'-2U 1/i 
1 


P4 


-21 87 
1 








FIGURE 17 — Power Level Along System A 

Using the detector responsivity. the output signal cur- 
rent can now be determined: 



l,, Pi in )( detector) x R 
I,, 6.5 ^W x 0.4 M A >W 
I,, 2.60 uA 



(11) 
(12) 
1 13 1 



Since the detector dark current. I,,, of the MFOD102F 
is 2.0 nA at 25 C. the signal-to-noise ratio is: 



SNR - 10 log (2.60 0.002) 
SNR - 31.1 dB 



(14) 
(15) 



(Note that no NA loss was included at the detector end 
since the detector NA is greater than the fiber NA. Also, 
no LED exit Fresnel loss was considered since it is al- 
ready accounted for in the P u specification for the LED). 

To determine total system performance we can con- 
struct a table. For this analysis we will use power units 
in dBm similar to the volume units (vui used in audio 
work. We will define a power unit of zero dBm for an 
optical power of one milliwatt. For any power level we 
then have: 



dBm = 10 log (PI mW) 

dBm = 10 log PlmWi 

The table for system analysis now becomes: 



(6) 

(7) 



System B Flux Budget 

System B is shown in Figure 18. It is identical to Sys- 
tem A except for the addition of a second 50 meter length 
of fiber and a fiber fiber splice. 



Connector 
Bushing 



-3* 



FOAC 

LED 

MFOE102F 



50 Meter 
Cable 




50 Mete 
Cable 



r^C 



FOAC 

Detector 

MFOD102F 



FIGURE 18 — 100 Meter, 2 Cable System 



8-35 



In calculating system losses it is important to note that 
the NA of 100 meters of fiber is 0.31, per Figure 9. It is 
independent of the presence of the splice at the midpoint, 
since the second 50 meters continues to strip high order 
modes. Another way of looking at it is to consider a replot 
of Figure 9. This is shown in Figure 19. The difference 
is that the NA at zero is the NA of the source, in this 
case the 0.32 exit NA of the first 50 meter length. At 
long distances the cable will still approach the same 
asymptotic value as in Figure 9. In Figure 19 it can be 
seen that the curve passes through 0.31 at 50 meters. So 
a 50 meter cable with a beginning NA of 0.32, and a 100 
meter cable starting with an NA of 0.7 will both have 
an exit NA of 0.31. (This is true of course only for this 
particular cable) 



















































s 


>urc 


e 


9 


= 
MnM 


32 









































































































































































































FIGURE 19 



1 1.0 10 

Fiber Length (metersi 

■ NA versus Length for a Sample Fiber 



Calculating system loss: 

LED to Fiber Connector Loss, Figure 14(a) 2.7 dB 

Fiber 1 Entry Fresnel Loss 0.2 dB 

LED to Fiber 1 NA Loss 6.79 dB 

Fiber 1 Attenuation 1.25 dB 

Fiber 1 Exit Fresnel Loss 0.2 dB 

Fiber/Fiber Connector Loss 1.50 dB 

Fiber 2 Entry Fresnel Loss 0.2 dB 

Fiber 1/Fiber 2 NA Loss 0.28 dB 

Fiber 2 Attenuation 1.25 dB 

Fiber 2 Exit Fresnel Loss 0.2 dB 

Fiber to Detector Connector Loss 1.5 dB 

Detector Entry Fresnel Loss 0.2 dB 

Total System B Loss 16.27 dB 

The power level system analysis is: 



TABLE III 



Point in the System Power Units (dBm) 



P(nW) 



P1: LED(« 100 mA 



9.03 



125 



P2: Power in Fiber 1 -11.93 

(PI — Connector Loss — Fresnel Loss) 



P3: Power from Fiber 1 -20.17 

(P2 — NA loss — Attenuation — Fresnel Loss) 



P4: Power in Fiber 2 -21.87 

(P3 — Connector Loss — Fresnel Loss) 



P5: Power from Fiber 2 -23.60 

(P4 — NA Loss — Attenuation — Fresnel Loss) 



P6: Power into Detector -25.30 

(P5 — Connector Loss — Fresnel Loss) 



2.95 



20. 



The power level along System B is plotted in Figure 



The output signal is now calculated: 

I = 2.95 n\V x 0.4 u.A/jiW 
I = 1.18 u.A 

The SNR for System B is: 

SNR = 10 log (1.18/0.002) 
SNR = 28 dB 



(16) 

(17) 



(18) 
(19) 



It is now of interest to compare the losses in System 
A with those in System B. At first thought, it might seem 
that doubling the system length should approximately 
double the system loss. If the dominant loss mechanism 
were fiber attenuation, this might be true. 

However, as Figures 17 and 20 show, the greatest loss 
occurs in the first 50 meters of fiber. Since the Fiber 
attenuation and Fresnel loss for any 50 meter length of 
this cable is essentially constant at fixed wavelength, 
the major loss has to be a result of the NA loss from the 
FOAC LED to the fiber. As shown in the analysis of the 
two systems this loss is 6.79 dB. As a percentage of the 
total loss in the two systems, it represents 53% in System 
A and 42% in System B. 

Therefore, in designing a system, the greatest loss will 
usually be incurred at the front end of the system where 
the LED couples to the system fiber. One way to combat 
this is to select fibers with large NAs. However, this will 
reduce the high frequency capability of the system by 
increasing pulse dispersion distortion, so the designer is 
faced with making a tradeoff between system length, or 
SNR and high-frequency performance. 







iii 

LED/Fiber & Fresnel Loss 


















I l 
NA, Attenuation & 


















Fre 1 


;ne 


Los. 




/Fiber 
esnel L 






















&Fr 


KS 
























NA, Attenuation 




















" & Fres 


nel Loss 
1 Fib 


er; 


KTr 








"■ 


1 — 








Detector 


1 f 








1-9.03 


P2 










' 




"j~ & Fresnel " 


(-11.911 




P3 


! ■ 


P4 






















| 




1-20.1 


n 


1-21.87) 


FVJ 
-23.6 


f TTP6— 
1 1 -25.3 I 



1 1 II 



II II 



I 1 



i 1 L 



FIGURE 20 — Power Level Along System B 

SUMMARY 

The packaging concept used in the Motorola FOAC 
line of products enables the user to quickly design and 
assemble an F/O system. A full understanding of the 
device characteristics and the characteristics of cables 
and connectors used with FOACs, gives the designer the 
capability to perform a flux budget analysis of his system 
and thus predict performance. 



8-36 



Specific conclusions drawn from this study are: 



LED 



Fiber 



Connectors 



Detector 



in most cases not all power as 
specified on typical data sheets is 
usable due to NA differences. 
NA is not constant in short lengths 
of fiber when used with high NA 
sources. 

Connector losses are dependent 
upon the NA conditions combined 
with the mechanical tolerances. 
Detector responsivity is specified 
as a function of the actual power 
launched into the optical input 
port. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Barnoski, Michael K., ed., Fundamentals of Optical 
Fiber Communications, Academic Press, Inc., New 
York, 1976. 

2. "Introduction to Fiber Optics and AMP Fiber-Optic 
Products," HB5444, AMP, Inc., Harrisburg, PA, 1979. 

3. Mirtich, Vince, "A 20-MBaud Full Duplex Fiber Optic 
Data Link Using Fiber Optic Active Components," 
Motorola Application Note AN-794, Phoenix, AZ, 
1980. 



8-37 



MFOL02 THEORY OF OPERATION 



Prepared By: 
David Stevenson 



The design of Link II® is such that it appears trans- 
parent to the user. In other words, the designer that 
wishes to take advantage of some of the benefits of fiber 
optics digital data transmission need not know any more 
about these modules other than they take TTL in and 
give TTL out. This means that Motorola's Link II® mod- 
ules are suited for immediate applications requiring 
bandwidths from D.C. to 200k bits and point-to-point 
system lengths of up to 1000 meters. 

For the more curious user, or those who wish to use 
the modules as an educational tool to learn more about 
fiber optics circuit design, the modules have been de- 
signed to allow easy access to the circuit boards within. 

Before beginning with the circuit analysis, the gen- 
eral specifications of the modules should be highlighted. 
First of all, both the transmitter and the receiver circuits 
are designed for single 5 volt power supply operation. As 
previously stated, the bandwidth capability is DC. to 



200k bits and depending on the particular optical fiber 
that is used, the transmission path can be extended up 
to 1000 meters. 

Physically, both module housings are identical, being 
approximately 2 inches by 2 inches by .45 inches. The 
module base is configured similar to a large dual inline 
package having 8 pins fixed in two rows of 4 each. Spac- 
ing between the pins is .400 inches and spacing between 
the two rows is 1.670 inches. Optical input and output 
ports are provided using AMP Optimate fiber connectors. 
The modules are designed with removable covers so that 
the printed circuit boards and associated components can 
be accessed even when the circuits are in operation. 

TRANSMITTER 

Circuit analysis will begin with the transmitter. The 
basic requirement of this circuit is to convert TTL voltage 
levels to corresponding current pulses through the light 



r 



MC14528B 



.___?? 



4*_y 




250pf 



8.2K 



MC14093B 



1N914B's 



r 




8.2K 






— o v„ 



15 14 
10 

13 9 



L 



-4 



J 



fiv^- 



MC75451 P 




^ 



MFOE102F 



TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT 
FIGURE 1. 



8-38 



emitting diode MFOE102F. Furthermore, the transmit- 
ter provides for ternary or pulse bipolar encoding format. 
Basically, with the pulse bipolar encoding format, the 
LED operates in three distinct states. During idle modes 
in data transmission the LED drive assumes a median 
level which is midway between logic 1 and logic 0. Dur- 
ing positive going transitions on the input (logic to 
logic 1 ) the LED is momentarily turned off. During neg- 
ative going transitions (logic 1 to logic 01 the LED is 
momentarily driven at approximately twice the median 
or quiescent level. The advantage of the pulse bipolar 
format over the standard binary return to zero format 
is that the transmitter always transmits data at a fixed 
pulse width so it places no restrictions on the input signal 
other than maximum frequency. Another advantage of 
this type of transmission is that during idle modes of 
data transmission the light source is not turned off so if 
the receiver incorporates automatic gain control it al- 
ways maintains a reference level. 

Beginning at the transmitter input (Figure 1), the 
binary TTL signal drives the input of a two input NAND 
Schmitt trigger ('/, MC14093). This gate forms an in- 
verter by virtue of its second input being tied to V tl . This 
inverted signal is then split and part of it is inputted to 



pin 5 of the second NAND Schmitt trigger. The result 
is that the signal at pin 4 is essentially the input wave- 
form and the signal at pin 3 is its complement. These 
two complementary signals are differentiated by .OOljiF 
capacitors and rectified by a full wave bridge formed by 
the four 1N914B diodes. The result is that for every tran- 
sition of the input, either to 1 or 1 to 0, a positive pulse 
is applied to the 'set' input of the MC14528B monostable 
multivibrator. The MC14528B multivibrator is pro- 
grammable so that the output pulse width can be deter- 
mined by an external R-C time constant at pin 14. The 
values chosen give a pulse width of approximately 2p.Sec 
which is adequate for 200k-bit transmission. This then, 
will be the pulse width of the current pulses applied to 
the LED to represent logic and logic 1 transmission. 
Notice that the MC14528B is actually a dual monostable, 
only one half of which is used. 

The remaining two Nand Schmitt triggers are used 
to gate the proper timing pulses to the MC75451P dual 
NAND input peripheral driver. The operation of this 
device is such that when the transmitter is in its idle 
mode, that is, the current through the LED is at the 
median level, the current path in this state is shown in 
Figure 3. 




TRANSMITTER 



O 



7 









;cl f 




tin! 




' 't 5 




K-ir>s 




■:,r- 3 




OS 




'* 


o 



a 



COMPONENT LAYOUT 
FIGURE 2. 



£>a 



IDLE MODE 
CURRENT FLOW 



FIGURE 3. 



8-39 



INPUT V <* 
DATA 
STRE/*" n 


I 




! 
I 
I 
i 
I 

I 
i 


1 
i 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


i 
i 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

i 
i 
i 


i 1 I i 
ill 1 




1 
I 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


I 
i 

1 
1 
l 
1 
l 

1 

1 
i 




NAND 
DRIVER - 

#1 

NAND 
DRIVER - 
#2 


I 
I 
I 

r v • 

NAND " 
PIN 1 

Vcc 

NAND 

PIN 2 


i l i I 
I i l i 
i i l 1 
|ii 
III 
l ' i 1 


I'll 
i 1 I i 










I l I I I I I 
I I 


' 1 1 
1 1 1 


NAND " 
OUTPUT 








I 
J I 

i i 
i i 
i i 


i i i 1 
I I i l 
1 1 i 1 1 
1 l l 1 1 

i i i 


1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
| 1 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
i 




NAND "" | 
PIN 6 1 

| I 


j 


i 
i 


1 

1 

i : 


1 i i l 

11)11 
i 1 1 i i 


J ! 

1 l 
1 l 




NAND I I 

PIN 7 I I 

0— | ] 

I 

Vcc ' 

NAND | 
OUTPUT | 
— o . 




i 
i 
i 
i 


i i 
l i 
i i 
i 

l i r 

I 
i 


iii; 
1 I i I i 
i i i i i 
_ ! i i i 

iii 
1 i i > 


1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
, 1 
1 
I 




LEC 
CURRE 


I 

I I 
I I 
I I 
I I 
I I 

| ! 

ENT 100mA pi 


i i i 

1 ! ' 
1 i 
i I i 
i i i 

1 ' 1 
i i ! 

r-Jl— !— f 


1 I i i i i i 

i l 

i i i i i i i 
i i ' i i i i 

I'll! 

III'! 

1 1 ' 1 ' ' 

i ! ' i i n > n 




5 ° m o_ "] 


I 
J I 
I 
I 
I 




Jl 

1 
1 


i 
l 


J i 

1 
l 


" i i U i U i 

i i i i i i i 

> ! ; | > i i 



CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS 
FIGURE 4. 



8-40 



The value of idle current flowing through the LED is 
a function of Vcc and Rl and can be calculated by: 

l,.. = v„ - v f - v... 



Rl 



where: V f is the forward voltage drop of the LED 
V sat is the 'on' state voltage of the MC75451 
V cc = 5 volts, Rl = 75 and V f = 1.2 volts yield an 
idle current of approximately 50mA. 

In order to understand the other two states of the 
pulse bipolar transmitter it is necessary to evaluate the 
signals present at the inputs to both NAND drivers at 
each transition point of the input data stream. The wave- 
form at pin 1 of NAND driver #1 is that of the input 
data. The waveform at pin 2 is the 2p.Sec pulse produced 
by the monostable multivibrator. Before the waveform 
at pin 6 can be derived it is necessary to evaluate the 
action of the other two Nand Schmitt trigger gates. The 
input waveform is buffered and inverted by NAND #4 
(input pin 13 output pin 11). This inverted waveform is 
NAND'ed with the 2|iSec pulse output of the monostable 
and the result is a 2y.Sec negative pulse at each negative 
transition of the input (1 to 0). This signal at NAND 
#3 pin 10 is connected to pin 6 of NAND driver #2. Since 
pin 7 is held at Vcc this results in the output of the 
NAND gate going high (logic 1) for 2(j.Sec at every neg- 
ative transition of the input waveform. The resulting 
outputs of both NAND drivers are shown with respect 
to the input waveform in Figure 4. It can be seen that 
for every positive transition of the input both NAND 
gate outputs are low, meaning the LED is turned off for 
a period of 2p.Sec. For each negative transition of the 
input both NAND outputs are high and since R2 is equal 
to Rl, the LED is driven at twice the median current 
level for 2(iSec. At all other times the LED is driven at 
the median level. 



RECEIVER 

The entire receiver is constructed using two CMOS 
integrated circuits. The MC14573C is a quad operational 
amplifier and the MC14574C is a quad comparator. 

The detector used for this receiver is the MFOD102F 
PIN photodiode. This detector can be thought of as a 
current source whose output current is proportional to 
the input optical flux or light level. The receiver output 
device is a voltage comparator so between the two some 
kind of current to voltage conversion and amplification 
must take place. The current to voltage conversion takes 
place at Ul. (Figure 5.) The theoretical gain of this am- 
plifier which is fixed by the 1 Megft feedback resistor, 
is 1 volt/jtAmp. This in turn is followed by amplifier U2 
whose gain is fixed at 20 by the 5.1kH input resistor and 
the lOOkft feedback resistor. The integrating amplifier 
formed by U3 clamps the output reference level of U2 
to a voltage fixed by the values of Rl and R2. In this case 
these are both 5.1kft so the reference voltage is one half 
of Vcc or 2.5v. U3 also tends to cancel voltage offsets 
produced by U2 by feeding this back to U2's input. This 
allows the receiver to be D.C. coupled which reduces 
component count and cost. 

The output of U2 is then fed to comparator U5 which 
provides additional amplification and boosts the signal 
to TTL levels. Comparator U6 is used to improve hys- 
teresis and invert the signal so that the output waveform 
is in phase with the original data stream applied to the 
transmitter. Finally, the 2.5 volt reference voltage is 
buffered by U4 to prevent transients produced by the 
comparators from interfering with the front end ampli- 
fiers and reducing the need for additional filtering. 

MFOL02 was designed as a lkM Link. Motorola's 
MFOE106F will greatly improve the performance ca- 
pabilities of the MFOL02 Link. Use of this high power 
AlGaAs 820nM source extends the system length capa- 
bility to several kilometers with no loss of bandwidth. 



V cc O 1 O 4 (73) 

^= .1 



~[~ 1.8pF MC14573C 1( 



10K 
I VW 1 8 90 

"A" ' 9 73 740 



MFOD102F 



| 5.6K 





MC14574C 
1 1 r^ %74 



1 1 rsJ/«74 



22M 



4 VW O V c 

5.6K 



m 



470K 
10K 



RECEIVER CIRCUIT 
FIGURE 5. 



8-41 




m 



. MFOD102F 



-w- 



V2/ 




H31E 



ti^s 






COMPONENT LAYOUT 
FIGURE 6. 



8-42 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 

20 MBaud Data Link 

Emitter — MFOE103F 

Detector — MFOE402F 



'» — t — t- 



MFOEV-i- 
lOSF^- 1 ' 



♦ 5.0V 

V 




180 100pF 

r— ie-i 

* T ^ H ^ 



tiii 

±0.1 ?p01^ + 



330 



Q / Data 
V^ \ Input 



TRANSMITTER 



+5.0 V 




1 I 1 



i 



-( +15V 



^ 0.1 ^n } ^01 +25mF?k C ?ko.1 



'1 



'1 



01 I | 

510> i I - 

!l 1 "1 D 



/pUl +zo mh/r\ i ^p 




MC1733 > V FSEF- 




.Data 
Output 



VREF 



JT' 

01 T -3 



JT" 

0.1^ <>- 



RECEIVER 



1 



-5.0 V 



8-43 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 



10 MBaud Data Link 

Emitter— MFOE103F 

Detector — MFOD404F 



TTL 
Input 




MFOE 
103F 



TRANSMITTER 



Q+5. OV Q+5.0V O+5.0V 9+50V 

>27k >1.8k 




I 



JT* 



<> »wv- 






<*-x 



MPSH32 



£ 



S VJ 



t 



2.4k 



O+50V 




+5.0 V +5.0 V 



27 k ^27k 

0.1 ^F 
\t~ 



MPSH81 



RECEIVER 




5.6 k -J- 
+5.0 V 



,TTL 
Output 



8-44 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 



2.0 MBaud Data Link 

Emitter— MFOE102F 

Detector — MFOD404F 



Q +5 0V 



Transmitter Enable 
Data 



T 



-£ '-. 

±0.1 M F 



36 n 




1/2 MC75452 



MFOE 
102F 



TRANSMITTER 



O+5.0V 




10 M F 



X 




300 k 



-O L^vv-f — 



H 



22k 



* O TTL Output 



RECEIVER 



8-45 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 

1.0 MEGABIT SYSTEM 

Microcomputer and microprocessor data links may be constructed using fiber optics. These 
data links offer all the advantages of fiber optics (transient/surge current immunity, high 
voltage isolation, no ground loops, RFI/EMI isolation, etc.) The links have been demonstrated 
in point of sale terminals, microprocessor controlled industrial controls, petro chemical 
applications, RS232 and many other areas. Full duplex links with system lengths greater than 
1 Km have been constructed. 

The transmitter and receiver circuits are depicted below with recommended parts list: 



TRANSMITTER 



Data 
Input 



0.2 V 
r 5.0 V 




i.o v -==• 



Part* List: 
U1 SN74LS04 
Q1 MPS3638A 
D1 MF0E103F 
AMP Mounting Bushing #227240-1 



•D.C. voltages shown are for TTL interface 
with the top voltage for the LED on @ 50 mA 
and the bottom voltage for the LED off. 



Light 
Out 



.J 

1.8 V 



D2 
1N914 



D3 
1N914 



TRANSMITTER: 

This fiber optic transmitter handles NRZ data rates to 1 Mbits or square wave frequencies to 5 
MHz, and is TTL compatible. 

Powered from +5V supply for TTL operation, the transmitter requires only 150 mA total 
current. 

The LED drive current may be adjusted by resistor R1, and should be set for the proper LED 
power output level needed for system operation, (see LED data sheets.) 

Resistor (R1) value may be calculated as follows: 
R1 +V cc -3.0 V 



ohms 



Where: V cc = Power Supply Voltage 

I p = Desired LED forward current 



8-46 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 

1 .0 MEGABIT SYSTEM — Cont. 

The LED is turned off when transistor Q1 is driven on. Diodes D2 and D3 are used to assure the 
turn-off. 

Diode D4 prevents reverse bias breakdown (base-emitter) of transistor Q1 when the integrated 
circuit U1 output is high. The transmitter requires a power supply voltage of +5 +0.25V. 

RECEIVERS 

The receiver uses an MF0D104F PIN photodiode as an optical detector. The detector diode 

responds linearly to the optical input over several decades of dynamic range. 

The PIN detector output current is converted to voltage by integrated circuit U1 (Operational 

amplifier LF357). The minimum photocurrent required to drive U1 is 250 nA. 

Receiver dynamic range is extended with diode D2 to prevent U1 from saturating at large 

optical power inputs. 

Integrated circuit U2 acts as a voltage comparator. Its worst case sensitivity of 50 mV 

determines the size of the pulse required out of U1 . U2 detects, inverts, and provides standard 

TTL logic level to the output. 

Offset adjustment R1 should be set to accurately reproduce a 1 MHz.50% duty cycle square 

wave at the receiver output. 




Voltage measure made without 
incoming optical signal. 



Parts List 

D1 MFODI04F 

U1 LF357 

U2 MC75107 or 

MC75108 
AMP Mounting Bushing 227240-1 



Power 

Supply / 1 

Ground I 



**— WV • ^-15 V In 



Oata 
Out 



h Power 
Supply 



Power Supply: (15 V) HP6116A or equivalent 
(5 V) HP6218A or equivalent 



8-47 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 



100 KILOBIT RECEIVER 

This is a two-IC four-channel receiver. An operational amplifier, U1 (MC3403) translates the 
PIN detector Photo current into a voltage level. The U1 output voltage is used by open collector 
comparator U2 (MC3302) to generate TTL or CMOS compatible signal levels at the receiver 
output. One channel is shown below. 




4 — O 



Data 
Output 



Parts List 

U1 MC3403 (1/4) 

U2 MC3302(1/4) 

D1 MFOD102F 

D2 1N914 

AMP Mounting Bushing 227240-1 



Power Supply: HP6218A or equivalent 



8-48 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 



1/10/100 KILOBIT RECEIVER 

This is a single IC two-channel receiver, using an MC3405, which contains two op-amps and 
two comparators. The receiver is TTLof CMOS compatible and operates up to 100 Kilo-bit data 
rate. 



O V CC = 5-1J 




U1 MC3405 

AMP Mounting Bushing 227240-1 



Power Supply: Hp6218A or equivalent 



8-49 



FIBER OPTIC CIRCUIT IDEAS 



DARLINGTON RECEIVER 

Discrete Low Speed Circuits 

A simple photodarlington receiver may be used in a dc control or low frequency system. 

The output of the MFOD302F drives a signal (MPS651 5) transistor common emitter amplifier. 

This circuit operates from a +5 to +15 volt power supply, and its output is TTL and CMOS 

compatible. 

By the addition of a second transistor, the circuit described below may be extended in 

frequency from one Kilo-bit to two Kilo-bit. 




Output 



V CC 5-15 VDC O 




Data 
Output 




<750 J> 25 M 



PHOTOTRANSISTOR RECEIVER 

The phototransistor receiver circuit shown below may be used for data rates up to 20 kilo-bit. 
The receiver sensitivity at 10 kilo-bits is 4.7 juW. 




8-50 



A MICROCOMPUTER DATA LINK 
USING FIBER OPTICS 



Prepared by: 
Scott Evans and 
Jim Herman 



Threaded Cable 
Connector Assembly 




AMP Connector 
227240-1 



Slots for 

RF1/EMI 

Shield 



Motorola 

Ferrule Semiconductor 





Press On 
Retention Plate 




FIGURE 1 



llliisflllti 



iliBrtSS 



V 



_y 



8-51 



The performance capability of fiber optics now offers the 
designer a practical, advantageous alternative to wire for data 
communications. The advantages of optical fibers over twisted 
pair or coax wire are easily enumerated: 

1 . Bandwidth. Standard optical fiber cable on the market 
today has bandwith up to several hundred MHz, and a few 
available cables are good up to several GHz. 

2. EMI Immunity. Optical fibers neither radiate nor pick up 
electromagnetic interference. Thus, crosstalk and RFI- 
induced errors are eliminated. Optical fibers can be 
installed alongside high-voltage or high-current-carrying 
cables or in close proximity to EMI or RFI-intensive 
systems with no fear of interference. Recently proposed 
FCC regulations restricting the magnitude of EMI 
generation in data communication systems create no 
concern for users of fiber optics. 

3. Security. Optical fibers are difficult to tap. Either the fibers 
must be broken to insert a tap or the cladding stripped to 
allow another fiber to contact the core and draw off some 
of the signal. Both methods are difficult to implement and 
easily detectable, so that optical-fiber-transmitted data is 
relatively secure. 

4. Size and Weight. A one-kilometer reel of optical fiber 
cable of equal, and often greater data handling ability, 
weighs about one-tenth that of comparable coax cable. 
The optical fiber is considerably smaller, also, allowing 
significantly more signal-handling capability in the same 
cross-sectional area of a conduit or cable trough. 

5. Cost. The price of optical fiber cable continues to drop 
while that of wire is seen to be facing a future of Increasing 
cost. Even with optical fiber costing more than wire, the 
overall system cost with fiber optics is often lower. 

This article describes a data communication system de- 
signed to demonstrate the ability to interconnect a series of 
microcomputer terminals with a fiber optic link. 



System Hardware Requirements 

The basic system in this example is illustrated in Figure 1 . It 
uses a cost-effective transmitter and receiver design in a full- 
duplex, two-terminal arrangement using a pair of fibers for 
interconnect purposes. The basic system is easily expandable 
to multiple terminals, however, in a looping configuration 
shown in Figure 2. Here, the central control, or primary 
terminal, initiates data flow. The data then passes serially 
through the secondary terminals and returns back to the 
primary. Note that this loop arrangement results in any one 
terminal operating in a half-duplex, one-direction mode. Each 
secondary serves as a repeater network; that is, the received 
optical data is fed to the terminal and also retransmitted to the 
next terminal in the loop. As the data passes around the loop, 
any secondary recognizing its address in the address field of 
the Information Frame reads that frame and acts on it. The 
data continues to pass down the loop whether a terminal has 
acted on it or not. Secondary stations are given an opportunity 
to transmit local data when the central terminal transmits a 
"POLL" command. If a secondary desires loop control, it is 
granted by the primary by a "GO AHEAD" flag following a 
"POLL" command. Error detection and recovery are also 
governed by a full set of rules. 

The Motorola EXORterm 220 M6800 development system 
serves as the basis for the system hardware. The EXORterm 
220 is an intelligent CRT display terminal featuring an integral 
development facility that provides a motherboard and card 
cage capable of holding up to eight microprocessor modules. 
Each station is composed of standard M6800 microprocessor 
modules including an M6800 MPU Module, an MEX6816-22 
1 6K Static RAM Module, an MEX68RR 8K ROM Module, and 
an MEX6850 ACIA Module interfaced to the CRT terminal. An 
MEX6854 Advanced Data Link Controller (ADLC) Module with 
fiber optic transmitter and receiver on-board provides the 
interface to the fiber optic link. This is shown in Figure 3. 

The MC6854 ADLC performs the complex interface function 
between the MPU data bus and a synchronous communica- 
tions channel employing a Bit-Oriented-Protocol. It is an 
NMOS LSI intelligent peripheral device that automatically 
performs many of the functions required by the communica- 
tions protocol, thus reducing the amount of software required 
and increasing the data throughput rate. 



Primary Station 



Secondary 



Loop Controller 
Tx Rx 



Secondary 




Secondary Secondary 
Station Station 

FIGURE 2 — Loop Configuration 




FIGURE 3 — Micromodule complement of an EXORterm 
220, used as an intelligent CRT display terminal . 



8-52 




UUMC74LS04 



FIGURE 4A— System Transmitter 



1N914 
0.9 V 
0.4 V 
+ 03 
- -1N914 




FIGURE 4B— System Receiver 



1 MHz Memory Clock 



3 s 



O 



TXC RXC 

RXD 




Backup 
Power 
Circuit 



FIGURE 5 — Clock Recovery and Loop Through Circuit 



8-53 



Fiber Optic 
Transmitter and 
Receiver 



The transmitter and receiver modules are built around the 
Motorola Fiber Optic Active Component (FOAC) products .' 
The transmitter uses an MFOE1 03F light emitting diode 
(LED). The receiver component is an MFOD104F PIN diode. 
The FOAC family and a compatible connector are joint 
developments of Motorola and AMP Inc. The concept (Figure 
1 ) allows the user to efficiently interface to any of the many 
types and sizes of optical fibers on the market. 

As shown in Figure 4, the transmitter and receiver are 
mounted directly to the ADLC Module. The driver circuit for the 
transmitter uses an MC74LS04 inverter and one discrete 
driver transistor. This circuit is capable of driving the LED at 
a 1 -Mbit/second data rate. 

Although the optical fiber is impervious to EMI, the actual 
receiver circuit is not. It is shielded, therefore, to prevent noise 
pickup. At 100 kHz, the receiver is capable of reception with a 
bit-error-rate of 10" 9 . 

The receiver sensitivity, transmitter power, and system 
losses (e.g., fiber attenuation) determine the maximum usable 
distance between terminals. This system was operated with a 
pair of 70-meter Siecor 1 55 cables, but was designed to 
operate up to 120 meters. System length and data rate might 
be increased with higher receiver sensitivity or increased 
transmitter power. 

Transmitter and receiver are interfaced to the ADLC as 
shown in the clock recovery and loop-through circuit of Figure 
5. The clock recovery circuit synchronizes a 1 -MHz oscillator 
(divided down to the 62.5-kHz data rate) to the incoming data 
from the receiver. Both the data and the separated clock 
information are presented to the ADLC. The data rate clock is 
then also used to route data back to the transmitter so it can be 
sent to the next downstream station. In the event that power is 
lost to any terminal on the loop (power failure or maintenance 
operation), there is a provision for a separate power supply or 
battery pack to operate the receiver and transmitter circuits. 
The loop-through control then routes the receiver output 
directly to the transmitter input line so that repeater per- 
formance is maintained during terminal power-down. 

System Software 

Connecting a series of terminals together requires a well- 
defined and efficient communications protocol to manage the 
data link. Forthis system, a Bit-Oriented-Protocol — known as 
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) 3 — was used. This 



protocol provides an efficient method for establishing and 
terminating the conversation between terminals, identifying 
senders and receivers, acknowledging received information, 
and error recovery. 

A transmit sequence from the primary station to a secondary 
station starts with the transmission of the Information Frame 
(l-Frame) containing the address of the intended secondary 
station in the address field. When a secondary receives an 
l-Frame with its address, it reads that frame and stores it in a 
receive buffer. In SDLC, all frames contain a 16-bit error 
checking code which precedes the closing flag. The receiving 
station checks this error code to validate transmission accu- 
racy and responds with the appropriate acknowledge or not- 
acknowledge frame when it sees a "GO AHEAD" flag. A 
secondary is permitted to suspend the repeater function and 
go "on loop" and transmit a frame only when it receives the 
"GO AHEAD" flag from the primary station. 

In the two-terminal demonstration system, the M6800 MPU 
data throughput capability at 1-MHz operation limited the 
maximum data rate to about 75-kbit/second. By using an 
MC6844 Direct Memory Access Controller to reduce the 
amount of processor overhead in data handling, and by 
incorporating a receiver designed for higher bandwidth, data 
rates up to 1 Mbaud have been demonstrated. Since the 
optical fiber posseses such high bandwidth capability, the 
existing cable easily handles increased data rates or system 
upgrading. This demonstrates one of the big cost advantages 
of fiber optic communications. 

Conclusion 

A practical, cost-effective alternative solution to a specific 
applications problem has been discussed. As higher power 
LED's and more sensitive detectors and directional fiber 
couplers or splitters are introduced, even more flexibility will be 
in the hands of the system designer. 

1 . The FOAC line of components is described in Application Note 
AN-804, "Applications of Ferruled Components to Fiber Optic 
Systems." The Note is available from your Motorola sales repre- 
sentative or distributor. 

2. AMP Bulletin HB5444, "Fundamentals of Fiber Optics." 

3. IBM SDLC Document No. GA27-3093-1 

4. Motorola Application Note AN-794, "A 20-Mbaud Full Duplex 
Fiber Optic Data Link Using Fiber Optic Active Components." 
Available late August from your Motorola sales representative or 
distributor. 



8-54 



NOTES 



NOTES 



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